Document

APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 317, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024)

We study the Maximum Independent Set (MIS) problem on general graphs within the framework of learning-augmented algorithms. The MIS problem is known to be NP-hard and is also NP-hard to approximate to within a factor of n^(1-δ) for any δ > 0. We show that we can break this barrier in the presence of an oracle obtained through predictions from a machine learning model that answers vertex membership queries for a fixed MIS with probability 1/2+ε. In the first setting we consider, the oracle can be queried once per vertex to know if a vertex belongs to a fixed MIS, and the oracle returns the correct answer with probability 1/2 + ε. Under this setting, we show an algorithm that obtains an Õ((√Δ)/ε)-approximation in O(m) time where Δ is the maximum degree of the graph. In the second setting, we allow multiple queries to the oracle for a vertex, each of which is correct with probability 1/2 + ε. For this setting, we show an O(1)-approximation algorithm using O(n/ε²) total queries and Õ(m) runtime.

Vladimir Braverman, Prathamesh Dharangutte, Vihan Shah, and Chen Wang. Learning-Augmented Maximum Independent Set. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 317, pp. 24:1-24:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{braverman_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.24, author = {Braverman, Vladimir and Dharangutte, Prathamesh and Shah, Vihan and Wang, Chen}, title = {{Learning-Augmented Maximum Independent Set}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024)}, pages = {24:1--24:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-348-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {317}, editor = {Kumar, Amit and Ron-Zewi, Noga}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-210179}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.24}, annote = {Keywords: Learning-augmented algorithms, maximum independent set, graph algorithms} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 275, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)

We study how to release summary statistics on a data stream subject to the constraint of differential privacy. In particular, we focus on releasing the family of symmetric norms, which are invariant under sign-flips and coordinate-wise permutations on an input data stream and include L_p norms, k-support norms, top-k norms, and the box norm as special cases. Although it may be possible to design and analyze a separate mechanism for each symmetric norm, we propose a general parametrizable framework that differentially privately releases a number of sufficient statistics from which the approximation of all symmetric norms can be simultaneously computed. Our framework partitions the coordinates of the underlying frequency vector into different levels based on their magnitude and releases approximate frequencies for the "heavy" coordinates in important levels and releases approximate level sizes for the "light" coordinates in important levels. Surprisingly, our mechanism allows for the release of an arbitrary number of symmetric norm approximations without any overhead or additional loss in privacy. Moreover, our mechanism permits (1+α)-approximation to each of the symmetric norms and can be implemented using sublinear space in the streaming model for many regimes of the accuracy and privacy parameters.

Vladimir Braverman, Joel Manning, Zhiwei Steven Wu, and Samson Zhou. Private Data Stream Analysis for Universal Symmetric Norm Estimation. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 275, pp. 45:1-45:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{braverman_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.45, author = {Braverman, Vladimir and Manning, Joel and Wu, Zhiwei Steven and Zhou, Samson}, title = {{Private Data Stream Analysis for Universal Symmetric Norm Estimation}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)}, pages = {45:1--45:24}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-296-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {275}, editor = {Megow, Nicole and Smith, Adam}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.45}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-188701}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.45}, annote = {Keywords: Differential privacy, norm estimation} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

Many streaming algorithms provide only a high-probability relative approximation. These two relaxations, of allowing approximation and randomization, seem necessary - for many streaming problems, both relaxations must be employed simultaneously, to avoid an exponentially larger (and often trivial) space complexity. A common drawback of these randomized approximate algorithms is that independent executions on the same input have different outputs, that depend on their random coins. Pseudo-deterministic algorithms combat this issue, and for every input, they output with high probability the same "canonical" solution.
We consider perhaps the most basic problem in data streams, of counting the number of items in a stream of length at most n. Morris’s counter [CACM, 1978] is a randomized approximation algorithm for this problem that uses O(log log n) bits of space, for every fixed approximation factor (greater than 1). Goldwasser, Grossman, Mohanty and Woodruff [ITCS 2020] asked whether pseudo-deterministic approximation algorithms can match this space complexity. Our main result answers their question negatively, and shows that such algorithms must use Ω(√{log n / log log n}) bits of space.
Our approach is based on a problem that we call Shift Finding, and may be of independent interest. In this problem, one has query access to a shifted version of a known string F ∈ {0,1}^{3n}, which is guaranteed to start with n zeros and end with n ones, and the goal is to find the unknown shift using a small number of queries. We provide for this problem an algorithm that uses O(√n) queries. It remains open whether poly(log n) queries suffice; if true, then our techniques immediately imply a nearly-tight Ω(log n/log log n) space bound for pseudo-deterministic approximate counting.

Vladimir Braverman, Robert Krauthgamer, Aditya Krishnan, and Shay Sapir. Lower Bounds for Pseudo-Deterministic Counting in a Stream. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 30:1-30:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{braverman_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.30, author = {Braverman, Vladimir and Krauthgamer, Robert and Krishnan, Aditya and Sapir, Shay}, title = {{Lower Bounds for Pseudo-Deterministic Counting in a Stream}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {30:1--30:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.30}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180827}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.30}, annote = {Keywords: streaming algorithms, pseudo-deterministic, approximate counting} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 145, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)

In the time-decay model for data streams, elements of an underlying data set arrive sequentially with the recently arrived elements being more important. A common approach for handling large data sets is to maintain a coreset, a succinct summary of the processed data that allows approximate recovery of a predetermined query. We provide a general framework that takes any offline-coreset and gives a time-decay coreset for polynomial time decay functions.
We also consider the exponential time decay model for k-median clustering, where we provide a constant factor approximation algorithm that utilizes the online facility location algorithm. Our algorithm stores O(k log(h Delta)+h) points where h is the half-life of the decay function and Delta is the aspect ratio of the dataset. Our techniques extend to k-means clustering and M-estimators as well.

Vladimir Braverman, Harry Lang, Enayat Ullah, and Samson Zhou. Improved Algorithms for Time Decay Streams. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 145, pp. 27:1-27:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{braverman_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.27, author = {Braverman, Vladimir and Lang, Harry and Ullah, Enayat and Zhou, Samson}, title = {{Improved Algorithms for Time Decay Streams}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)}, pages = {27:1--27:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-125-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {145}, editor = {Achlioptas, Dimitris and V\'{e}gh, L\'{a}szl\'{o} A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.27}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112429}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.27}, annote = {Keywords: Streaming algorithms, approximation algorithms, facility location and clustering} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 145, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)

We introduce a new method of maintaining a (k,epsilon)-coreset for clustering M-estimators over insertion-only streams. Let (P,w) be a weighted set (where w : P - > [0,infty) is the weight function) of points in a rho-metric space (meaning a set X equipped with a positive-semidefinite symmetric function D such that D(x,z) <=rho(D(x,y) + D(y,z)) for all x,y,z in X). For any set of points C, we define COST(P,w,C) = sum_{p in P} w(p) min_{c in C} D(p,c). A (k,epsilon)-coreset for (P,w) is a weighted set (Q,v) such that for every set C of k points, (1-epsilon)COST(P,w,C) <= COST(Q,v,C) <= (1+epsilon)COST(P,w,C). Essentially, the coreset (Q,v) can be used in place of (P,w) for all operations concerning the COST function. Coresets, as a method of data reduction, are used to solve fundamental problems in machine learning of streaming and distributed data.
M-estimators are functions D(x,y) that can be written as psi(d(x,y)) where ({X}, d) is a true metric (i.e. 1-metric) space. Special cases of M-estimators include the well-known k-median (psi(x) =x) and k-means (psi(x) = x^2) functions. Our technique takes an existing offline construction for an M-estimator coreset and converts it into the streaming setting, where n data points arrive sequentially. To our knowledge, this is the first streaming construction for any M-estimator that does not rely on the merge-and-reduce tree. For example, our coreset for streaming metric k-means uses O(epsilon^{-2} k log k log n) points of storage. The previous state-of-the-art required storing at least O(epsilon^{-2} k log k log^{4} n) points.

Vladimir Braverman, Dan Feldman, Harry Lang, and Daniela Rus. Streaming Coreset Constructions for M-Estimators. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 145, pp. 62:1-62:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{braverman_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.62, author = {Braverman, Vladimir and Feldman, Dan and Lang, Harry and Rus, Daniela}, title = {{Streaming Coreset Constructions for M-Estimators}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)}, pages = {62:1--62:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-125-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {145}, editor = {Achlioptas, Dimitris and V\'{e}gh, L\'{a}szl\'{o} A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.62}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112778}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.62}, annote = {Keywords: Streaming, Clustering, Coresets} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 129, 35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019)

We resolve the randomized one-way communication complexity of Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) distance. We show that there is an efficient one-way communication protocol using O~(n/alpha) bits for the problem of computing an alpha-approximation for DTW between strings x and y of length n, and we prove a lower bound of Omega(n / alpha) bits for the same problem. Our communication protocol works for strings over an arbitrary metric of polynomial size and aspect ratio, and we optimize the logarithmic factors depending on properties of the underlying metric, such as when the points are low-dimensional integer vectors equipped with various metrics or have bounded doubling dimension. We also consider linear sketches of DTW, showing that such sketches must have size Omega(n).

Vladimir Braverman, Moses Charikar, William Kuszmaul, David P. Woodruff, and Lin F. Yang. The One-Way Communication Complexity of Dynamic Time Warping Distance. In 35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 129, pp. 16:1-16:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{braverman_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.16, author = {Braverman, Vladimir and Charikar, Moses and Kuszmaul, William and Woodruff, David P. and Yang, Lin F.}, title = {{The One-Way Communication Complexity of Dynamic Time Warping Distance}}, booktitle = {35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019)}, pages = {16:1--16:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-104-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {129}, editor = {Barequet, Gill and Wang, Yusu}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.16}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-104203}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.16}, annote = {Keywords: dynamic time warping, one-way communication complexity, tree metrics} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 116, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018)

We study the distinct elements and l_p-heavy hitters problems in the sliding window model, where only the most recent n elements in the data stream form the underlying set. We first introduce the composable histogram, a simple twist on the exponential (Datar et al., SODA 2002) and smooth histograms (Braverman and Ostrovsky, FOCS 2007) that may be of independent interest. We then show that the composable histogram{} along with a careful combination of existing techniques to track either the identity or frequency of a few specific items suffices to obtain algorithms for both distinct elements and l_p-heavy hitters that are nearly optimal in both n and epsilon.
Applying our new composable histogram framework, we provide an algorithm that outputs a (1+epsilon)-approximation to the number of distinct elements in the sliding window model and uses O{1/(epsilon^2) log n log (1/epsilon)log log n+ (1/epsilon) log^2 n} bits of space. For l_p-heavy hitters, we provide an algorithm using space O{(1/epsilon^p) log^2 n (log^2 log n+log 1/epsilon)} for 0<p <=2, improving upon the best-known algorithm for l_2-heavy hitters (Braverman et al., COCOON 2014), which has space complexity O{1/epsilon^4 log^3 n}. We also show complementing nearly optimal lower bounds of Omega ((1/epsilon) log^2 n+(1/epsilon^2) log n) for distinct elements and Omega ((1/epsilon^p) log^2 n) for l_p-heavy hitters, both tight up to O{log log n} and O{log 1/epsilon} factors.

Vladimir Braverman, Elena Grigorescu, Harry Lang, David P. Woodruff, and Samson Zhou. Nearly Optimal Distinct Elements and Heavy Hitters on Sliding Windows. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 116, pp. 7:1-7:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{braverman_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.7, author = {Braverman, Vladimir and Grigorescu, Elena and Lang, Harry and Woodruff, David P. and Zhou, Samson}, title = {{Nearly Optimal Distinct Elements and Heavy Hitters on Sliding Windows}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018)}, pages = {7:1--7:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-085-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {116}, editor = {Blais, Eric and Jansen, Klaus and D. P. Rolim, Jos\'{e} and Steurer, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-94118}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.7}, annote = {Keywords: Streaming algorithms, sliding windows, heavy hitters, distinct elements} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)

Given a finite set of points P subseteq R^d, we would like to find a small subset S subseteq P such that the convex hull of S approximately contains P. More formally, every point in P is within distance epsilon from the convex hull of S. Such a subset S is called an epsilon-hull. Computing an epsilon-hull is an important problem in computational geometry, machine learning, and approximation algorithms.
In many applications, the set P is too large to fit in memory. We consider the streaming model where the algorithm receives the points of P sequentially and strives to use a minimal amount of memory. Existing streaming algorithms for computing an epsilon-hull require O(epsilon^{(1-d)/2}) space, which is optimal for a worst-case input. However, this ignores the structure of the data. The minimal size of an epsilon-hull of P, which we denote by OPT, can be much smaller. A natural question is whether a streaming algorithm can compute an epsilon-hull using only O(OPT) space.
We begin with lower bounds that show, under a reasonable streaming model, that it is not possible to have a single-pass streaming algorithm that computes an epsilon-hull with O(OPT) space. We instead propose three relaxations of the problem for which we can compute epsilon-hulls using space near-linear to the optimal size. Our first algorithm for points in R^2 that arrive in random-order uses O(log n * OPT) space. Our second algorithm for points in R^2 makes O(log(epsilon^{-1})) passes before outputting the epsilon-hull and requires O(OPT) space. Our third algorithm, for points in R^d for any fixed dimension d, outputs, with high probability, an epsilon-hull for all but delta-fraction of directions and requires O(OPT * log OPT) space.

Avrim Blum, Vladimir Braverman, Ananya Kumar, Harry Lang, and Lin F. Yang. Approximate Convex Hull of Data Streams. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 21:1-21:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{blum_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.21, author = {Blum, Avrim and Braverman, Vladimir and Kumar, Ananya and Lang, Harry and Yang, Lin F.}, title = {{Approximate Convex Hull of Data Streams}}, booktitle = {45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)}, pages = {21:1--21:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-076-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {107}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.21}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-90254}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.21}, annote = {Keywords: Convex Hulls, Streaming Algorithms, Epsilon Kernels, Sparse Coding} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)

We revisit one of the classic problems in the data stream literature, namely, that of estimating the frequency moments F_p for 0 < p < 2 of an underlying n-dimensional vector presented as a sequence of additive updates in a stream. It is well-known that using p-stable distributions one can approximate any of these moments up to a multiplicative (1+epsilon)-factor using O(epsilon^{-2} log n) bits of space, and this space bound is optimal up to a constant factor in the turnstile streaming model. We show that surprisingly, if one instead considers the popular random-order model of insertion-only streams, in which the updates to the underlying vector arrive in a random order, then one can beat this space bound and achieve O~(epsilon^{-2} + log n) bits of space, where the O~ hides poly(log(1/epsilon) + log log n) factors. If epsilon^{-2} ~~ log n, this represents a roughly quadratic improvement in the space achievable in turnstile streams. Our algorithm is in fact deterministic, and we show our space bound is optimal up to poly(log(1/epsilon) + log log n) factors for deterministic algorithms in the random order model. We also obtain a similar improvement in space for p = 2 whenever F_2 >~ log n * F_1.

Vladimir Braverman, Emanuele Viola, David P. Woodruff, and Lin F. Yang. Revisiting Frequency Moment Estimation in Random Order Streams. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 25:1-25:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{braverman_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.25, author = {Braverman, Vladimir and Viola, Emanuele and Woodruff, David P. and Yang, Lin F.}, title = {{Revisiting Frequency Moment Estimation in Random Order Streams}}, booktitle = {45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)}, pages = {25:1--25:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-076-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {107}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.25}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-90294}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.25}, annote = {Keywords: Data Stream, Frequency Moments, Random Order, Space Complexity, Insertion Only Stream} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 60, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)

An important challenge in the streaming model is to maintain small-space approximations of entrywise functions performed on a matrix that is generated by the outer product of two vectors given as a stream. In other works, streams typically define matrices in a standard way via a sequence of updates, as in the
work of Woodruff [22] and others. We describe the matrix formed by the outer product, and other matrices that do not fall into this category, as implicit matrices. As such, we consider the general problem of computing over such implicit matrices with Hadamard functions, which are functions applied entrywise on a matrix. In this paper, we apply this generalization to provide new techniques for identifying independence between two data streams. The previous state of the art algorithm of Braverman and Ostrovsky [9] gave a (1 +- epsilon)-approximation for the L_1 distance between the joint and product of the marginal distributions, using space O(log^{1024}(nm) epsilon^{-1024}), where m is the length of the stream and n denotes the size of the universe from which stream elements are drawn. Our general techniques include the L_1 distance as a special case, and we give an improved space bound of O(log^{12}(n) log^{2}({nm}/epsilon) epsilon^{-7}).

Vladimir Braverman, Alan Roytman, and Gregory Vorsanger. Approximating Subadditive Hadamard Functions on Implicit Matrices. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 60, pp. 25:1-25:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{braverman_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.25, author = {Braverman, Vladimir and Roytman, Alan and Vorsanger, Gregory}, title = {{Approximating Subadditive Hadamard Functions on Implicit Matrices}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)}, pages = {25:1--25:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-018-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {60}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Mathieu, Claire and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Umans, Chris}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.25}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-66483}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.25}, annote = {Keywords: Streaming Algorithms, Measuring Independence, Hadamard Functions, Implicit Matrices} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 45, 35th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2015)

In PODS 2003, Babcock, Datar, Motwani and O'Callaghan gave the first streaming solution for the k-median problem on sliding windows using
O(frack k tau^4 W^2tau log^2 W) space, with a O(2^O(1/tau)) approximation factor, where W is the window size and tau in (0,1/2) is a user-specified parameter. They left as an open question whether it is possible to improve this to polylogarithmic space. Despite much progress on clustering and sliding windows, this question has remained open for more than a decade.
In this paper, we partially answer the main open question posed by Babcock, Datar, Motwani and O'Callaghan. We present an algorithm yielding an exponential improvement in space compared to the previous result given in Babcock, et al. In particular, we give the first polylogarithmic space (alpha,beta)-approximation for metric k-median clustering in the sliding window model, where alpha and beta are constants, under the assumption, also made by Babcock et al., that the optimal k-median cost on any given window is bounded by a polynomial in the window size. We justify this assumption by showing that when the cost is exponential in the window size, no sublinear space approximation is possible. Our main technical contribution is a simple but elegant extension of smooth functions as introduced by Braverman and Ostrovsky, which allows us to apply well-known techniques for solving problems in the sliding window model
to functions that are not smooth, such as the k-median cost.

Vladimir Braverman, Harry Lang, Keith Levin, and Morteza Monemizadeh. Clustering on Sliding Windows in Polylogarithmic Space. In 35th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 45, pp. 350-364, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{braverman_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2015.350, author = {Braverman, Vladimir and Lang, Harry and Levin, Keith and Monemizadeh, Morteza}, title = {{Clustering on Sliding Windows in Polylogarithmic Space}}, booktitle = {35th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2015)}, pages = {350--364}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-97-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {45}, editor = {Harsha, Prahladh and Ramalingam, G.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2015.350}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-56549}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2015.350}, annote = {Keywords: Streaming, Clustering, Sliding windows} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 40, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015)

Given a stream of data, a typical approach in streaming algorithms is to design a sophisticated algorithm with small memory that computes a specific statistic over the streaming data. Usually, if one wants to compute a different statistic after the stream is gone, it is impossible. But what if we want to compute a different statistic after the fact? In this paper, we consider the following fascinating possibility: can we collect some small amount of specific data during the stream that is "universal," i.e., where we do not know anything about the statistics we will want to later compute, other than the guarantee that had we known the statistic ahead of time, it would have been possible to do so with small memory? This is indeed what we introduce (and show) in this paper with matching upper and lower bounds: we show that it is possible to collect universal statistics of polylogarithmic size, and prove that these universal statistics allow us after the fact to compute all other statistics that are computable with similar amounts of memory. We show that this is indeed possible, both for the standard unbounded streaming model and the sliding window streaming model.

Vladimir Braverman, Rafail Ostrovsky, and Alan Roytman. Zero-One Laws for Sliding Windows and Universal Sketches. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 40, pp. 573-590, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{braverman_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.573, author = {Braverman, Vladimir and Ostrovsky, Rafail and Roytman, Alan}, title = {{Zero-One Laws for Sliding Windows and Universal Sketches}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015)}, pages = {573--590}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-89-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {40}, editor = {Garg, Naveen and Jansen, Klaus and Rao, Anup and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.573}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-53248}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.573}, annote = {Keywords: Streaming Algorithms, Universality, Sliding Windows} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 40, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015)

Given a stream with frequency vector f in n dimensions, we characterize the space necessary for approximating the frequency negative moments Fp, where p<0, in terms of n, the accuracy, and the L_1 length of the vector f. To accomplish this, we actually prove a much more general result. Given any nonnegative and nonincreasing function g, we characterize the space necessary for any streaming algorithm that outputs a (1 +/- eps)-approximation to the sum of the coordinates of the vector f transformed by g. The storage required is expressed in the form of the solution to a relatively simple nonlinear optimization problem, and the algorithm is universal for (1 +/- eps)-approximations to any such sum where the applied function is nonnegative, nonincreasing, and has the same or smaller space complexity as g. This partially answers an open question of Nelson (IITK Workshop Kanpur, 2009).

Vladimir Braverman and Stephen R. Chestnut. Universal Sketches for the Frequency Negative Moments and Other Decreasing Streaming Sums. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 40, pp. 591-605, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{braverman_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.591, author = {Braverman, Vladimir and Chestnut, Stephen R.}, title = {{Universal Sketches for the Frequency Negative Moments and Other Decreasing Streaming Sums}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015)}, pages = {591--605}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-89-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {40}, editor = {Garg, Naveen and Jansen, Klaus and Rao, Anup and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.591}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-53250}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.591}, annote = {Keywords: data streams, frequency moments, negative moments} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 28, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2014)

In this paper, we provide the first optimal algorithm for the remaining open question from the seminal paper of Alon, Matias, and Szegedy: approximating large frequency moments. We give an upper bound on the space required to find a k-th frequency moment of O(n^(1-2/k)) bits that matches, up to a constant factor, the lower bound of Woodruff et. al for constant epsilon and constant k.
Our algorithm makes a single pass over the stream and works for any constant k > 3. It is based upon two major technical accomplishments: first, we provide an optimal algorithm for finding the heavy elements in a stream; and second, we provide a technique using Martingale Sketches which gives an optimal reduction of the large frequency moment problem to the all heavy elements problem. We also provide a polylogarithmic improvement for frequency moments, frequency based functions, spatial data streams, and measuring independence of data sets.

Vladimir Braverman, Jonathan Katzman, Charles Seidell, and Gregory Vorsanger. An Optimal Algorithm for Large Frequency Moments Using O(n^(1-2/k)) Bits. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2014). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 28, pp. 531-544, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)

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@InProceedings{braverman_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2014.531, author = {Braverman, Vladimir and Katzman, Jonathan and Seidell, Charles and Vorsanger, Gregory}, title = {{An Optimal Algorithm for Large Frequency Moments Using O(n^(1-2/k)) Bits}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2014)}, pages = {531--544}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-74-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2014}, volume = {28}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Rolim, Jos\'{e} and Devanur, Nikhil R. and Moore, Cristopher}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2014.531}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-47217}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2014.531}, annote = {Keywords: Streaming Algorithms, Randomized Algorithms, Frequency Moments, Heavy Hitters} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 5, 27th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (2010)

In their seminal work, Alon, Matias, and Szegedy introduced several sketching techniques, including showing that $4$-wise independence is sufficient to obtain good approximations of the second frequency moment. In this work, we show that their sketching technique can be extended to product domains $[n]^k$ by using the product of $4$-wise independent functions on $[n]$.
Our work extends that of Indyk and McGregor, who showed the result for $k = 2$. Their primary motivation was the problem of identifying correlations in data streams. In their model, a stream of pairs $(i,j) \in [n]^2$ arrive, giving a joint distribution $(X,Y)$, and they find approximation algorithms for how close the joint distribution is to the product of the marginal distributions under various metrics, which naturally corresponds to how close $X$ and $Y$ are to being independent. By using our technique, we obtain a new result for the problem of approximating the $\ell_2$ distance between the joint distribution and the product of the marginal distributions for $k$-ary vectors, instead of just pairs, in a single pass. Our analysis gives a randomized algorithm that is a $(1\pm \epsilon)$ approximation (with probability $1-\delta$) that requires space logarithmic in $n$ and $m$ and proportional to $3^k$.

Vladimir Braverman, Kai-Min Chung, Zhenming Liu, Michael Mitzenmacher, and Rafail Ostrovsky. AMS Without 4-Wise Independence on Product Domains. In 27th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science. Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 5, pp. 119-130, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2010)

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@InProceedings{braverman_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2010.2449, author = {Braverman, Vladimir and Chung, Kai-Min and Liu, Zhenming and Mitzenmacher, Michael and Ostrovsky, Rafail}, title = {{AMS Without 4-Wise Independence on Product Domains}}, booktitle = {27th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science}, pages = {119--130}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-16-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2010}, volume = {5}, editor = {Marion, Jean-Yves and Schwentick, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2010.2449}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-24496}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2010.2449}, annote = {Keywords: Data Streams, Randomized Algorithms, Streaming Algorithms, Independence, Sketches} }

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