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Documents authored by van der Torre, Leendert


Document
Normative Reasoning for AI (Dagstuhl Seminar 23151)

Authors: Agata Ciabattoni, John F. Horty, Marija Slavkovik, Leendert van der Torre, and Aleks Knoks

Published in: Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 13, Issue 4 (2023)


Abstract
Normative reasoning is reasoning about normative matters - such as obligations, permissions, and the rights of individuals or groups. It is prevalent in both legal and ethical discourse, and it can - and arguably should - play a crucial role in the construction of autonomous agents. We often find it important to know whether specific norms apply in a given situation, and to understand why and when they apply, and why some other norms do not apply. In most cases, our reasons for wanting to know are purely practical - we want to make the correct decision - but they can also be more theoretical - as they are when we engage in theoretical ethics. Either way, the same questions are crucial for designing autonomous agents sensitive to legal, ethical, and social norms. This Dagstuhl Seminar brought together experts in computer science, logic (including deontic logic and argumentation), philosophy, ethics, and law with the aim of finding effective ways of formalizing norms and embedding normative reasoning in AI systems. We discussed new ways of using deontic logic and argumentation to provide explanations answering normative why questions, including such questions as "Why should I do A (rather than B)?", "Why should you do A (rather than I)?", "Why do you have the right to do A despite a certain fact or a certain norm?", and "Why does one normative system forbid me to do A, while another one allows it?". We also explored the use of formal methods in combination with sub-symbolic AI (or Machine Learning) with a view towards designing autonomous agents that can follow (legal, ethical, and social) norms.

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Agata Ciabattoni, John F. Horty, Marija Slavkovik, Leendert van der Torre, and Aleks Knoks. Normative Reasoning for AI (Dagstuhl Seminar 23151). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp. 1-23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@Article{ciabattoni_et_al:DagRep.13.4.1,
  author =	{Ciabattoni, Agata and Horty, John F. and Slavkovik, Marija and van der Torre, Leendert and Knoks, Aleks},
  title =	{{Normative Reasoning for AI (Dagstuhl Seminar 23151)}},
  pages =	{1--23},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Reports},
  ISSN =	{2192-5283},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{13},
  number =	{4},
  editor =	{Ciabattoni, Agata and Horty, John F. and Slavkovik, Marija and van der Torre, Leendert and Knoks, Aleks},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.13.4.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-192367},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagRep.13.4.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: deontic logic, autonomous agents, AI ethics, deontic explanations}
}
Document
Present and Future of Formal Argumentation (Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 15362)

Authors: Dov M. Gabbay, Massimiliano Giacomin, Beishui Liao, and Leendert van der Torre

Published in: Dagstuhl Manifestos, Volume 7, Issue 1 (2018)


Abstract
Formal Argumentation is emerging as a key reasoning paradigm building bridges among knowledge representation and reasoning in artificial intelligence, informal argumentation in philosophy and linguistics, legal and ethical argumentation, mathematical and logical reasoning, and graph-theoretic reasoning. It aims to capture diverse kinds of reasoning and dialogue activities in the presence of uncertainty and conflicting information in a formal and intuitive way, with potential applications ranging from argumentation mining, via LegalTech and machine ethics, to therapy in clinical psychology. The turning point for the modern stage of formal argumentation theory, much similar to the introduction of possible worlds semantics for the theory of modality, is the framework and language of Dung's abstract argumentation theory introduced in 1995. This means that nothing could remain the same as before 1995 - it should be a focal point of reference for any study of argumentation, even if it is critical about it. Now, in modal logic, the introduction of the possible worlds semantics has led to a complete paradigm shift, both in tools and new subjects of studies. This is still not fully true for what is going on in argumentation theory. The Dagstuhl workshop led to the first volume of a handbook series in formal argumentation, reflecting the new stage of the development of argumentation theory.

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Dov M. Gabbay, Massimiliano Giacomin, Beishui Liao, and Leendert van der Torre. Present and Future of Formal Argumentation (Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 15362). In Dagstuhl Manifestos, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp. 69-95, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)


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@Article{gabbay_et_al:DagMan.7.1.69,
  author =	{Gabbay, Dov M. and Giacomin, Massimiliano and Liao, Beishui and van der Torre, Leendert},
  title =	{{Present and Future of Formal Argumentation (Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 15362)}},
  pages =	{69--95},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Manifestos},
  ISSN =	{2193-2433},
  year =	{2018},
  volume =	{7},
  number =	{1},
  editor =	{Gabbay, Dov M. and Giacomin, Massimiliano and Liao, Beishui and van der Torre, Leendert},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagMan.7.1.69},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-98957},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagMan.7.1.69},
  annote =	{Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, Multi-Agent Systems, Argumentation, Non-monotonic Logic}
}
Document
Present and Future of Formal Argumentation (Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 15362)

Authors: Dov M. Gabbay, Massimiliano Giacomin, Beishui Liao, and Leendert van der Torre

Published in: Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 5, Issue 8 (2016)


Abstract
This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 15362 "Present and Future of Formal Argumentation". The goal of this Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop was to gather the world leading experts in formal argumentation in order to develop a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis of the current state of the research in this field and to draw accordingly some strategic lines to ensure its successful development in the future. A critical survey of the field has been carried out through individual presentations and collective discussions. Moreover, working group activity lead to identify several open problems in argumentation.

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Dov M. Gabbay, Massimiliano Giacomin, Beishui Liao, and Leendert van der Torre. Present and Future of Formal Argumentation (Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 15362). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 5, Issue 8, pp. 74-89, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@Article{gabbay_et_al:DagRep.5.8.74,
  author =	{Gabbay, Dov M. and Giacomin, Massimiliano and Liao, Beishui and van der Torre, Leendert},
  title =	{{Present and Future of Formal Argumentation (Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 15362)}},
  pages =	{74--89},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Reports},
  ISSN =	{2192-5283},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{5},
  number =	{8},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.5.8.74},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-56792},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagRep.5.8.74},
  annote =	{Keywords: Argumentation, Non-monotonic Logic, Multi-Agent Systems}
}
Document
Normative Systems in Computer Science - Ten Guidelines for Normative Multiagent Systems

Authors: Guido Boella, Gabriella Pigozzi, and Leendert van der Torre

Published in: Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 9121, Normative Multi-Agent Systems (2009)


Abstract
In this paper we introduce and discuss ten guidelines for the use of normative systems in computer science. We adopt a multiagent sys- tems perspective, because norms are used to coordinate, organize, guide, regulate or control interaction among distributed autonomous systems. The first six guidelines are derived from the computer science literature. From the so-called ‘normchange’ definition of the first workshop on nor- mative multiagent systems in 2005 we derive the guidelines to motivate which definition of normative multiagent system is used, to make explicit why norms are a kind of (soft) constraints deserving special analysis, and to explain why and how norms can be changed at runtime. From the so-called ‘mechanism design’ definition of the second workshop on nor- mative multiagent systems in 2007 we derive the guidelines to discuss the use and role of norms as a mechanism in a game-theoretic setting, clarify the role of norms in the multiagent system, and to relate the no- tion of “norm” to the legal, social, or moral literature. The remaining four guidelines follow from the philosophical literature: use norms also to resolve dilemmas, and in general to coordinate, organize, guide, regulate or control interaction among agents, distinguish norms from obligations, prohibitions and permissions, use the deontic paradoxes only to illustrate the normative multiagent system, and consider regulative norms in rela- tion to other kinds of norms and other social-cognitive computer science concepts.

Cite as

Guido Boella, Gabriella Pigozzi, and Leendert van der Torre. Normative Systems in Computer Science - Ten Guidelines for Normative Multiagent Systems. In Normative Multi-Agent Systems. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 9121, pp. 1-21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2009)


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@InProceedings{boella_et_al:DagSemProc.09121.2,
  author =	{Boella, Guido and Pigozzi, Gabriella and van der Torre, Leendert},
  title =	{{Normative Systems in Computer Science - Ten Guidelines for Normative Multiagent Systems}},
  booktitle =	{Normative Multi-Agent Systems},
  pages =	{1--21},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2009},
  volume =	{9121},
  editor =	{Guido Boella and Pablo Noriega and Gabriella Pigozzi and Harko Verhagen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.09121.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-19029},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.09121.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Normative systems - Guidelines - Norms - Multiagent systems - Deontic logic}
}
Document
A Conviviality Measure for Early Requirement Phase

Authors: Patrice Caire and Leendert van der Torre

Published in: Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 9121, Normative Multi-Agent Systems (2009)


Abstract
In this paper, we consider the design of convivial multi-agent systems. Conviviality has recently been proposed as a social concept to develop multi-agent systems. In this paper we introduce temporal dependence networks to model the evolution of dependence networks and conviviality over time, we introduce epistemic dependence networks to combine the viewpoints of stakeholders, and we introduce normative dependence networks to model the transformation of social dependencies by hiding power relations and social structures to facilitate social interactions. We show how to use these visual languages in design, and we illustrate the design method using an example on virtual children adoptions.

Cite as

Patrice Caire and Leendert van der Torre. A Conviviality Measure for Early Requirement Phase. In Normative Multi-Agent Systems. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 9121, pp. 1-16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2009)


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@InProceedings{caire_et_al:DagSemProc.09121.5,
  author =	{Caire, Patrice and van der Torre, Leendert},
  title =	{{A Conviviality Measure for Early Requirement Phase}},
  booktitle =	{Normative Multi-Agent Systems},
  pages =	{1--16},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2009},
  volume =	{9121},
  editor =	{Guido Boella and Pablo Noriega and Gabriella Pigozzi and Harko Verhagen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.09121.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-18999},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.09121.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: Multi-agent systems}
}
Document
FSL – Fibred Security Language

Authors: Valerio Genovese, Dov M. Gabbay, Guido Boella, and Leendert van der Torre

Published in: Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 9121, Normative Multi-Agent Systems (2009)


Abstract
We develop a fibred security language capable to express statements of the form begin{center} ${x }varphi (x) says psi$ end{center} where ${x}varphi (x)$ is the set of all $x$ that satisfy $varphi$ and $psi$ is any formula. $varphi$ and $psi$ may share several free variables. For example, we can express the following: "A member $m$ of the Program Committee can not accept a paper $P_1$ in which one of its authors says that he has published a paper with him after 2007" begin{center} $ eg({m} [PC(m) wedge {y}author\_of(y,P_1) extbf{ says } exists p(paper(p) wedge author\_of(m,p) wedge author\_of(y,p) wedge year(p) geq 2007)] extbf{ says } accept(P_1))$ end{center}

Cite as

Valerio Genovese, Dov M. Gabbay, Guido Boella, and Leendert van der Torre. FSL – Fibred Security Language. In Normative Multi-Agent Systems. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 9121, pp. 1-29, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2009)


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@InProceedings{genovese_et_al:DagSemProc.09121.16,
  author =	{Genovese, Valerio and Gabbay, Dov M. and Boella, Guido and van der Torre, Leendert},
  title =	{{FSL – Fibred Security Language}},
  booktitle =	{Normative Multi-Agent Systems},
  pages =	{1--29},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2009},
  volume =	{9121},
  editor =	{Guido Boella and Pablo Noriega and Gabriella Pigozzi and Harko Verhagen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.09121.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-19083},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.09121.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: Access Control, Trust Management, Fibring Logics}
}
Document
Adding Organizations and Roles as Primitives to the JADE Framework

Authors: Roberto Grenna, Matteo Baldoni, Guido Boella, Leendert van der Torre, Mauro Dorni, Andrea Mugnaini, and Valerio Genovese

Published in: Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 8361, Programming Multi-Agent Systems (2008)


Abstract
The organization metaphor is often used in the design and implementation of multiagent systems. However, few agent programming languages provide facilities to define them. Several frameworks are proposed to coordinate MAS with organizations, but they are not programmable with general purpose languages. In this paper we extend the JADE framework with primitives to program in Java organizations structured in roles and to enable agents to play roles in organizations. Roles facilitate the coordination of agents inside an organization and give new abilities in the context of organizations, called powers, to the agents which satisfy the requirements necessary to play the roles. As primitives to program organizations and roles we provide classes and protocols which enable an agent to enact a new role in an organization and to interact with the role by invoking the execution of powers, and to receive new goals to be fulfilled. Roles have state and behaviour, thus, they are instances of classes and are strictly connected with the organization offering them. Since roles and organizations can be on a different platform with respect to the role player, the communication with them happens via protocols. Moreover, since, besides using protocols, roles and organizations can have complex behaviours, they are implemented by extending the JADE agent class.

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Roberto Grenna, Matteo Baldoni, Guido Boella, Leendert van der Torre, Mauro Dorni, Andrea Mugnaini, and Valerio Genovese. Adding Organizations and Roles as Primitives to the JADE Framework. In Programming Multi-Agent Systems. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 8361, pp. 1-17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2008)


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@InProceedings{grenna_et_al:DagSemProc.08361.4,
  author =	{Grenna, Roberto and Baldoni, Matteo and Boella, Guido and van der Torre, Leendert and Dorni, Mauro and Mugnaini, Andrea and Genovese, Valerio},
  title =	{{Adding Organizations and Roles as Primitives to the JADE Framework}},
  booktitle =	{Programming Multi-Agent Systems},
  pages =	{1--17},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2008},
  volume =	{8361},
  editor =	{Rafael Bordini and Mehdi Dastani and J\"{u}rgen Dix and Amal El Fallah-Seghrouchni},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.08361.4},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-16396},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.08361.4},
  annote =	{Keywords: Roles, Organizations, JADE}
}
Document
Ten Challenges for Normative Multiagent Systems

Authors: Guido Boella, Leendert van der Torre, and Harko Verhagen

Published in: Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 8361, Programming Multi-Agent Systems (2008)


Abstract
In this paper we discuss the shift from a legal to an interactionist view on normative multiagent systems, examples, and ten new challenges in this more dynamic setting.

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Guido Boella, Leendert van der Torre, and Harko Verhagen. Ten Challenges for Normative Multiagent Systems. In Programming Multi-Agent Systems. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 8361, pp. 1-11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2008)


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@InProceedings{boella_et_al:DagSemProc.08361.11,
  author =	{Boella, Guido and van der Torre, Leendert and Verhagen, Harko},
  title =	{{Ten Challenges  for Normative Multiagent Systems}},
  booktitle =	{Programming Multi-Agent Systems},
  pages =	{1--11},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2008},
  volume =	{8361},
  editor =	{Rafael Bordini and Mehdi Dastani and J\"{u}rgen Dix and Amal El Fallah-Seghrouchni},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.08361.11},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-16367},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.08361.11},
  annote =	{Keywords: Normative multiagent systems, normative systems, deontic logic, multiagent systems}
}
Document
From belief change to preference change

Authors: Jérôme Lang and Leendert van der Torre

Published in: Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 7351, Formal Models of Belief Change in Rational Agents (2007)


Abstract
There is a huge literature on belief change. In contrast, preference change has been considered only in a few recent papers. There are reasons for that: while there is to some extent a general agreement about the very meaning of belief change, this is definitely not so for preference change. We discuss here the possible meanings of preference change, arguing that we should at least distinguish between four paradigms: preferences evolving after some new fact has been learned, preferences evolving as a result of an evolution of the world, preferences evolving after the rational agent itself evolves, and preferences evolving per se. We then develop in more detail the first of these four paradigms (which we think is the most natural). We give some natural properties that we think preference change should fulfill and define several families of preference change operators, parameterized by a revision function on epistemic states and a semantics for interpreting preferences over formulas.

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Jérôme Lang and Leendert van der Torre. From belief change to preference change. In Formal Models of Belief Change in Rational Agents. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 7351, pp. 1-8, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{lang_et_al:DagSemProc.07351.13,
  author =	{Lang, J\'{e}r\^{o}me and van der Torre, Leendert},
  title =	{{From belief change to preference change}},
  booktitle =	{Formal Models of Belief Change in Rational Agents},
  pages =	{1--8},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{7351},
  editor =	{Giacomo Bonanno and James Delgrande and J\'{e}r\^{o}me Lang and Hans Rott},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.07351.13},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-12099},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.07351.13},
  annote =	{Keywords: Beliefs, preferences, decision making, agents, preference revision}
}
Document
Premise Independence in Judgment Aggregation

Authors: Gabriella Pigozzi and Leendert van der Torre

Published in: Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 7351, Formal Models of Belief Change in Rational Agents (2007)


Abstract
Judgment aggregation studies how agent opinions on logically interconnected propositions can be mapped into a collective judgment on the same propositions, and is plagued by impossibility results. In this paper we study the central notion of independence in these impossibility results. First, we argue that the distinction between the premises and conclusions play an important role in the benchmark examples of judgment aggregation. Second, we consider the notion of independence in judgment aggregation frameworks, and we observe that the distinction between premises and conclusion is not taken into account. Third, based on our analysis, we introduce independence assumptions that distinguish premises from conclusion. We show that, by introducing new operators that satisfy our independence assumptions, the problematic impossibility results no longer hold.

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Gabriella Pigozzi and Leendert van der Torre. Premise Independence in Judgment Aggregation. In Formal Models of Belief Change in Rational Agents. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 7351, pp. 1-8, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{pigozzi_et_al:DagSemProc.07351.16,
  author =	{Pigozzi, Gabriella and van der Torre, Leendert},
  title =	{{Premise Independence in Judgment Aggregation}},
  booktitle =	{Formal Models of Belief Change in Rational Agents},
  pages =	{1--8},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{7351},
  editor =	{Giacomo Bonanno and James Delgrande and J\'{e}r\^{o}me Lang and Hans Rott},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.07351.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-12161},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.07351.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: Judgment aggregation, social choice theory}
}
Document
07122 Abstracts Collection – Normative Multi-agent Systems

Authors: Guido Boella, Harko Verhagen, and Leendert van der Torre

Published in: Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 7122, Normative Multi-agent Systems (2007)


Abstract
From 18.03.07 to 23.03.07, the Dagstuhl Seminar 07122 ``Normative Multi-agent Systems'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section describes the seminar topics and goals in general. Links to extended abstracts or full papers are provided, if available.

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Guido Boella, Harko Verhagen, and Leendert van der Torre. 07122 Abstracts Collection – Normative Multi-agent Systems. In Normative Multi-agent Systems. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 7122, pp. 1-15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{boella_et_al:DagSemProc.07122.1,
  author =	{Boella, Guido and Verhagen, Harko and van der Torre, Leendert},
  title =	{{ 07122 Abstracts Collection – Normative Multi-agent Systems}},
  booktitle =	{Normative Multi-agent Systems},
  pages =	{1--15},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{7122},
  editor =	{Guido Boella and Leon van der Torre and Harko Verhagen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.07122.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-9433},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.07122.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: Normative systems, multi-agent systems}
}
Document
Introduction to Normative Multiagent Systems

Authors: Guido Boella, Leendert van der Torre, and Harko Verhagen

Published in: Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 7122, Normative Multi-agent Systems (2007)


Abstract
This article introduces the research issues related to and definition of normative multiagent systems.

Cite as

Guido Boella, Leendert van der Torre, and Harko Verhagen. Introduction to Normative Multiagent Systems. In Normative Multi-agent Systems. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 7122, pp. 1-7, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{boella_et_al:DagSemProc.07122.2,
  author =	{Boella, Guido and van der Torre, Leendert and Verhagen, Harko},
  title =	{{ Introduction to Normative Multiagent Systems}},
  booktitle =	{Normative Multi-agent Systems},
  pages =	{1--7},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{7122},
  editor =	{Guido Boella and Leon van der Torre and Harko Verhagen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.07122.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-9187},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.07122.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Norms, Multiagent systems, Normative multiagent systems}
}
Document
A Game-Theoretic Approach to Normative Multi-Agent Systems

Authors: Guido Boella and Leendert van der Torre

Published in: Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 7122, Normative Multi-agent Systems (2007)


Abstract
We explain the raison d'etre and basic ideas of our game-theoretic approach to normative multiagent systems, sketching the central elements with pointers to other publications for detailed developments.

Cite as

Guido Boella and Leendert van der Torre. A Game-Theoretic Approach to Normative Multi-Agent Systems. In Normative Multi-agent Systems. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 7122, pp. 1-35, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{boella_et_al:DagSemProc.07122.3,
  author =	{Boella, Guido and van der Torre, Leendert},
  title =	{{A Game-Theoretic Approach to Normative Multi-Agent Systems}},
  booktitle =	{Normative Multi-agent Systems},
  pages =	{1--35},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{7122},
  editor =	{Guido Boella and Leon van der Torre and Harko Verhagen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.07122.3},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-9373},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.07122.3},
  annote =	{Keywords: Normative multiagent systems, deontic logic, input/output logic}
}
Document
Choosing Your Beliefs

Authors: Guido Boella, Célia da Costa Pereira, Gabriella Pigozzi, Andrea Tettamanzi, and Leendert van der Torre

Published in: Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 7122, Normative Multi-agent Systems (2007)


Abstract
This paper presents and discusses a novel approach to indeterministic belief revision. An indeterministic belief revision operator assumes that, when an agent is confronted with a new piece of information, it can revise its belief sets in more than one way. We define a rational agent not only in terms of what it believes but also of what it desires and wants to achieve. Hence, we propose that the agent's goals play a role in the choice of (possibly) one of the several available revision options. Properties of the new belief revision mechanism are also investigated.

Cite as

Guido Boella, Célia da Costa Pereira, Gabriella Pigozzi, Andrea Tettamanzi, and Leendert van der Torre. Choosing Your Beliefs. In Normative Multi-agent Systems. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 7122, pp. 1-18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{boella_et_al:DagSemProc.07122.9,
  author =	{Boella, Guido and da Costa Pereira, C\'{e}lia and Pigozzi, Gabriella and Tettamanzi, Andrea and van der Torre, Leendert},
  title =	{{Choosing Your Beliefs}},
  booktitle =	{Normative Multi-agent Systems},
  pages =	{1--18},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{7122},
  editor =	{Guido Boella and Leon van der Torre and Harko Verhagen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.07122.9},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-9386},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.07122.9},
  annote =	{Keywords: Rational agents, indeterministic belief revision, qualitative decision theory}
}
Document
Ten Philosophical Problems in Deontic Logic

Authors: Jörg Hansen, Gabriella Pigozzi, and Leendert van der Torre

Published in: Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 7122, Normative Multi-agent Systems (2007)


Abstract
The paper discusses ten philosophical problems in deontic logic: how to formally represent norms, when a set of norms may be termed `coherent', how to deal with normative conflicts, how contrary-to-duty obligations can be appropriately modeled, how dyadic deontic operators may be redefined to relate to sets of norms instead of preference relations between possible worlds, how various concepts of permission can be accommodated, how meaning postulates and counts-as conditionals can be taken into account, and how sets of norms may be revised and merged. The problems are discussed from the viewpoint of input/output logic as developed by van der Torre Makinson. We argue that norms, not ideality, should take the central position in deontic semantics, and that a semantics that represents norms, as input/output logic does, provides helpful tools for analyzing, clarifying and solving the problems of deontic logic.

Cite as

Jörg Hansen, Gabriella Pigozzi, and Leendert van der Torre. Ten Philosophical Problems in Deontic Logic. In Normative Multi-agent Systems. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 7122, pp. 1-26, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{hansen_et_al:DagSemProc.07122.28,
  author =	{Hansen, J\"{o}rg and Pigozzi, Gabriella and van der Torre, Leendert},
  title =	{{Ten Philosophical Problems in Deontic Logic}},
  booktitle =	{Normative Multi-agent Systems},
  pages =	{1--26},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{7122},
  editor =	{Guido Boella and Leon van der Torre and Harko Verhagen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.07122.28},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-9413},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.07122.28},
  annote =	{Keywords: Deontic logic, normative systems, input/output logic}
}
Document
What an Agent Ought To Do

Authors: Jan M. Broersen and Leendert van der Torre

Published in: Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 7122, Normative Multi-agent Systems (2007)


Abstract
This paper reviewes Horty's 2001 book `Agency and Deontic Logic'. We place Horty's research I a broader context and discuss the relevancy for logics for multi-agent systems.

Cite as

Jan M. Broersen and Leendert van der Torre. What an Agent Ought To Do. In Normative Multi-agent Systems. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 7122, pp. 1-17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{broersen_et_al:DagSemProc.07122.31,
  author =	{Broersen, Jan M. and van der Torre, Leendert},
  title =	{{What an Agent Ought To Do}},
  booktitle =	{Normative Multi-agent Systems},
  pages =	{1--17},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{7122},
  editor =	{Guido Boella and Leon van der Torre and Harko Verhagen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.07122.31},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-9051},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.07122.31},
  annote =	{Keywords: Deontic logic, STIT, agency, action}
}
Document
What is Input/Output Logic? Input/Output Logic, Constraints, Permissions

Authors: David Makinson and Leendert van der Torre

Published in: Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 7122, Normative Multi-agent Systems (2007)


Abstract
We explain the {em raison d'^etre} and basic ideas of input/output logic, sketching the central elements with pointers to other publications for detailed developments. The motivation comes from the logic of norms. Unconstrained input/output operations are straightforward to define, with relatively simple behaviour, but ignore the subtleties of contrary-to-duty norms. To deal with these more sensitively, we constrain input/output operations by means of consistency conditions, expressed via the concept of an outfamily. They also provide a convenient platform for distinguishing and analysing several different kinds of permission.

Cite as

David Makinson and Leendert van der Torre. What is Input/Output Logic? Input/Output Logic, Constraints, Permissions. In Normative Multi-agent Systems. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 7122, pp. 1-12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{makinson_et_al:DagSemProc.07122.32,
  author =	{Makinson, David and van der Torre, Leendert},
  title =	{{What is Input/Output Logic? Input/Output Logic, Constraints, Permissions}},
  booktitle =	{Normative Multi-agent Systems},
  pages =	{1--12},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{7122},
  editor =	{Guido Boella and Leon van der Torre and Harko Verhagen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.07122.32},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-9282},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.07122.32},
  annote =	{Keywords: Deontic logic, input/output logic, constraints, permissions}
}
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