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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 209, 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)

In this work, we initiate the study of smoothed analysis of population protocols. We consider a population protocol model where an adaptive adversary dictates the interactions between agents, but with probability p every such interaction may change into an interaction between two agents chosen uniformly at random. That is, p-fraction of the interactions are random, while (1-p)-fraction are adversarial. The aim of our model is to bridge the gap between a uniformly random scheduler (which is too idealistic) and an adversarial scheduler (which is too strict).
We focus on the fundamental problem of leader election in population protocols. We show that, for a population of size n, the leader election problem can be solved in O(p^{-2}n log³ n) steps with high probability, using O((log² n) ⋅ (log (n/p))) states per agent, for all values of p ≤ 1. Although our result does not match the best known running time of O(n log n) for the uniformly random scheduler (p = 1), we are able to present a smooth transition between a running time of O(n polylog n) for p = 1 and an infinite running time for the adversarial scheduler (p = 0), where the problem cannot be solved. The key technical contribution of our work is a novel phase clock algorithm for our model. This is a key primitive for much-studied fundamental population protocol algorithms (leader election, majority), and we believe it is of independent interest.

Gregory Schwartzman and Yuichi Sudo. Smoothed Analysis of Population Protocols. In 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 209, pp. 34:1-34:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{schwartzman_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2021.34, author = {Schwartzman, Gregory and Sudo, Yuichi}, title = {{Smoothed Analysis of Population Protocols}}, booktitle = {35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)}, pages = {34:1--34:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-210-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {209}, editor = {Gilbert, Seth}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.34}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-148362}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.34}, annote = {Keywords: Population protocols, Smoothed analysis, Leader election} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 184, 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)

This paper provides an algorithmic framework for obtaining fast distributed algorithms for a highly-dynamic setting, in which arbitrarily many edge changes may occur in each round. Our algorithm significantly improves upon prior work in its combination of (1) having an O(1) amortized time complexity, (2) using only O(log{n})-bit messages, (3) not posing any restrictions on the dynamic behavior of the environment, (4) being deterministic, (5) having strong guarantees for intermediate solutions, and (6) being applicable for a wide family of tasks.
The tasks for which we deduce such an algorithm are maximal matching, (degree+1)-coloring, 2-approximation for minimum weight vertex cover, and maximal independent set (which is the most subtle case). For some of these tasks, node insertions can also be among the allowed topology changes, and for some of them also abrupt node deletions.

Keren Censor-Hillel, Neta Dafni, Victor I. Kolobov, Ami Paz, and Gregory Schwartzman. Fast Deterministic Algorithms for Highly-Dynamic Networks. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 28:1-28:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{censorhillel_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.28, author = {Censor-Hillel, Keren and Dafni, Neta and Kolobov, Victor I. and Paz, Ami and Schwartzman, Gregory}, title = {{Fast Deterministic Algorithms for Highly-Dynamic Networks}}, booktitle = {24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)}, pages = {28:1--28:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-176-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {184}, editor = {Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.28}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135138}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.28}, annote = {Keywords: dynamic distributed algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 179, 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)

We present improved results for approximating maximum-weight independent set (MaxIS) in the CONGEST and LOCAL models of distributed computing. Given an input graph, let n and Δ be the number of nodes and maximum degree, respectively, and let MIS(n,Δ) be the running time of finding a maximal independent set (MIS) in the CONGEST model. Bar-Yehuda et al. [PODC 2017] showed that there is an algorithm in the CONGEST model that finds a Δ-approximation for MaxIS in O(MIS(n,Δ)log W) rounds, where W is the maximum weight of a node in the graph, which can be as large as poly (n). Whether their algorithm is deterministic or randomized that succeeds with high probability depends on the MIS algorithm that is used as a black-box. Our results:
1) A deterministic O(MIS(n,Δ)/ε)-round algorithm that finds a (1+ε)Δ-approximation for MaxIS in the CONGEST model.
2) A randomized (poly(log log n)/ε)-round algorithm that finds, with high probability, a (1+ε)Δ-approximation for MaxIS in the CONGEST model. That is, by sacrificing only a tiny fraction of the approximation guarantee, we achieve an exponential speed-up in the running time over the previous best known result.
3) A randomized O(log n⋅ poly(log log n)/ε)-round algorithm that finds, with high probability, a 8(1+ε)α-approximation for MaxIS in the CONGEST model, where α is the arboricity of the graph. For graphs of arboricity α < Δ/(8(1+ε)), this result improves upon the previous best known result in both the approximation factor and the running time.
One may wonder whether it is possible to approximate MaxIS with high probability in fewer than poly(log log n) rounds. Interestingly, a folklore randomized ranking algorithm by Boppana implies a single round algorithm that gives an expected Δ-approximation in the CONGEST model. However, it is unclear how to convert this algorithm to one that succeeds with high probability without sacrificing a large number of rounds. For unweighted graphs of maximum degree Δ ≤ n/log n, we show a new analysis of the randomized ranking algorithm, which we combine with the local-ratio technique, to provide a O(1/ε)-round algorithm in the CONGEST model that, with high probability, finds an independent set of size at least n/((1+ε)(Δ+1)). This result cannot be extended to very high degree graphs, as we show a lower bound of Ω(log^*n) rounds for any randomized algorithm that with probability at least 1-1/log n finds an independent set of size Ω(n/Δ). This lower bound holds even for the LOCAL model. The hard instances that we use to prove our lower bound are graphs of maximum degree Δ = Ω(n/log^*n).

Ken-ichi Kawarabayashi, Seri Khoury, Aaron Schild, and Gregory Schwartzman. Improved Distributed Approximations for Maximum Independent Set. In 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 179, pp. 35:1-35:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{kawarabayashi_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2020.35, author = {Kawarabayashi, Ken-ichi and Khoury, Seri and Schild, Aaron and Schwartzman, Gregory}, title = {{Improved Distributed Approximations for Maximum Independent Set}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)}, pages = {35:1--35:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-168-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {179}, editor = {Attiya, Hagit}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.35}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-131135}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.35}, annote = {Keywords: Distributed graph algorithms, Approximation algorithms, Lower bounds} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 179, 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)

Smoothed analysis is a framework suggested for mediating gaps between worst-case and average-case complexities. In a recent work, Dinitz et al. [Distributed Computing, 2018] suggested to use smoothed analysis in order to study dynamic networks. Their aim was to explain the gaps between real-world networks that function well despite being dynamic, and the strong theoretical lower bounds for arbitrary networks. To this end, they introduced a basic model of smoothing in dynamic networks, where an adversary picks a sequence of graphs, representing the topology of the network over time, and then each of these graphs is slightly perturbed in a random manner.
The model suggested above is based on a per-round noise, and our aim in this work is to extend it to models of noise more suited for multiple rounds. This is motivated by long-lived networks, where the amount and location of noise may vary over time. To this end, we present several different models of noise. First, we extend the previous model to cases where the amount of noise is very small. Then, we move to more refined models, where the amount of noise can change between different rounds, e.g., as a function of the number of changes the network undergoes. We also study a model where the noise is not arbitrarily spread among the network, but focuses in each round in the areas where changes have occurred. Finally, we study the power of an adaptive adversary, who can choose its actions in accordance with the changes that have occurred so far. We use the flooding problem as a running case-study, presenting very different behaviors under the different models of noise, and analyze the flooding time in different models.

Uri Meir, Ami Paz, and Gregory Schwartzman. Models of Smoothing in Dynamic Networks. In 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 179, pp. 36:1-36:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{meir_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2020.36, author = {Meir, Uri and Paz, Ami and Schwartzman, Gregory}, title = {{Models of Smoothing in Dynamic Networks}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)}, pages = {36:1--36:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-168-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {179}, editor = {Attiya, Hagit}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.36}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-131145}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.36}, annote = {Keywords: Distributed dynamic graph algorithms, Smoothed analysis, Flooding} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 146, 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)

We present a time-optimal deterministic distributed algorithm for approximating a minimum weight vertex cover in hypergraphs of rank f. This problem is equivalent to the Minimum Weight Set Cover problem in which the frequency of every element is bounded by f. The approximation factor of our algorithm is (f+epsilon). Let Delta denote the maximum degree in the hypergraph. Our algorithm runs in the congest model and requires O(log{Delta} / log log Delta) rounds, for constants epsilon in (0,1] and f in N^+. This is the first distributed algorithm for this problem whose running time does not depend on the vertex weights nor the number of vertices. Thus adding another member to the exclusive family of provably optimal distributed algorithms.
For constant values of f and epsilon, our algorithm improves over the (f+epsilon)-approximation algorithm of [Fabian Kuhn et al., 2006] whose running time is O(log Delta + log W), where W is the ratio between the largest and smallest vertex weights in the graph. Our algorithm also achieves an f-approximation for the problem in O(f log n) rounds, improving over the classical result of [Samir Khuller et al., 1994] that achieves a running time of O(f log^2 n). Finally, for weighted vertex cover (f=2) our algorithm achieves a deterministic running time of O(log n), matching the randomized previously best result of [Koufogiannakis and Young, 2011].
We also show that integer covering-programs can be reduced to the Minimum Weight Set Cover problem in the distributed setting. This allows us to achieve an (f+epsilon)-approximate integral solution in O((1+f/log n)* ((log Delta)/(log log Delta) + (f * log M)^{1.01}* log epsilon^{-1}* (log Delta)^{0.01})) rounds, where f bounds the number of variables in a constraint, Delta bounds the number of constraints a variable appears in, and M=max {1, ceil[1/a_{min}]}, where a_{min} is the smallest normalized constraint coefficient. This improves over the results of [Fabian Kuhn et al., 2006] for the integral case, which combined with rounding achieves the same guarantees in O(epsilon^{-4}* f^4 * log f * log(M * Delta)) rounds.

Ran Ben-Basat, Guy Even, Ken-ichi Kawarabayashi, and Gregory Schwartzman. Optimal Distributed Covering Algorithms. In 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 146, pp. 5:1-5:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{benbasat_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2019.5, author = {Ben-Basat, Ran and Even, Guy and Kawarabayashi, Ken-ichi and Schwartzman, Gregory}, title = {{Optimal Distributed Covering Algorithms}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)}, pages = {5:1--5:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-126-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {146}, editor = {Suomela, Jukka}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-113129}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.5}, annote = {Keywords: Distributed Algorithms, Approximation Algorithms, Vertex Cover, Set Cover} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 146, 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)

In this work, we initiate a thorough study of graph optimization problems parameterized by the output size in the distributed setting. In such a problem, an algorithm decides whether a solution of size bounded by k exists and if so, it finds one. We study fundamental problems, including Minimum Vertex Cover (MVC), Maximum Independent Set (MaxIS), Maximum Matching (MaxM), and many others, in both the LOCAL and CONGEST distributed computation models. We present lower bounds for the round complexity of solving parameterized problems in both models, together with optimal and near-optimal upper bounds.
Our results extend beyond the scope of parameterized problems. We show that any LOCAL (1+epsilon)-approximation algorithm for the above problems must take Omega(epsilon^{-1}) rounds. Joined with the (epsilon^{-1}log n)^{O(1)} rounds algorithm of [Ghaffari et al., 2017] and the Omega (sqrt{(log n)/(log log n)}) lower bound of [Fabian Kuhn et al., 2016], the lower bounds match the upper bound up to polynomial factors in both parameters. We also show that our parameterized approach reduces the runtime of exact and approximate CONGEST algorithms for MVC and MaxM if the optimal solution is small, without knowing its size beforehand. Finally, we propose the first o(n^2) rounds CONGEST algorithms that approximate MVC within a factor strictly smaller than 2.

Ran Ben-Basat, Ken-ichi Kawarabayashi, and Gregory Schwartzman. Parameterized Distributed Algorithms. In 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 146, pp. 6:1-6:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{benbasat_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2019.6, author = {Ben-Basat, Ran and Kawarabayashi, Ken-ichi and Schwartzman, Gregory}, title = {{Parameterized Distributed Algorithms}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)}, pages = {6:1--6:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-126-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {146}, editor = {Suomela, Jukka}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-113135}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.6}, annote = {Keywords: Distributed Algorithms, Approximation Algorithms, Parameterized Algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 121, 32nd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2018)

It is a well known fact that sequential algorithms which exhibit a strong "local" nature can be adapted to the distributed setting given a legal graph coloring. The running time of the distributed algorithm will then be at least the number of colors. Surprisingly, this well known idea was never formally stated as a unified framework. In this paper we aim to define a robust family of local sequential algorithms which can be easily adapted to the distributed setting. We then develop new tools to further enhance these algorithms, achieving state of the art results for fundamental problems.
We define a simple class of greedy-like algorithms which we call orderless-local algorithms. We show that given a legal c-coloring of the graph, every algorithm in this family can be converted into a distributed algorithm running in O(c) communication rounds in the CONGEST model. We show that this family is indeed robust as both the method of conditional expectations and the unconstrained submodular maximization algorithm of Buchbinder et al. [Niv Buchbinder et al., 2015] can be expressed as orderless-local algorithms for local utility functions - Utility functions which have a strong local nature to them.
We use the above algorithms as a base for new distributed approximation algorithms for the weighted variants of some fundamental problems: Max k-Cut, Max-DiCut, Max 2-SAT and correlation clustering. We develop algorithms which have the same approximation guarantees as their sequential counterparts, up to a constant additive epsilon factor, while achieving an O(log^* n) running time for deterministic algorithms and O(epsilon^{-1}) running time for randomized ones. This improves exponentially upon the currently best known algorithms.

Ken-ichi Kawarabayashi and Gregory Schwartzman. Adapting Local Sequential Algorithms to the Distributed Setting. In 32nd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 121, pp. 35:1-35:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{kawarabayashi_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2018.35, author = {Kawarabayashi, Ken-ichi and Schwartzman, Gregory}, title = {{Adapting Local Sequential Algorithms to the Distributed Setting}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2018)}, pages = {35:1--35:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-092-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {121}, editor = {Schmid, Ulrich and Widder, Josef}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2018.35}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-98245}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2018.35}, annote = {Keywords: Distributed, Approximation Algorithms, Derandomization, Max-Cut} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 91, 31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017)

This paper addresses the cornerstone family of local problems in distributed computing, and investigates the curious gap between randomized and deterministic solutions under bandwidth restrictions.
Our main contribution is in providing tools for derandomizing solutions to local problems, when the n nodes can only send O(log n)-bit messages in each round of communication. We combine bounded independence, which we show to be sufficient for some algorithms, with the method of conditional expectations and with additional machinery, to obtain the following results.
First, we show that in the Congested Clique model, which allows all-to-all communication, there is a deterministic maximal independent set (MIS) algorithm that runs in O(log^2 Delta) rounds, where Delta is the maximum degree. When Delta=O(n^(1/3)), the bound improves to O(log Delta).
Adapting the above to the CONGEST model gives an O(D log^2 n)-round deterministic MIS algorithm, where D is the diameter of the graph. Apart from a previous unproven claim of a O(D log^3 n)-round algorithm, the only known deterministic solutions for the CONGEST model are a coloring-based O(Delta + log^* n)-round algorithm, where Delta is the maximal degree in the graph, and a 2^O(sqrt(log n log log n))-round algorithm, which is super-polylogarithmic in n.
In addition, we deterministically construct a (2k-1)-spanner with O(kn^(1+1/k) log n) edges in O(k log n) rounds in the Congested Clique model. For comparison, in the more stringent CONGEST model, where the communication graph is identical to the input graph, the best deterministic algorithm for constructing a (2k-1)-spanner with O(kn^(1+1/k)) edges runs in O(n^(1-1/k)) rounds.

Keren Censor-Hillel, Merav Parter, and Gregory Schwartzman. Derandomizing Local Distributed Algorithms under Bandwidth Restrictions. In 31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 91, pp. 11:1-11:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{censorhillel_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2017.11, author = {Censor-Hillel, Keren and Parter, Merav and Schwartzman, Gregory}, title = {{Derandomizing Local Distributed Algorithms under Bandwidth Restrictions}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017)}, pages = {11:1--11:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-053-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {91}, editor = {Richa, Andr\'{e}a}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2017.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-79759}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2017.11}, annote = {Keywords: Local problems, congested clique, derandomization} }

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