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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 250, 42nd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2022)

We consider the following question in query complexity: Given a classical query algorithm in the form of a decision tree, when does there exist a quantum query algorithm with a speed-up (i.e., that makes fewer queries) over the classical one? We provide a general construction based on the structure of the underlying decision tree, and prove that this can give us an up-to-quadratic quantum speed-up in the number of queries. In particular, our results give a bounded-error quantum query algorithm of cost O(√s) to compute a Boolean function (more generally, a relation) that can be computed by a classical (even randomized) decision tree of size s. This recovers an O(√n) algorithm for the Search problem, for example.
Lin and Lin [Theory of Computing'16] and Beigi and Taghavi [Quantum'20] showed results of a similar flavor. Their upper bounds are in terms of a quantity which we call the "guessing complexity" of a decision tree. We identify that the guessing complexity of a decision tree equals its rank, a notion introduced by Ehrenfeucht and Haussler [Information and Computation'89] in the context of learning theory. This answers a question posed by Lin and Lin, who asked whether the guessing complexity of a decision tree is related to any measure studied in classical complexity theory. We also show a polynomial separation between rank and its natural randomized analog for the complete binary AND-OR tree.
Beigi and Taghavi constructed span programs and dual adversary solutions for Boolean functions given classical decision trees computing them and an assignment of non-negative weights to edges of the tree. We explore the effect of changing these weights on the resulting span program complexity and objective value of the dual adversary bound, and capture the best possible weighting scheme by an optimization program. We exhibit a solution to this program and argue its optimality from first principles. We also exhibit decision trees for which our bounds are strictly stronger than those of Lin and Lin, and Beigi and Taghavi. This answers a question of Beigi and Taghavi, who asked whether different weighting schemes in their construction could yield better upper bounds.

Arjan Cornelissen, Nikhil S. Mande, and Subhasree Patro. Improved Quantum Query Upper Bounds Based on Classical Decision Trees. In 42nd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 250, pp. 15:1-15:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{cornelissen_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2022.15, author = {Cornelissen, Arjan and Mande, Nikhil S. and Patro, Subhasree}, title = {{Improved Quantum Query Upper Bounds Based on Classical Decision Trees}}, booktitle = {42nd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2022)}, pages = {15:1--15:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-261-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {250}, editor = {Dawar, Anuj and Guruswami, Venkatesan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2022.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-174071}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2022.15}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum Query Complexity, Decision Trees, Decision Tree Rank} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 232, 17th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2022)

In the classical RAM, we have the following useful property. If we have an algorithm that uses M memory cells throughout its execution, and in addition is sparse, in the sense that, at any point in time, only m out of M cells will be non-zero, then we may "compress" it into another algorithm which uses only m log M memory and runs in almost the same time. We may do so by simulating the memory using either a hash table, or a self-balancing tree.
We show an analogous result for quantum algorithms equipped with quantum random-access gates. If we have a quantum algorithm that runs in time T and uses M qubits, such that the state of the memory, at any time step, is supported on computational-basis vectors of Hamming weight at most m, then it can be simulated by another algorithm which uses only O(m log M) memory, and runs in time Õ(T).
We show how this theorem can be used, in a black-box way, to simplify the presentation in several papers. Broadly speaking, when there exists a need for a space-efficient history-independent quantum data-structure, it is often possible to construct a space-inefficient, yet sparse, quantum data structure, and then appeal to our main theorem. This results in simpler and shorter arguments.

Harry Buhrman, Bruno Loff, Subhasree Patro, and Florian Speelman. Memory Compression with Quantum Random-Access Gates. In 17th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 232, pp. 10:1-10:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{buhrman_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2022.10, author = {Buhrman, Harry and Loff, Bruno and Patro, Subhasree and Speelman, Florian}, title = {{Memory Compression with Quantum Random-Access Gates}}, booktitle = {17th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2022)}, pages = {10:1--10:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-237-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {232}, editor = {Le Gall, Fran\c{c}ois and Morimae, Tomoyuki}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2022.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165177}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2022.10}, annote = {Keywords: complexity theory, data structures, algorithms, quantum walk} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

Many computational problems are subject to a quantum speed-up: one might find that a problem having an O(n³)-time or O(n²)-time classic algorithm can be solved by a known O(n^{1.5})-time or O(n)-time quantum algorithm. The question naturally arises: how much quantum speed-up is possible?
The area of fine-grained complexity allows us to prove optimal lower-bounds on the complexity of various computational problems, based on the conjectured hardness of certain natural, well-studied problems. This theory has recently been extended to the quantum setting, in two independent papers by Buhrman, Patro and Speelman [Buhrman et al., 2021], and by Aaronson, Chia, Lin, Wang, and Zhang [Aaronson et al., 2020].
In this paper, we further extend the theory of fine-grained complexity to the quantum setting. A fundamental conjecture in the classical setting states that the 3SUM problem cannot be solved by (classical) algorithms in time O(n^{2-ε}), for any ε > 0. We formulate an analogous conjecture, the Quantum-3SUM-Conjecture, which states that there exist no sublinear O(n^{1-ε})-time quantum algorithms for the 3SUM problem.
Based on the Quantum-3SUM-Conjecture, we show new lower-bounds on the time complexity of quantum algorithms for several computational problems. Most of our lower-bounds are optimal, in that they match known upper-bounds, and hence they imply tight limits on the quantum speedup that is possible for these problems.
These results are proven by adapting to the quantum setting known classical fine-grained reductions from the 3SUM problem. This adaptation is not trivial, however, since the original classical reductions require pre-processing the input in various ways, e.g. by sorting it according to some order, and this pre-processing (provably) cannot be done in sublinear quantum time.
We overcome this bottleneck by combining a quantum walk with a classical dynamic data-structure having a certain "history-independence" property. This type of construction has been used in the past to prove upper bounds, and here we use it for the first time as part of a reduction. This general proof strategy allows us to prove tight lower bounds on several computational-geometry problems, on Convolution-3SUM and on the 0-Edge-Weight-Triangle problem, conditional on the Quantum-3SUM-Conjecture.
We believe this proof strategy will be useful in proving tight (conditional) lower-bounds, and limits on quantum speed-ups, for many other problems.

Harry Buhrman, Bruno Loff, Subhasree Patro, and Florian Speelman. Limits of Quantum Speed-Ups for Computational Geometry and Other Problems: Fine-Grained Complexity via Quantum Walks. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 31:1-31:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{buhrman_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.31, author = {Buhrman, Harry and Loff, Bruno and Patro, Subhasree and Speelman, Florian}, title = {{Limits of Quantum Speed-Ups for Computational Geometry and Other Problems: Fine-Grained Complexity via Quantum Walks}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {31:1--31:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.31}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156273}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.31}, annote = {Keywords: complexity theory, fine-grained complexity, 3SUM, computational geometry problems, data structures, quantum walk} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 187, 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)

The strong exponential-time hypothesis (SETH) is a commonly used conjecture in the field of complexity theory. It essentially states that determining whether a CNF formula is satisfiable can not be done faster than exhaustive search over all possible assignments. This hypothesis and its variants gave rise to a fruitful field of research, fine-grained complexity, obtaining (mostly tight) lower bounds for many problems in P whose unconditional lower bounds are very likely beyond current techniques. In this work, we introduce an extensive framework of Quantum Strong Exponential-Time Hypotheses, as quantum analogues to what SETH is for classical computation.
Using the QSETH framework, we are able to translate quantum query lower bounds on black-box problems to conditional quantum time lower bounds for many problems in P. As an example, we provide a conditional quantum time lower bound of Ω(n^1.5) for the Longest Common Subsequence and Edit Distance problems. We also show that the n² SETH-based lower bound for a recent scheme for Proofs of Useful Work carries over to the quantum setting using our framework, maintaining a quadratic gap between verifier and prover.
Lastly, we show that the assumptions in our framework can not be simplified further with relativizing proof techniques, as they are false in relativized worlds.

Harry Buhrman, Subhasree Patro, and Florian Speelman. A Framework of Quantum Strong Exponential-Time Hypotheses. In 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 187, pp. 19:1-19:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{buhrman_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2021.19, author = {Buhrman, Harry and Patro, Subhasree and Speelman, Florian}, title = {{A Framework of Quantum Strong Exponential-Time Hypotheses}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)}, pages = {19:1--19:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-180-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {187}, editor = {Bl\"{a}ser, Markus and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.19}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136642}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.19}, annote = {Keywords: complexity theory, fine-grained complexity, longest common subsequence, edit distance, quantum query complexity, strong exponential-time hypothesis} }

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