Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 311, 35th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2024)

The translation of Metric Interval Temporal Logic (MITL) to timed automata is a topic that has been extensively studied. A key challenge here is the conversion of future modalities into equivalent automata. Typical conversions equip the automata with a guess-and-check mechanism to ascertain the truth of future modalities. Guess-and-check can be naturally implemented via alternation. However, since timed automata tools do not handle alternation, existing methods perform an additional step of converting the alternating timed automata into timed automata. This "de-alternation" step proceeds by an intricate finite abstraction of the space of configurations of the alternating automaton.
Recently, a model of generalized timed automata (GTA) has been proposed. The model comes with several powerful additional features, and yet, the best known zone-based reachability algorithms for timed automata have been extended to the GTA model, with the same complexity for all the zone operations. An attractive feature of GTAs is the presence of future clocks which act like timers that guess a time to an event and stay alive until a timeout. Future clocks seem to provide another natural way to implement the guess-and-check: start the future clock with a guessed time to an event and check its occurrence using a timeout. Indeed, using this feature, we provide a new concise translation from MITL to GTA. In particular, for the timed until modality, our translation offers an exponential improvement w.r.t. the state-of-the-art.
Thanks to this conversion, MITL model checking reduces to checking liveness for GTAs. However, no liveness algorithm is known for GTAs. Due to the presence of future clocks, there is no finite time-abstract bisimulation (region equivalence) for GTAs, whereas liveness algorithms for timed automata crucially rely on the presence of the finite region equivalence. As our second contribution, we provide a new zone-based algorithm for checking Büchi non-emptiness in GTAs, which circumvents this fundamental challenge.

S. Akshay, Paul Gastin, R. Govind, and B. Srivathsan. MITL Model Checking via Generalized Timed Automata and a New Liveness Algorithm. In 35th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 311, pp. 5:1-5:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{akshay_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2024.5, author = {Akshay, S. and Gastin, Paul and Govind, R. and Srivathsan, B.}, title = {{MITL Model Checking via Generalized Timed Automata and a New Liveness Algorithm}}, booktitle = {35th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2024)}, pages = {5:1--5:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-339-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {311}, editor = {Majumdar, Rupak and Silva, Alexandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2024.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-207774}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2024.5}, annote = {Keywords: MITL model checking, timed automata, zones, liveness} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 311, 35th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2024)

Probabilistic systems are often modeled using factored versions of Markov decision processes (MDPs), where the states are composed out of the local states of components and each transition involves only a small subset of the components. Concurrency arises naturally in such systems. Our goal is to exploit concurrency when analyzing factored MDPs (FMDPs). To do so, we first formulate FMDPs in a way that aids this goal and port several notions from concurrency theory to the probabilistic setting of MDPs. In particular, we provide a concurrent semantics for FMDPs based on the classical notion of event structures, thereby cleanly separating causality, concurrency, and conflicts that arise from stochastic choices. We further identify the subclass of causally deterministic FMDPs (CMDPs), where non-determinism arises solely due to concurrency. Using our event structure semantics, we show that in CMDPs, local reachability properties can be computed using a "greedy" strategy. Finally, we implement our ideas in a prototype and apply it to four models, confirming the potential for substantial improvements over state-of-the-art methods.

S. Akshay, Tobias Meggendorfer, and P. S. Thiagarajan. Causally Deterministic Markov Decision Processes. In 35th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 311, pp. 6:1-6:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{akshay_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2024.6, author = {Akshay, S. and Meggendorfer, Tobias and Thiagarajan, P. S.}, title = {{Causally Deterministic Markov Decision Processes}}, booktitle = {35th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2024)}, pages = {6:1--6:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-339-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {311}, editor = {Majumdar, Rupak and Silva, Alexandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2024.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-207781}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2024.6}, annote = {Keywords: MDPs, distribution, causal determinism} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 243, 33rd International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2022)

Event-clock automata are a well-known subclass of timed automata which enjoy admirable theoretical properties, e.g., determinizability, and are practically useful to capture timed specifications. However, unlike for timed automata, there exist no implementations for event-clock automata. A main reason for this is the difficulty in adapting zone-based algorithms, critical in the timed automata setting, to the event-clock automata setting. This difficulty was studied in [Gilles Geeraerts et al., 2011; Gilles Geeraerts et al., 2014], where the authors also proposed a solution using zone extrapolations.
In this paper, we propose an alternative zone-based algorithm, using simulations for finiteness, to solve the reachability problem for event-clock automata. Our algorithm exploits the 𝒢-simulation framework, which is the coarsest known simulation relation for reachability, and has been recently used for advances in other extensions of timed automata.

S. Akshay, Paul Gastin, R. Govind, and B. Srivathsan. Simulations for Event-Clock Automata. In 33rd International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 243, pp. 13:1-13:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{akshay_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2022.13, author = {Akshay, S. and Gastin, Paul and Govind, R. and Srivathsan, B.}, title = {{Simulations for Event-Clock Automata}}, booktitle = {33rd International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2022)}, pages = {13:1--13:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-246-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {243}, editor = {Klin, Bartek and Lasota, S{\l}awomir and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2022.13}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-170766}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2022.13}, annote = {Keywords: Event-clock automata, verification, zones, simulations, reachability} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 241, 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)

Skolem functions play a central role in the study of first order logic, both from theoretical and practical perspectives. While every Skolemized formula in first-order logic makes use of Skolem constants and/or functions, not all such Skolem constants and/or functions admit effectively computable interpretations. Indeed, the question of whether there exists an effectively computable interpretation of a Skolem function, and if so, how to automatically synthesize it, is fundamental to their use in several applications, such as planning, strategy synthesis, program synthesis etc.
In this paper, we investigate the computability of Skolem functions and their automated synthesis in the full generality of first order logic. We first show a strong negative result, that even under mild assumptions on the vocabulary, it is impossible to obtain computable interpretations of Skolem functions. We then show a positive result, providing a precise characterization of first-order theories that admit effective interpretations of Skolem functions, and also present algorithms to automatically synthesize such interpretations. We discuss applications of our characterization as well as complexity bounds for Skolem functions (interpreted as Turing machines).

Supratik Chakraborty and S. Akshay. On Synthesizing Computable Skolem Functions for First Order Logic. In 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 241, pp. 30:1-30:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.30, author = {Chakraborty, Supratik and Akshay, S.}, title = {{On Synthesizing Computable Skolem Functions for First Order Logic}}, booktitle = {47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)}, pages = {30:1--30:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-256-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {241}, editor = {Szeider, Stefan and Ganian, Robert and Silva, Alexandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.30}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-168285}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.30}, annote = {Keywords: Skolem functions, Automated, Synthesis, First order logic, Computability} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 219, 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)

The Skolem problem is a long-standing open problem in linear dynamical systems: can a linear recurrence sequence (LRS) ever reach 0 from a given initial configuration? Similarly, the positivity problem asks whether the LRS stays positive from an initial configuration. Deciding Skolem (or positivity) has been open for half a century: The best known decidability results are for LRS with special properties (e.g., low order recurrences). On the other hand, these problems are much easier for "uninitialized" variants, where the initial configuration is not fixed but can vary arbitrarily: checking if there is an initial configuration from which the LRS stays positive can be decided by polynomial time algorithms (Tiwari in 2004, Braverman in 2006).
In this paper, we consider problems that lie between the initialized and uninitialized variant. More precisely, we ask if 0 (resp. negative numbers) can be avoided from every initial configuration in a neighborhood of a given initial configuration. This can be considered as a robust variant of the Skolem (resp. positivity) problem. We show that these problems lie at the frontier of decidability: if the neighborhood is given as part of the input, then robust Skolem and robust positivity are Diophantine-hard, i.e., solving either would entail major breakthrough in Diophantine approximations, as happens for (non-robust) positivity. Interestingly, this is the first Diophantine-hardness result on a variant of the Skolem problem, to the best of our knowledge. On the other hand, if one asks whether such a neighborhood exists, then the problems turn out to be decidable in their full generality, with PSPACE complexity. Our analysis is based on the set of initial configurations such that positivity holds, which leads to new insights into these difficult problems, and interesting geometrical interpretations.

S. Akshay, Hugo Bazille, Blaise Genest, and Mihir Vahanwala. On Robustness for the Skolem and Positivity Problems. In 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 219, pp. 5:1-5:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{akshay_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2022.5, author = {Akshay, S. and Bazille, Hugo and Genest, Blaise and Vahanwala, Mihir}, title = {{On Robustness for the Skolem and Positivity Problems}}, booktitle = {39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)}, pages = {5:1--5:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-222-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {219}, editor = {Berenbrink, Petra and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-158156}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.5}, annote = {Keywords: Skolem problem, verification, dynamical systems, robustness} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 213, 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)

This paper addresses reliability of timed systems in the setting of resilience, that considers the behaviors of a system when unspecified timing errors such as missed deadlines occur. Given a fault model that allows transitions to fire later than allowed by their guard, a system is universally resilient (or self-resilient) if after a fault, it always returns to a timed behavior of the non-faulty system. It is existentially resilient if after a fault, there exists a way to return to a timed behavior of the non-faulty system, that is, if there exists a controller which can guide the system back to a normal behavior. We show that universal resilience of timed automata is undecidable, while existential resilience is decidable, in EXPSPACE. To obtain better complexity bounds and decidability of universal resilience, we consider untimed resilience, as well as subclasses of timed automata.

S. Akshay, Blaise Genest, Loïc Hélouët, S. Krishna, and Sparsa Roychowdhury. Resilience of Timed Systems. In 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 213, pp. 33:1-33:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{akshay_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.33, author = {Akshay, S. and Genest, Blaise and H\'{e}lou\"{e}t, Lo\"{i}c and Krishna, S. and Roychowdhury, Sparsa}, title = {{Resilience of Timed Systems}}, booktitle = {41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)}, pages = {33:1--33:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-215-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {213}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Chekuri, Chandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.33}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-155442}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.33}, annote = {Keywords: Timed automata, Fault tolerance, Integer-resets, Resilience} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 154, 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)

Given a linear recurrence sequence (LRS), specified using the initial conditions and the recurrence relation, the Skolem problem asks if zero ever occurs in the infinite sequence generated by the LRS. Despite active research over last few decades, its decidability is known only for a few restricted subclasses, by either restricting the order of the LRS (upto 4) or by restricting the structure of the LRS (e.g., roots of its characteristic polynomial).
In this paper, we identify a subclass of LRS of arbitrary order for which the Skolem problem is easy, namely LRS all of whose characteristic roots are (possibly complex) roots of real algebraic numbers, i.e., roots satisfying x^d = r for r real algebraic. We show that for this subclass, the Skolem problem can be solved in NP^RP. As a byproduct, we implicitly obtain effective bounds on the zero set of the LRS for this subclass. While prior works in this area often exploit deep results from algebraic and transcendental number theory to get such effective results, our techniques are primarily algorithmic and use linear algebra and Galois theory. We also complement our upper bounds with a NP lower bound for the Skolem problem via a new direct reduction from 3-CNF-SAT, matching the best known lower bounds.

S. Akshay, Nikhil Balaji, Aniket Murhekar, Rohith Varma, and Nikhil Vyas. Near-Optimal Complexity Bounds for Fragments of the Skolem Problem. In 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 154, pp. 37:1-37:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{akshay_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2020.37, author = {Akshay, S. and Balaji, Nikhil and Murhekar, Aniket and Varma, Rohith and Vyas, Nikhil}, title = {{Near-Optimal Complexity Bounds for Fragments of the Skolem Problem}}, booktitle = {37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)}, pages = {37:1--37:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-140-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {154}, editor = {Paul, Christophe and Bl\"{a}ser, Markus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.37}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-118982}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.37}, annote = {Keywords: Linear Recurrences, Skolem problem, NP-completeness, Weighted automata} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 150, 39th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2019)

An important task in AI is one of classifying an observation as belonging to one class among several (e.g. image classification). We revisit this problem in a verification context: given k partially observable systems modeled as Hidden Markov Models (also called labeled Markov chains), and an execution of one of them, can we eventually classify which system performed this execution, just by looking at its observations? Interestingly, this problem generalizes several problems in verification and control, such as fault diagnosis and opacity. Also, classification has strong connections with different notions of distances between stochastic models.
In this paper, we study a general and practical notion of classifiers, namely limit-sure classifiers, which allow misclassification, i.e. errors in classification, as long as the probability of misclassification tends to 0 as the length of the observation grows. To study the complexity of several notions of classification, we develop techniques based on a simple but powerful notion of stationary distributions for HMMs. We prove that one cannot classify among HMMs iff there is a finite separating word from their stationary distributions. This provides a direct proof that classifiability can be checked in PTIME, as an alternative to existing proofs using separating events (i.e. sets of infinite separating words) for the total variation distance. Our approach also allows us to introduce and tackle new notions of classifiability which are applicable in a security context.

S. Akshay, Hugo Bazille, Eric Fabre, and Blaise Genest. Classification Among Hidden Markov Models. In 39th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 150, pp. 29:1-29:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{akshay_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2019.29, author = {Akshay, S. and Bazille, Hugo and Fabre, Eric and Genest, Blaise}, title = {{Classification Among Hidden Markov Models}}, booktitle = {39th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2019)}, pages = {29:1--29:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-131-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {150}, editor = {Chattopadhyay, Arkadev and Gastin, Paul}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2019.29}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-115917}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2019.29}, annote = {Keywords: verification: probabilistic systems, partially observable systems} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 85, 28th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2017)

The focus of this paper is the analysis of real-time systems with recursion, through the development of good theoretical techniques which are implementable. Time is modeled using clock variables, and recursion using stacks. Our technique consists of modeling the behaviours of the timed system as graphs, and interpreting these graphs on tree terms by showing a bound on their tree-width. We then build a tree automaton that accepts exactly those tree terms that describe realizable runs of the timed system. The emptiness of the timed system thus boils down to emptiness of a finite tree automaton that accepts these tree terms. This approach helps us in obtaining an optimal complexity, not just in theory (as done in earlier work e.g.[concur16]), but also in going towards an efficient implementation of our technique. To do this, we make several improvements in the theory and exploit these to build a first prototype tool that can analyze timed systems with recursion.

S. Akshay, Paul Gastin, Shankara Narayanan Krishna, and Ilias Sarkar. Towards an Efficient Tree Automata Based Technique for Timed Systems. In 28th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 85, pp. 39:1-39:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{akshay_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2017.39, author = {Akshay, S. and Gastin, Paul and Krishna, Shankara Narayanan and Sarkar, Ilias}, title = {{Towards an Efficient Tree Automata Based Technique for Timed Systems}}, booktitle = {28th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2017)}, pages = {39:1--39:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-048-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {85}, editor = {Meyer, Roland and Nestmann, Uwe}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2017.39}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-78017}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2017.39}, annote = {Keywords: Timed automata, tree automata, pushdown systems, tree-width} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 85, 28th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2017)

We investigate the decidability of termination, reachability, coverability and deadlock-freeness of Petri nets endowed with a hierarchy of places, and with inhibitor arcs, reset arcs and transfer arcs that respect this hierarchy. We also investigate what happens when we have a mix of these special arcs, some of which respect the hierarchy, while others do not. We settle the decidability status of the above four problems for all combinations of hierarchy, inhibitor, reset and transfer arcs, except the termination problem for two combinations. For both these combinations, we show that deciding termination is as hard as deciding the positivity problem on linear recurrence sequences -- a long-standing open problem.

S. Akshay, Supratik Chakraborty, Ankush Das, Vishal Jagannath, and Sai Sandeep. On Petri Nets with Hierarchical Special Arcs. In 28th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 85, pp. 40:1-40:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{akshay_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2017.40, author = {Akshay, S. and Chakraborty, Supratik and Das, Ankush and Jagannath, Vishal and Sandeep, Sai}, title = {{On Petri Nets with Hierarchical Special Arcs}}, booktitle = {28th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2017)}, pages = {40:1--40:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-048-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {85}, editor = {Meyer, Roland and Nestmann, Uwe}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2017.40}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-78026}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2017.40}, annote = {Keywords: Petri Nets, Hierarchy, Reachability, Coverability, Termination, Positivity} }

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Complete Volume

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 65, 36th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2016)

LIPICs, Volume 65, FSTTCS'16, Complete Volume

36th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 65, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@Proceedings{lal_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2016, title = {{LIPICs, Volume 65, FSTTCS'16, Complete Volume}}, booktitle = {36th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2016)}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-027-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {65}, editor = {Lal, Akash and Akshay, S. and Saurabh, Saket and Sen, Sandeep}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2016}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-69074}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2016}, annote = {Keywords: Software/Program Verification, Models of Computation, Modes of Computation, Complexity Measures and Classes, Nonnumerical Algorithms and Problems Specifying and Verifying and Reasoning about Programs, Mathematical Logic, Formal Languages} }

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Front Matter

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 65, 36th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2016)

Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization, External Reviewers

36th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 65, pp. 0:i-0:xiv, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{lal_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2016.0, author = {Lal, Akash and Akshay, S. and Saurabh, Saket and Sen, Sandeep}, title = {{Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization, External Reviewers}}, booktitle = {36th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2016)}, pages = {0:i--0:xiv}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-027-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {65}, editor = {Lal, Akash and Akshay, S. and Saurabh, Saket and Sen, Sandeep}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2016.0}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-68412}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2016.0}, annote = {Keywords: Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization, External Reviewers} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 59, 27th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2016)

Timed systems, such as timed automata, are usually analyzed using their operational semantics on timed words. The classical region abstraction for timed automata reduces them to (untimed) finite state automata with the same time-abstract properties, such as state reachability. We propose a new technique to analyze such timed systems using finite tree automata instead of finite word automata. The main idea is to consider timed behaviors as graphs with matching edges capturing timing constraints. Such graphs can be interpreted in trees opening the way to tree automata based techniques which are more powerful than analysis based on word automata. The technique is quite general and applies to many timed systems. In this paper, as an example, we develop the technique on timed pushdown systems, which have recently received considerable attention. Further, we also demonstrate how we can use it on timed automata and timed multi-stack pushdown systems (with boundedness restrictions).

S. Akshay, Paul Gastin, and Shankara Narayanan Krishna. Analyzing Timed Systems Using Tree Automata. In 27th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 59, pp. 27:1-27:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{akshay_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2016.27, author = {Akshay, S. and Gastin, Paul and Krishna, Shankara Narayanan}, title = {{Analyzing Timed Systems Using Tree Automata}}, booktitle = {27th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2016)}, pages = {27:1--27:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-017-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {59}, editor = {Desharnais, Jos\'{e}e and Jagadeesan, Radha}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2016.27}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-61775}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2016.27}, annote = {Keywords: Timed automata, tree automata, pushdown systems, tree-width} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 58, 41st International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2016)

Stochastic timed games (STGs), introduced by Bouyer and Forejt, naturally generalize both continuous-time Markov chains and timed automata by providing a partition of the locations between those controlled by two players (Player Box and Player Diamond) with competing objectives and those governed by stochastic laws. Depending on the number of players - 2, 1, or 0 - subclasses of stochastic timed games are often classified as 2 1/2-player, 1 1/2-player, and 1/2-player games where the 1/2 symbolizes the presence of the stochastic "nature" player. For STGs with reachability objectives it is known that 1 1/2-player one-clock STGs are decidable for qualitative objectives, and that 2 1/2-player three-clock STGs are undecidable for quantitative reachability objectives. This paper further refines the gap in this decidability spectrum. We show that quantitative reachability objectives are already undecidable for 1 1/2 player four-clock STGs, and even under the time-bounded restriction for 2 1/2-player five-clock STGs. We also obtain a class of 1 1/2, 2 1/2 player STGs for which the quantitative reachability problem is decidable.

S. Akshay, Patricia Bouyer, Shankara Narayanan Krishna, Lakshmi Manasa, and Ashutosh Trivedi. Stochastic Timed Games Revisited. In 41st International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 58, pp. 8:1-8:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{akshay_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2016.8, author = {Akshay, S. and Bouyer, Patricia and Krishna, Shankara Narayanan and Manasa, Lakshmi and Trivedi, Ashutosh}, title = {{Stochastic Timed Games Revisited}}, booktitle = {41st International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2016)}, pages = {8:1--8:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-016-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {58}, editor = {Faliszewski, Piotr and Muscholl, Anca and Niedermeier, Rolf}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2016.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-64985}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2016.8}, annote = {Keywords: timed automata, stochastic games, two-counter machines} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 47, 33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016)

The quantitative verification of Probabilistic Automata (PA) is undecidable in general. Unary PA are a simpler model where the choice of action is fixed. Still, the quantitative verification problem is open and known to be as hard as Skolem's problem, a problem on linear recurrence sequences, whose decidability is open for at least 40 years. In this paper, we approach this problem by studying the languages generated by unary PAs (as defined below), whose regularity would entail the decidability of quantitative verification.
Given an initial distribution, we represent the trajectory of a unary PA over time as an infinite word over a finite alphabet, where the n-th letter represents a probability range after n steps. We extend this to a language of trajectories (a set of words), one trajectory for each initial distribution from a (possibly infinite) set. We show that if the eigenvalues of the transition matrix associated with the unary PA are all distinct positive real numbers, then the language is effectively regular. Further, we show that this result is at the boundary of regularity, as non-regular languages can be generated when the restrictions are even slightly relaxed. The regular representation of the language allows us to reason about more general properties, e.g., robustness of a regular property in a neighbourhood around a given distribution.

S. Akshay, Blaise Genest, Bruno Karelovic, and Nikhil Vyas. On Regularity of Unary Probabilistic Automata. In 33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 47, pp. 8:1-8:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{akshay_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2016.8, author = {Akshay, S. and Genest, Blaise and Karelovic, Bruno and Vyas, Nikhil}, title = {{On Regularity of Unary Probabilistic Automata}}, booktitle = {33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016)}, pages = {8:1--8:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-001-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {47}, editor = {Ollinger, Nicolas and Vollmer, Heribert}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2016.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-57093}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2016.8}, annote = {Keywords: Probabilistic automata, Symbolic dynamics, Markov chains, Skolem problem, Regularity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 24, IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2013)

Zielonka's theorem, established 25 years ago, states that any regular
language closed under commutation is the language of an asynchronous
automaton (a tuple of automata, one per process, exchanging information when performing common actions). Since then, constructing asynchronous automata has been simplified and improved ([Cori/Métivier/Zielonka,1993],[Klarlund/Mukund/Sohoni,1994], [Diekert/Rozenberg,1995], [Genest/Muscholl,2006], [Genest/Gimbert/Muscholl/Walukiewicz,2010], [Baudru/Morin, 2006], [Baudru,2009], [Pighizzini,1993], [Stefanescu/Esparza/Muscholl,2003]).
We first survey these constructions and conclude that the synthesized
systems are not realistic in the following sense: existing constructions are either plagued by deadends, non deterministic guesses, or the acceptance condition or choice of actions are not distributed. We tackle this problem by giving (effectively testable) necessary and sufficient conditions which ensure that deadends can be avoided, acceptance condition and choices of action can be distributed, and determinism can be maintained. Finally, we implement our constructions, giving promising results when compared with the few other existing prototypes synthesizing asynchronous automata.

S. Akshay, Ionut Dinca, Blaise Genest, and Alin Stefanescu. Implementing Realistic Asynchronous Automata. In IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2013). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 24, pp. 213-224, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2013)

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@InProceedings{akshay_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2013.213, author = {Akshay, S. and Dinca, Ionut and Genest, Blaise and Stefanescu, Alin}, title = {{Implementing Realistic Asynchronous Automata}}, booktitle = {IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2013)}, pages = {213--224}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-64-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2013}, volume = {24}, editor = {Seth, Anil and Vishnoi, Nisheeth K.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2013.213}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-43742}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2013.213}, annote = {Keywords: Asynchronous automata, Zielonka construction, Implementability} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 8, IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2010)

We consider the problem of model checking message-passing systems with real-time requirements. As behavioural specifications, we use message sequence charts (MSCs) annotated with timing constraints. Our system model is a network of communicating finite state machines with local clocks, whose global behaviour can be regarded as a timed automaton. Our goal is to verify that all timed behaviours exhibited by the system conform to the timing constraints imposed by the specification. In general, this corresponds to checking inclusion for timed languages, which is an undecidable problem even for timed regular languages. However, we show that we can translate regular collections of time-constrained MSCs into a special class of event-clock automata that can be determinized and complemented, thus permitting an algorithmic solution to the model checking problem.

S. Akshay, Paul Gastin, Madhavan Mukund, and K. Narayan Kumar. Model checking time-constrained scenario-based specifications. In IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2010). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 8, pp. 204-215, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2010)

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@InProceedings{akshay_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2010.204, author = {Akshay, S. and Gastin, Paul and Mukund, Madhavan and Narayan Kumar, K.}, title = {{Model checking time-constrained scenario-based specifications}}, booktitle = {IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2010)}, pages = {204--215}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-23-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2010}, volume = {8}, editor = {Lodaya, Kamal and Mahajan, Meena}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2010.204}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-28649}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2010.204}, annote = {Keywords: model-checking, message-passing system, time-constrained MSC} }

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