3 Search Results for "Zikas, Vassilis"


Document
Universally Composable Almost-Everywhere Secure Computation

Authors: Nishanth Chandran, Pouyan Forghani, Juan Garay, Rafail Ostrovsky, Rutvik Patel, and Vassilis Zikas

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 230, 3rd Conference on Information-Theoretic Cryptography (ITC 2022)


Abstract
Most existing work on secure multi-party computation (MPC) ignores a key idiosyncrasy of modern communication networks, that there are a limited number of communication paths between any two nodes, many of which might even be corrupted. The problem becomes particularly acute in the information-theoretic setting, where the lack of trusted setups (and the cryptographic primitives they enable) makes communication over sparse networks more challenging. The work by Garay and Ostrovsky [EUROCRYPT'08] on almost-everywhere MPC (AE-MPC), introduced "best-possible security" properties for MPC over such incomplete networks, where necessarily some of the honest parties may be excluded from the computation. In this work, we provide a universally composable definition of almost-everywhere security, which allows us to automatically and accurately capture the guarantees of AE-MPC (as well as AE-communication, the analogous "best-possible security" version of secure communication) in the Universal Composability (UC) framework of Canetti. Our results offer the first simulation-based treatment of this important but under-investigated problem, along with the first simulation-based proof of AE-MPC. To achieve that goal, we state and prove a general composition theorem, which makes precise the level or "quality" of AE-security that is obtained when a protocol’s hybrids are replaced with almost-everywhere components.

Cite as

Nishanth Chandran, Pouyan Forghani, Juan Garay, Rafail Ostrovsky, Rutvik Patel, and Vassilis Zikas. Universally Composable Almost-Everywhere Secure Computation. In 3rd Conference on Information-Theoretic Cryptography (ITC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 230, pp. 14:1-14:25, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{chandran_et_al:LIPIcs.ITC.2022.14,
  author =	{Chandran, Nishanth and Forghani, Pouyan and Garay, Juan and Ostrovsky, Rafail and Patel, Rutvik and Zikas, Vassilis},
  title =	{{Universally Composable Almost-Everywhere Secure Computation}},
  booktitle =	{3rd Conference on Information-Theoretic Cryptography (ITC 2022)},
  pages =	{14:1--14:25},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-238-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{230},
  editor =	{Dachman-Soled, Dana},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITC.2022.14},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-164929},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITC.2022.14},
  annote =	{Keywords: Secure multi-party computation, universal composability, almost-everywhere secure computation, sparse graphs, secure message transmission}
}
Document
Round-Preserving Parallel Composition of Probabilistic-Termination Cryptographic Protocols

Authors: Ran Cohen, Sandro Coretti, Juan Garay, and Vassilis Zikas

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)


Abstract
An important benchmark for multi-party computation protocols (MPC) is their round complexity. For several important MPC tasks, (tight) lower bounds on the round complexity are known. However, for some of these tasks, such as broadcast, the lower bounds can be circumvented when the termination round of every party is not a priori known, and simultaneous termination is not guaranteed. Protocols with this property are called probabilistic-termination (PT) protocols. Running PT protocols in parallel affects the round complexity of the resulting protocol in somewhat unexpected ways. For instance, an execution of m protocols with constant expected round complexity might take O(log m) rounds to complete. In a seminal work, Ben-Or and El-Yaniv (Distributed Computing '03) developed a technique for parallel execution of arbitrarily many broadcast protocols, while preserving expected round complexity. More recently, Cohen et al. (CRYPTO '16) devised a framework for universal composition of PT protocols, and provided the first composable parallel-broadcast protocol with a simulation-based proof. These constructions crucially rely on the fact that broadcast is ``privacy free,'' and do not generalize to arbitrary protocols in a straightforward way. This raises the question of whether it is possible to execute arbitrary PT protocols in parallel, without increasing the round complexity. In this paper we tackle this question and provide both feasibility and infeasibility results. We construct a round-preserving protocol compiler, secure against a dishonest minority of actively corrupted parties, that compiles arbitrary protocols into a protocol realizing their parallel composition, while having a black-box access to the underlying protocols. Furthermore, we prove that the same cannot be achieved, using known techniques, given only black-box access to the functionalities realized by the protocols, unless merely security against semi-honest corruptions is required, for which case we provide a protocol.

Cite as

Ran Cohen, Sandro Coretti, Juan Garay, and Vassilis Zikas. Round-Preserving Parallel Composition of Probabilistic-Termination Cryptographic Protocols. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 37:1-37:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{cohen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.37,
  author =	{Cohen, Ran and Coretti, Sandro and Garay, Juan and Zikas, Vassilis},
  title =	{{Round-Preserving Parallel Composition of Probabilistic-Termination Cryptographic Protocols}},
  booktitle =	{44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)},
  pages =	{37:1--37:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-041-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{80},
  editor =	{Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.37},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-74124},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.37},
  annote =	{Keywords: Cryptographic protocols, secure multi-party computation, broadcast.}
}
Document
Provably Secure Virus Detection: Using The Observer Effect Against Malware

Authors: Richard J. Lipton, Rafail Ostrovsky, and Vassilis Zikas

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 55, 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)


Abstract
Protecting software from malware injection is one of the biggest challenges of modern computer science. Despite intensive efforts by the scientific and engineering community, the number of successful attacks continues to increase. This work sets first footsteps towards a provably secure investigation of malware detection. We provide a formal model and cryptographic security definitions of attestation for systems with dynamic memory, and suggest novel provably secure attestation schemes. The key idea underlying our schemes is to use the very insertion of the malware itself to allow for the systems to detect it. This is, in our opinion, close in spirit to the quantum Observer Effect. The attackers, no matter how clever, no matter when they insert their malware, change the state of the system they are attacking. This fundamental idea can be a game changer. And our system does not rely on heuristics; instead, our scheme enjoys the unique property that it is proved secure in a formal and precise mathematical sense and with minimal and realistic CPU modification achieves strong provable security guarantees. We envision such systems with a formal mathematical security treatment as a venue for new directions in software protection.

Cite as

Richard J. Lipton, Rafail Ostrovsky, and Vassilis Zikas. Provably Secure Virus Detection: Using The Observer Effect Against Malware. In 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 55, pp. 32:1-32:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{lipton_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.32,
  author =	{Lipton, Richard J. and Ostrovsky, Rafail and Zikas, Vassilis},
  title =	{{Provably Secure Virus Detection: Using The Observer Effect Against Malware}},
  booktitle =	{43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)},
  pages =	{32:1--32:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-013-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{55},
  editor =	{Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Mitzenmacher, Michael and Rabani, Yuval and Sangiorgi, Davide},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.32},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-63113},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.32},
  annote =	{Keywords: Cryptography, Software Attestation, Provable Security}
}
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