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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 301, 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)

For any set system ℋ = (V,ℛ), ℛ ⊆ 2^V, a subset S ⊆ V is called shattered if every S' ⊆ S results from the intersection of S with some set in ℛ. The VC-dimension of ℋ is the size of a largest shattered set in V. In this paper, we focus on the problem of computing the VC-dimension of graphs. In particular, given a graph G = (V,E), the VC-dimension of G is defined as the VC-dimension of (V, N), where N contains each subset of V that can be obtained as the closed neighborhood of some vertex v ∈ V in G. Our main contribution is an algorithm for computing the VC-dimension of any graph, whose effectiveness is shown through experiments on various types of practical graphs, including graphs with millions of vertices. A key aspect of its efficiency resides in the fact that practical graphs have small VC-dimension, up to 8 in our experiments. As a side-product, we present several new bounds relating the graph VC-dimension to other classical graph theoretical notions. We also establish the W[1]-hardness of the graph VC-dimension problem by extending a previous result for arbitrary set systems.

David Coudert, Mónika Csikós, Guillaume Ducoffe, and Laurent Viennot. Practical Computation of Graph VC-Dimension. In 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 301, pp. 8:1-8:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{coudert_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2024.8, author = {Coudert, David and Csik\'{o}s, M\'{o}nika and Ducoffe, Guillaume and Viennot, Laurent}, title = {{Practical Computation of Graph VC-Dimension}}, booktitle = {22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)}, pages = {8:1--8:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-325-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {301}, editor = {Liberti, Leo}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-203731}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.8}, annote = {Keywords: VC-dimension, graph, algorithm} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 289, 41st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2024)

In a directed graph D on vertex set v₁,… ,v_n, a forward arc is an arc v_iv_j where i < j. A pair v_i,v_j is forward connected if there is a directed path from v_i to v_j consisting of forward arcs. In the Forward Connected Pairs Problem (FCPP), the input is a strongly connected digraph D, and the output is the maximum number of forward connected pairs in some vertex enumeration of D. We show that FCPP is in APX, as one can efficiently enumerate the vertices of D in order to achieve a quadratic number of forward connected pairs. For this, we construct a linear size balanced bi-tree T (an out-branching and an in-branching with same size and same root which are vertex disjoint in the sense that they share no vertex apart from their common root). The existence of such a T was left as an open problem (Brunelli, Crescenzi, Viennot, Networks 2023) motivated by the study of temporal paths in temporal networks. More precisely, T can be constructed in quadratic time (in the number of vertices) and has size at least n/3. The algorithm involves a particular depth-first search tree (Left-DFS) of independent interest, and shows that every strongly connected directed graph has a balanced separator which is a circuit. Remarkably, in the request version RFCPP of FCPP, where the input is a strong digraph D and a set of requests R consisting of pairs {x_i,y_i}, there is no constant c > 0 such that one can always find an enumeration realizing c.|R| forward connected pairs {x_i,y_i} (in either direction).

Stéphane Bessy, Stéphan Thomassé, and Laurent Viennot. Temporalizing Digraphs via Linear-Size Balanced Bi-Trees. In 41st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 289, pp. 13:1-13:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{bessy_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2024.13, author = {Bessy, St\'{e}phane and Thomass\'{e}, St\'{e}phan and Viennot, Laurent}, title = {{Temporalizing Digraphs via Linear-Size Balanced Bi-Trees}}, booktitle = {41st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2024)}, pages = {13:1--13:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-311-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {289}, editor = {Beyersdorff, Olaf and Kant\'{e}, Mamadou Moustapha and Kupferman, Orna and Lokshtanov, Daniel}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2024.13}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-197235}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2024.13}, annote = {Keywords: digraph, temporal graph, temporalization, bi-tree, #1\{in-branching, out-branching, in-tree, out-tree\}, forward connected pairs, left-maximal DFS} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 281, 37th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2023)

We study the problem of collaborative tree exploration introduced by Fraigniaud, Gasieniec, Kowalski, and Pelc [Pierre Fraigniaud et al., 2006] where a team of k agents is tasked to collectively go through all the edges of an unknown tree as fast as possible and return to the root. Denoting by n the total number of nodes and by D the tree depth, the 𝒪(n/log(k)+D) algorithm of [Pierre Fraigniaud et al., 2006] achieves a 𝒪(k/log(k)) competitive ratio with respect to the cost of offline exploration which is at least max{{2n/k,2D}}. Brass, Cabrera-Mora, Gasparri, and Xiao [Peter Brass et al., 2011] study an alternative performance criterion, the competitive overhead with respect to the cost of offline exploration, with their 2n/k+𝒪((D+k)^k) guarantee. In this paper, we introduce "Breadth-First Depth-Next" (BFDN), a novel and simple algorithm that performs collaborative tree exploration in 2n/k+𝒪(D²log(k)) rounds, thus outperforming [Peter Brass et al., 2011] for all values of (n,D,k) and being order-optimal for trees of depth D = o(√n). Our analysis relies on a two-player game reflecting a problem of online resource allocation that could be of independent interest. We extend the guarantees of BFDN to: scenarios with limited memory and communication, adversarial setups where robots can be blocked, and exploration of classes of non-tree graphs. Finally, we provide a recursive version of BFDN with a runtime of 𝒪_𝓁(n/k^{1/𝓁}+log(k) D^{1+1/𝓁}) for parameter 𝓁 ≥ 1, thereby improving performance for trees with large depth.

Romain Cosson, Laurent Massoulié, and Laurent Viennot. Efficient Collaborative Tree Exploration with Breadth-First Depth-Next. In 37th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 281, pp. 14:1-14:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{cosson_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2023.14, author = {Cosson, Romain and Massouli\'{e}, Laurent and Viennot, Laurent}, title = {{Efficient Collaborative Tree Exploration with Breadth-First Depth-Next}}, booktitle = {37th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2023)}, pages = {14:1--14:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-301-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {281}, editor = {Oshman, Rotem}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2023.14}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-191409}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2023.14}, annote = {Keywords: collaborative exploration, online algorithms, trees, adversarial game, competitive analysis, robot swarms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

The average properties of the well-known Subset Sum Problem can be studied by means of its randomised version, where we are given a target value z, random variables X_1, …, X_n, and an error parameter ε > 0, and we seek a subset of the X_is whose sum approximates z up to error ε. In this setup, it has been shown that, under mild assumptions on the distribution of the random variables, a sample of size 𝒪(log(1/ε)) suffices to obtain, with high probability, approximations for all values in [-1/2, 1/2]. Recently, this result has been rediscovered outside the algorithms community, enabling meaningful progress in other fields. In this work, we present an alternative proof for this theorem, with a more direct approach and resourcing to more elementary tools.

Arthur Carvalho Walraven Da Cunha, Francesco d'Amore, Frédéric Giroire, Hicham Lesfari, Emanuele Natale, and Laurent Viennot. Revisiting the Random Subset Sum Problem. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 37:1-37:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{dacunha_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.37, author = {Da Cunha, Arthur Carvalho Walraven and d'Amore, Francesco and Giroire, Fr\'{e}d\'{e}ric and Lesfari, Hicham and Natale, Emanuele and Viennot, Laurent}, title = {{Revisiting the Random Subset Sum Problem}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {37:1--37:11}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.37}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186905}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.37}, annote = {Keywords: Random subset sum, Randomised method, Subset-sum, Combinatorics} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 257, 2nd Symposium on Algorithmic Foundations of Dynamic Networks (SAND 2023)

This paper proposes a simple algorithm for computing single-source reachability in a temporal graph under waiting-time constraints, that is when waiting at each node is bounded by some time constraints. Given a space-time representation of a temporal graph, and a source node, the algorithm computes in linear-time which nodes and temporal edges are reachable through a constrained temporal walk from the source.

Filippo Brunelli and Laurent Viennot. Computing Temporal Reachability Under Waiting-Time Constraints in Linear Time. In 2nd Symposium on Algorithmic Foundations of Dynamic Networks (SAND 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 257, pp. 4:1-4:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{brunelli_et_al:LIPIcs.SAND.2023.4, author = {Brunelli, Filippo and Viennot, Laurent}, title = {{Computing Temporal Reachability Under Waiting-Time Constraints in Linear Time}}, booktitle = {2nd Symposium on Algorithmic Foundations of Dynamic Networks (SAND 2023)}, pages = {4:1--4:11}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-275-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {257}, editor = {Doty, David and Spirakis, Paul}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SAND.2023.4}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-179402}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SAND.2023.4}, annote = {Keywords: temporal reachability, temporal graph, temporal path, temporal walk, waiting-time constraints, restless temporal walk, linear time} }

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Track C: Foundations of Networks and Multi-Agent Systems: Models, Algorithms and Information Management

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

For fixed h >= 2, we consider the task of adding to a graph G a set of weighted shortcut edges on the same vertex set, such that the length of a shortest h-hop path between any pair of vertices in the augmented graph is exactly the same as the original distance between these vertices in G. A set of shortcut edges with this property is called an exact h-hopset and may be applied in processing distance queries on graph G. In particular, a 2-hopset directly corresponds to a distributed distance oracle known as a hub labeling. In this work, we explore centralized distance oracles based on 3-hopsets and display their advantages in several practical scenarios. In particular, for graphs of constant highway dimension, and more generally for graphs of constant skeleton dimension, we show that 3-hopsets require exponentially fewer shortcuts per node than any previously described distance oracle, and also offer a speedup in query time when compared to simple oracles based on a direct application of 2-hopsets. Finally, we consider the problem of computing minimum-size h-hopset (for any h >= 2) for a given graph G, showing a polylogarithmic-factor approximation for the case of unique shortest path graphs. When h=3, for a given bound on the space used by the distance oracle, we provide a construction of hopset achieving polylog approximation both for space and query time compared to the optimal 3-hopset oracle given the space bound.

Siddharth Gupta, Adrian Kosowski, and Laurent Viennot. Exploiting Hopsets: Improved Distance Oracles for Graphs of Constant Highway Dimension and Beyond. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 143:1-143:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{gupta_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.143, author = {Gupta, Siddharth and Kosowski, Adrian and Viennot, Laurent}, title = {{Exploiting Hopsets: Improved Distance Oracles for Graphs of Constant Highway Dimension and Beyond}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {143:1--143:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.143}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-107199}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.143}, annote = {Keywords: Hopsets, Distance Oracles, Graph Algorithms, Data Structures} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 92, 28th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2017)

We introduce the problem of hub-laminar decomposition which generalizes that of computing a shortest path with minimum eccentricity (MESP). Intuitively, it consists in decomposing a graph into several paths that collectively have small eccentricity and meet only near their extremities. The problem is related to computing an isometric cycle with minimum eccentricity (MEIC). It is also linked to DNA reconstitution in the context of metagenomics in biology. We show that a graph having such a decomposition with long enough paths can be decomposed in polynomial time with approximated guaranties on the parameters of the decomposition. Moreover, such a decomposition with few paths allows to compute a compact representation of distances with additive distortion. We also show that having an isometric cycle with small eccentricity is related to the possibility of embedding the graph in a cycle with low distortion.

Etienne Birmelé, Fabien de Montgolfier, Léo Planche, and Laurent Viennot. Decomposing a Graph into Shortest Paths with Bounded Eccentricity. In 28th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 92, pp. 15:1-15:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{birmele_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2017.15, author = {Birmel\'{e}, Etienne and de Montgolfier, Fabien and Planche, L\'{e}o and Viennot, Laurent}, title = {{Decomposing a Graph into Shortest Paths with Bounded Eccentricity}}, booktitle = {28th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2017)}, pages = {15:1--15:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-054-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {92}, editor = {Okamoto, Yoshio and Tokuyama, Takeshi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2017.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-82621}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2017.15}, annote = {Keywords: Graph Decomposition, Graph Clustering, Distance Labeling, BFS, MESP} }