7 Search Results for "Sandhu, Juspreet Singh"


Document
Quantum Event Learning and Gentle Random Measurements

Authors: Adam Bene Watts and John Bostanci

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)


Abstract
We prove the expected disturbance caused to a quantum system by a sequence of randomly ordered two-outcome projective measurements is upper bounded by the square root of the probability that at least one measurement in the sequence accepts. We call this bound the Gentle Random Measurement Lemma. We then extend the techniques used to prove this lemma to develop protocols for problems in which we are given sample access to an unknown state ρ and asked to estimate properties of the accepting probabilities Tr[M_i ρ] of a set of measurements {M₁, M₂, … , M_m}. We call these types of problems Quantum Event Learning Problems. In particular, we show randomly ordering projective measurements solves the Quantum OR problem, answering an open question of Aaronson. We also give a Quantum OR protocol which works on non-projective measurements and which outperforms both the random measurement protocol analyzed in this paper and the protocol of Harrow, Lin, and Montanaro. However, this protocol requires a more complicated type of measurement, which we call a Blended Measurement. Given additional guarantees on the set of measurements {M₁, …, M_m}, we show the random and blended measurement Quantum OR protocols developed in this paper can also be used to find a measurement M_i such that Tr[M_i ρ] is large. We call the problem of finding such a measurement Quantum Event Finding. We also show Blended Measurements give a sample-efficient protocol for Quantum Mean Estimation: a problem in which the goal is to estimate the average accepting probability of a set of measurements on an unknown state. Finally we consider the Threshold Search Problem described by O'Donnell and Bădescu where, given given a set of measurements {M₁, …, M_m} along with sample access to an unknown state ρ satisfying Tr[M_i ρ] ≥ 1/2 for some M_i, the goal is to find a measurement M_j such that Tr[M_j ρ] ≥ 1/2 - ε. By building on our Quantum Event Finding result we show that randomly ordered (or blended) measurements can be used to solve this problem using O(log²(m) / ε²) copies of ρ. This matches the performance of the algorithm given by O'Donnell and Bădescu, but does not require injected noise in the measurements. Consequently, we obtain an algorithm for Shadow Tomography which matches the current best known sample complexity (i.e. requires Õ(log²(m)log(d)/ε⁴) samples). This algorithm does not require injected noise in the quantum measurements, but does require measurements to be made in a random order, and so is no longer online.

Cite as

Adam Bene Watts and John Bostanci. Quantum Event Learning and Gentle Random Measurements. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 97:1-97:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{watts_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.97,
  author =	{Watts, Adam Bene and Bostanci, John},
  title =	{{Quantum Event Learning and Gentle Random Measurements}},
  booktitle =	{15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)},
  pages =	{97:1--97:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-309-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{287},
  editor =	{Guruswami, Venkatesan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.97},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-196254},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.97},
  annote =	{Keywords: Event learning, gentle measurments, random measurements, quantum or, threshold search, shadow tomography}
}
Document
On the Power of Nonstandard Quantum Oracles

Authors: Roozbeh Bassirian, Bill Fefferman, and Kunal Marwaha

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 266, 18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023)


Abstract
We study how the choices made when designing an oracle affect the complexity of quantum property testing problems defined relative to this oracle. We encode a regular graph of even degree as an invertible function f, and present f in different oracle models. We first give a one-query QMA protocol to test if a graph encoded in f has a small disconnected subset. We then use representation theory to show that no classical witness can help a quantum verifier efficiently decide this problem relative to an in-place oracle. Perhaps surprisingly, a simple modification to the standard oracle prevents a quantum verifier from efficiently deciding this problem, even with access to an unbounded witness.

Cite as

Roozbeh Bassirian, Bill Fefferman, and Kunal Marwaha. On the Power of Nonstandard Quantum Oracles. In 18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 266, pp. 11:1-11:25, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{bassirian_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2023.11,
  author =	{Bassirian, Roozbeh and Fefferman, Bill and Marwaha, Kunal},
  title =	{{On the Power of Nonstandard Quantum Oracles}},
  booktitle =	{18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023)},
  pages =	{11:1--11:25},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-283-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{266},
  editor =	{Fawzi, Omar and Walter, Michael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2023.11},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-183215},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2023.11},
  annote =	{Keywords: quantum complexity, QCMA, expander graphs, representation theory}
}
Document
Concentration Bounds for Quantum States and Limitations on the QAOA from Polynomial Approximations

Authors: Anurag Anshu and Tony Metger

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)


Abstract
We prove concentration bounds for the following classes of quantum states: (i) output states of shallow quantum circuits, answering an open question from [De Palma et al., 2022]; (ii) injective matrix product states; (iii) output states of dense Hamiltonian evolution, i.e. states of the form e^{ιH^{(p)}} ⋯ e^{ιH^{(1)}} |ψ₀⟩ for any n-qubit product state |ψ₀⟩, where each H^{(i)} can be any local commuting Hamiltonian satisfying a norm constraint, including dense Hamiltonians with interactions between any qubits. Our proofs use polynomial approximations to show that these states are close to local operators. This implies that the distribution of the Hamming weight of a computational basis measurement (and of other related observables) concentrates. An example of (iii) are the states produced by the quantum approximate optimisation algorithm (QAOA). Using our concentration results for these states, we show that for a random spin model, the QAOA can only succeed with negligible probability even at super-constant level p = o(log log n), assuming a strengthened version of the so-called overlap gap property. This gives the first limitations on the QAOA on dense instances at super-constant level, improving upon the recent result [Basso et al., 2022].

Cite as

Anurag Anshu and Tony Metger. Concentration Bounds for Quantum States and Limitations on the QAOA from Polynomial Approximations. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 5:1-5:8, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{anshu_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.5,
  author =	{Anshu, Anurag and Metger, Tony},
  title =	{{Concentration Bounds for Quantum States and Limitations on the QAOA from Polynomial Approximations}},
  booktitle =	{14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)},
  pages =	{5:1--5:8},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-263-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{251},
  editor =	{Tauman Kalai, Yael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175085},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: quantum computing, polynomial approximation, quantum optimization algorithm, QAOA, overlap gap property}
}
Document
Random Max-CSPs Inherit Algorithmic Hardness from Spin Glasses

Authors: Chris Jones, Kunal Marwaha, Juspreet Singh Sandhu, and Jonathan Shi

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)


Abstract
We study random constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) at large clause density. We relate the structure of near-optimal solutions for any Boolean Max-CSP to that for an associated spin glass on the hypercube, using the Guerra-Toninelli interpolation from statistical physics. The noise stability polynomial of the CSP’s predicate is, up to a constant, the mixture polynomial of the associated spin glass. We show two main consequences: 1) We prove that the maximum fraction of constraints that can be satisfied in a random Max-CSP at large clause density is determined by the ground state energy density of the corresponding spin glass. Since the latter value can be computed with the Parisi formula [Parisi, 1980; Talagrand, 2006; Auffinger and Chen, 2017], we provide numerical values for some popular CSPs. 2) We prove that a Max-CSP at large clause density possesses generalized versions of the overlap gap property if and only if the same holds for the corresponding spin glass. We transfer results from [Huang and Sellke, 2021] to obstruct algorithms with overlap concentration on a large class of Max-CSPs. This immediately includes local classical and local quantum algorithms [Chou et al., 2022].

Cite as

Chris Jones, Kunal Marwaha, Juspreet Singh Sandhu, and Jonathan Shi. Random Max-CSPs Inherit Algorithmic Hardness from Spin Glasses. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 77:1-77:26, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{jones_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.77,
  author =	{Jones, Chris and Marwaha, Kunal and Sandhu, Juspreet Singh and Shi, Jonathan},
  title =	{{Random Max-CSPs Inherit Algorithmic Hardness from Spin Glasses}},
  booktitle =	{14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)},
  pages =	{77:1--77:26},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-263-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{251},
  editor =	{Tauman Kalai, Yael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.77},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175804},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.77},
  annote =	{Keywords: spin glass, overlap gap property, constraint satisfaction problem, Guerra-Toninelli interpolation}
}
Document
The Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm at High Depth for MaxCut on Large-Girth Regular Graphs and the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick Model

Authors: Joao Basso, Edward Farhi, Kunal Marwaha, Benjamin Villalonga, and Leo Zhou

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 232, 17th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2022)


Abstract
The Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA) finds approximate solutions to combinatorial optimization problems. Its performance monotonically improves with its depth p. We apply the QAOA to MaxCut on large-girth D-regular graphs. We give an iterative formula to evaluate performance for any D at any depth p. Looking at random D-regular graphs, at optimal parameters and as D goes to infinity, we find that the p = 11 QAOA beats all classical algorithms (known to the authors) that are free of unproven conjectures. While the iterative formula for these D-regular graphs is derived by looking at a single tree subgraph, we prove that it also gives the ensemble-averaged performance of the QAOA on the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model defined on the complete graph. We also generalize our formula to Max-q-XORSAT on large-girth regular hypergraphs. Our iteration is a compact procedure, but its computational complexity grows as O(p² 4^p). This iteration is more efficient than the previous procedure for analyzing QAOA performance on the SK model, and we are able to numerically go to p = 20. Encouraged by our findings, we make the optimistic conjecture that the QAOA, as p goes to infinity, will achieve the Parisi value. We analyze the performance of the quantum algorithm, but one needs to run it on a quantum computer to produce a string with the guaranteed performance.

Cite as

Joao Basso, Edward Farhi, Kunal Marwaha, Benjamin Villalonga, and Leo Zhou. The Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm at High Depth for MaxCut on Large-Girth Regular Graphs and the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick Model. In 17th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 232, pp. 7:1-7:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{basso_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2022.7,
  author =	{Basso, Joao and Farhi, Edward and Marwaha, Kunal and Villalonga, Benjamin and Zhou, Leo},
  title =	{{The Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm at High Depth for MaxCut on Large-Girth Regular Graphs and the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick Model}},
  booktitle =	{17th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2022)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-237-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{232},
  editor =	{Le Gall, Fran\c{c}ois and Morimae, Tomoyuki},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2022.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165144},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2022.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: Quantum algorithm, Max-Cut, spin glass, approximation algorithm}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Limitations of Local Quantum Algorithms on Random MAX-k-XOR and Beyond

Authors: Chi-Ning Chou, Peter J. Love, Juspreet Singh Sandhu, and Jonathan Shi

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)


Abstract
We introduce a notion of generic local algorithm, which strictly generalizes existing frameworks of local algorithms such as factors of i.i.d. by capturing local quantum algorithms such as the Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA). Motivated by a question of Farhi et al. [arXiv:1910.08187, 2019], we then show limitations of generic local algorithms including QAOA on random instances of constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs). Specifically, we show that any generic local algorithm whose assignment to a vertex depends only on a local neighborhood with o(n) other vertices (such as the QAOA at depth less than εlog(n)) cannot arbitrarily-well approximate boolean CSPs if the problem satisfies a geometric property from statistical physics called the coupled overlap-gap property (OGP) [Chen et al., Annals of Probability, 47(3), 2019]. We show that the random MAX-k-XOR problem has this property when k ≥ 4 is even by extending the corresponding result for diluted k-spin glasses. Our concentration lemmas confirm a conjecture of Brandao et al. [arXiv:1812.04170, 2018] asserting that the landscape independence of QAOA extends to logarithmic depth - in other words, for every fixed choice of QAOA angle parameters, the algorithm at logarithmic depth performs almost equally well on almost all instances. One of these lemmas is a strengthening of McDiarmid’s inequality, applicable when the random variables have a highly biased distribution, and may be of independent interest.

Cite as

Chi-Ning Chou, Peter J. Love, Juspreet Singh Sandhu, and Jonathan Shi. Limitations of Local Quantum Algorithms on Random MAX-k-XOR and Beyond. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 41:1-41:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{chou_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.41,
  author =	{Chou, Chi-Ning and Love, Peter J. and Sandhu, Juspreet Singh and Shi, Jonathan},
  title =	{{Limitations of Local Quantum Algorithms on Random MAX-k-XOR and Beyond}},
  booktitle =	{49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)},
  pages =	{41:1--41:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-235-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{229},
  editor =	{Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.41},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163822},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.41},
  annote =	{Keywords: Quantum Algorithms, Spin Glasses, Hardness of Approximation, Local Algorithms, Concentration Inequalities, Overlap Gap Property}
}
Document
Track B: Automata, Logic, Semantics, and Theory of Programming
On Higher-Order Cryptography

Authors: Boaz Barak, Raphaëlle Crubillé, and Ugo Dal Lago

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)


Abstract
Type-two constructions abound in cryptography: adversaries for encryption and authentication schemes, if active, are modeled as algorithms having access to oracles, i.e. as second-order algorithms. But how about making cryptographic schemes themselves higher-order? This paper gives an answer to this question, by first describing why higher-order cryptography is interesting as an object of study, then showing how the concept of probabilistic polynomial time algorithm can be generalized so as to encompass algorithms of order strictly higher than two, and finally proving some positive and negative results about the existence of higher-order cryptographic primitives, namely authentication schemes and pseudorandom functions.

Cite as

Boaz Barak, Raphaëlle Crubillé, and Ugo Dal Lago. On Higher-Order Cryptography. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 108:1-108:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{barak_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.108,
  author =	{Barak, Boaz and Crubill\'{e}, Rapha\"{e}lle and Dal Lago, Ugo},
  title =	{{On Higher-Order Cryptography}},
  booktitle =	{47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)},
  pages =	{108:1--108:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-138-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{168},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.108},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125153},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.108},
  annote =	{Keywords: Higher-order computation, probabilistic computation, game semantics, cryptography}
}
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