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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 317, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024)

Estimating the size of the union of a stream of sets S₁, S₂, …, S_M where each set is a subset of a known universe Ω is a fundamental problem in data streaming. This problem naturally generalizes the well-studied 𝖥₀ estimation problem in the streaming literature, where each set contains a single element from the universe. We consider the general case when the sets S_i can be succinctly represented and allow efficient membership, cardinality, and sampling queries (called a Delphic family of sets). A notable example in this framework is the Klee’s Measure Problem (KMP), where every set S_i is an axis-parallel rectangle in d-dimensional spaces (Ω = [Δ]^d where [Δ] := {1, … ,Δ} and Δ ∈ ℕ). Recently, Meel, Chakraborty, and Vinodchandran (PODS-21, PODS-22) designed a streaming algorithm for (ε,δ)-estimation of the size of the union of set streams over Delphic family with space and update time complexity O((log³|Ω|)/ε² ⋅ log 1/δ) and Õ((log⁴|Ω|)/ε² ⋅ log 1/(δ)), respectively.
This work presents a new, sampling-based algorithm for estimating the size of the union of Delphic sets that has space and update time complexity Õ((log²|Ω|)/ε² ⋅ log 1/(δ)). This improves the space complexity bound by a log|Ω| factor and update time complexity bound by a log² |Ω| factor.
A critical question is whether quadratic dependence of log|Ω| on space and update time complexities is necessary. Specifically, can we design a streaming algorithm for estimating the size of the union of sets over Delphic family with space and complexity linear in log|Ω| and update time poly(log|Ω|)? While this appears technically challenging, we show that establishing a lower bound of ω(log|Ω|) with poly(log|Ω|) update time is beyond the reach of current techniques. Specifically, we show that under certain hard-to-prove computational complexity hypothesis, there is a streaming algorithm for the problem with optimal space complexity O(log|Ω|) and update time poly(log(|Ω|)). Thus, establishing a space lower bound of ω(log|Ω|) will lead to break-through complexity class separation results.

Mridul Nandi, N. V. Vinodchandran, Arijit Ghosh, Kuldeep S. Meel, Soumit Pal, and Sourav Chakraborty. Improved Streaming Algorithm for the Klee’s Measure Problem and Generalizations. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 317, pp. 26:1-26:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{nandi_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.26, author = {Nandi, Mridul and Vinodchandran, N. V. and Ghosh, Arijit and Meel, Kuldeep S. and Pal, Soumit and Chakraborty, Sourav}, title = {{Improved Streaming Algorithm for the Klee’s Measure Problem and Generalizations}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024)}, pages = {26:1--26:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-348-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {317}, editor = {Kumar, Amit and Ron-Zewi, Noga}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-210191}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.26}, annote = {Keywords: Sampling, Streaming, Klee’s Measure Problem} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 317, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024)

Determining the approximate degree composition for Boolean functions remains a significant unsolved problem in Boolean function complexity. In recent decades, researchers have concentrated on proving that approximate degree composes for special types of inner and outer functions. An important and extensively studied class of functions are the recursive functions, i.e. functions obtained by composing a base function with itself a number of times. Let h^d denote the standard d-fold composition of the base function h. The main result of this work is to show that the approximate degree composes if either of the following conditions holds:
- The outer function f:{0,1}ⁿ → {0,1} is a recursive function of the form h^d, with h being any base function and d = Ω(log log n).
- The inner function is a recursive function of the form h^d, with h being any constant arity base function (other than AND and OR) and d = Ω(log log n), where n is the arity of the outer function.
In terms of proof techniques, we first observe that the lower bound for composition can be obtained by introducing majority in between the inner and the outer functions. We then show that majority can be efficiently eliminated if the inner or outer function is a recursive function.

Sourav Chakraborty, Chandrima Kayal, Rajat Mittal, Manaswi Paraashar, and Nitin Saurabh. Approximate Degree Composition for Recursive Functions. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 317, pp. 71:1-71:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.71, author = {Chakraborty, Sourav and Kayal, Chandrima and Mittal, Rajat and Paraashar, Manaswi and Saurabh, Nitin}, title = {{Approximate Degree Composition for Recursive Functions}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024)}, pages = {71:1--71:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-348-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {317}, editor = {Kumar, Amit and Ron-Zewi, Noga}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.71}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-210642}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.71}, annote = {Keywords: Approximate degree, Boolean function, Composition theorem} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 306, 49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024)

Given an Abelian group 𝒢, a Boolean-valued function f: 𝒢 → {-1,+1}, is said to be s-sparse, if it has at most s-many non-zero Fourier coefficients over the domain 𝒢. In a seminal paper, Gopalan et al. [Gopalan et al., 2011] proved "Granularity" for Fourier coefficients of Boolean valued functions over ℤ₂ⁿ, that have found many diverse applications in theoretical computer science and combinatorics. They also studied structural results for Boolean functions over ℤ₂ⁿ which are approximately Fourier-sparse. In this work, we obtain structural results for approximately Fourier-sparse Boolean valued functions over Abelian groups 𝒢 of the form, 𝒢: = ℤ_{p_1}^{n_1} × ⋯ × ℤ_{p_t}^{n_t}, for distinct primes p_i. We also obtain a lower bound of the form 1/(m²s)^⌈φ(m)/2⌉, on the absolute value of the smallest non-zero Fourier coefficient of an s-sparse function, where m = p_1 ⋯ p_t, and φ(m) = (p_1-1) ⋯ (p_t-1). We carefully apply probabilistic techniques from [Gopalan et al., 2011], to obtain our structural results, and use some non-trivial results from algebraic number theory to get the lower bound.
We construct a family of at most s-sparse Boolean functions over ℤ_pⁿ, where p > 2, for arbitrarily large enough s, where the minimum non-zero Fourier coefficient is o(1/s). The "Granularity" result of Gopalan et al. implies that the absolute values of non-zero Fourier coefficients of any s-sparse Boolean valued function over ℤ₂ⁿ are Ω(1/s). So, our result shows that one cannot expect such a lower bound for general Abelian groups.
Using our new structural results on the Fourier coefficients of sparse functions, we design an efficient sparsity testing algorithm for Boolean function, which tests whether the given function is s-sparse, or ε-far from any sparse Boolean function, and it requires poly((ms)^φ(m),1/ε)-many queries. Further, we generalize the notion of degree of a Boolean function over an Abelian group 𝒢. We use it to prove an Ω(√s) lower bound on the query complexity of any adaptive sparsity testing algorithm.

Sourav Chakraborty, Swarnalipa Datta, Pranjal Dutta, Arijit Ghosh, and Swagato Sanyal. On Fourier Analysis of Sparse Boolean Functions over Certain Abelian Groups. In 49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 306, pp. 40:1-40:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.40, author = {Chakraborty, Sourav and Datta, Swarnalipa and Dutta, Pranjal and Ghosh, Arijit and Sanyal, Swagato}, title = {{On Fourier Analysis of Sparse Boolean Functions over Certain Abelian Groups}}, booktitle = {49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024)}, pages = {40:1--40:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-335-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {306}, editor = {Kr\'{a}lovi\v{c}, Rastislav and Ku\v{c}era, Anton{\'\i}n}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.40}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-205963}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.40}, annote = {Keywords: Fourier coefficients, sparse, Abelian, granularity} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 275, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)

For any Boolean functions f and g, the question whether R(f∘g) = Θ̃(R(f) ⋅ R(g)), is known as the composition question for the randomized query complexity. Similarly, the composition question for the approximate degree asks whether deg̃(f∘g) = Θ̃(deg̃(f)⋅deg̃(g)). These questions are two of the most important and well-studied problems in the field of analysis of Boolean functions, and yet we are far from answering them satisfactorily.
It is known that the measures compose if one assumes various properties of the outer function f (or inner function g). This paper extends the class of outer functions for which R and deg̃ compose.
A recent landmark result (Ben-David and Blais, 2020) showed that R(f∘g) = Ω(noisyR(f)⋅ R(g)). This implies that composition holds whenever noisyR(f) = Θ̃(R(f)). We show two results:
1. When R(f) = Θ(n), then noisyR(f) = Θ(R(f)). In other words, composition holds whenever the randomized query complexity of the outer function is full.
2. If R composes with respect to an outer function, then noisyR also composes with respect to the same outer function. On the other hand, no result of the type deg̃(f∘g) = Ω(M(f) ⋅ deg̃(g)) (for some non-trivial complexity measure M(⋅)) was known to the best of our knowledge. We prove that deg̃(f∘g) = Ω̃(√{bs(f)} ⋅ deg̃(g)), where bs(f) is the block sensitivity of f. This implies that deg̃ composes when deg̃(f) is asymptotically equal to √{bs(f)}.
It is already known that both R and deg̃ compose when the outer function is symmetric. We also extend these results to weaker notions of symmetry with respect to the outer function.

Sourav Chakraborty, Chandrima Kayal, Rajat Mittal, Manaswi Paraashar, Swagato Sanyal, and Nitin Saurabh. On the Composition of Randomized Query Complexity and Approximate Degree. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 275, pp. 63:1-63:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.63, author = {Chakraborty, Sourav and Kayal, Chandrima and Mittal, Rajat and Paraashar, Manaswi and Sanyal, Swagato and Saurabh, Nitin}, title = {{On the Composition of Randomized Query Complexity and Approximate Degree}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)}, pages = {63:1--63:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-296-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {275}, editor = {Megow, Nicole and Smith, Adam}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.63}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-188883}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.63}, annote = {Keywords: Approximate degree, Boolean functions, Composition Theorem, Partial functions, Randomized Query Complexity} }

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Track B: Automata, Logic, Semantics, and Theory of Programming

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

Given a Boolean formula ϕ over n variables, the problem of model counting is to compute the number of solutions of ϕ. Model counting is a fundamental problem in computer science with wide-ranging applications in domains such as quantified information leakage, probabilistic reasoning, network reliability, neural network verification, and more. Owing to the #P-hardness of the problems, Stockmeyer initiated the study of the complexity of approximate counting. Stockmeyer showed that log n calls to an NP oracle are necessary and sufficient to achieve (ε,δ) guarantees. The hashing-based framework proposed by Stockmeyer has been very influential in designing practical counters over the past decade, wherein the SAT solver substitutes the NP oracle calls in practice. It is well known that an NP oracle does not fully capture the behavior of SAT solvers, as SAT solvers are also designed to provide satisfying assignments when a formula is satisfiable, without additional overhead. Accordingly, the notion of SAT oracle has been proposed to capture the behavior of SAT solver wherein given a Boolean formula, an SAT oracle returns a satisfying assignment if the formula is satisfiable or returns unsatisfiable otherwise. Since the practical state-of-the-art approximate counting techniques use SAT solvers, a natural question is whether an SAT oracle is more powerful than an NP oracle in the context of approximate model counting.
The primary contribution of this work is to study the relative power of the NP oracle and SAT oracle in the context of approximate model counting. The previous techniques proposed in the context of an NP oracle are weak to provide strong bounds in the context of SAT oracle since, in contrast to an NP oracle that provides only one bit of information, a SAT oracle can provide n bits of information. We therefore develop a new methodology to achieve the main result: a SAT oracle is no more powerful than an NP oracle in the context of approximate model counting.

Diptarka Chakraborty, Sourav Chakraborty, Gunjan Kumar, and Kuldeep S. Meel. Approximate Model Counting: Is SAT Oracle More Powerful Than NP Oracle?. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 123:1-123:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.123, author = {Chakraborty, Diptarka and Chakraborty, Sourav and Kumar, Gunjan and Meel, Kuldeep S.}, title = {{Approximate Model Counting: Is SAT Oracle More Powerful Than NP Oracle?}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {123:1--123:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.123}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181750}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.123}, annote = {Keywords: Model counting, Approximation, Satisfiability, NP oracle, SAT oracle} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)

We introduce and study Certificate Game complexity, a measure of complexity based on the probability of winning a game where two players are given inputs with different function values and are asked to output some index i such that x_i≠ y_i, in a zero-communication setting.
We give upper and lower bounds for private coin, public coin, shared entanglement and non-signaling strategies, and give some separations. We show that complexity in the public coin model is upper bounded by Randomized query and Certificate complexity. On the other hand, it is lower bounded by fractional and randomized certificate complexity, making it a good candidate to prove strong lower bounds on randomized query complexity. Complexity in the private coin model is bounded from below by zero-error randomized query complexity. The quantum measure highlights an interesting and surprising difference between classical and quantum query models. Whereas the public coin certificate game complexity is bounded from above by randomized query complexity, the quantum certificate game complexity can be quadratically larger than quantum query complexity. We use non-signaling, a notion from quantum information, to give a lower bound of n on the quantum certificate game complexity of the OR function, whose quantum query complexity is Θ(√n), then go on to show that this "non-signaling bottleneck" applies to all functions with high sensitivity, block sensitivity or fractional block sensitivity.
We also consider the single-bit version of certificate games, where the inputs of the two players are restricted to having Hamming distance 1. We prove that the single-bit version of certificate game complexity with shared randomness is equal to sensitivity up to constant factors, thus giving a new characterization of sensitivity. On the other hand, the single-bit version of certificate game complexity with private randomness is equal to λ², where λ is the spectral sensitivity.

Sourav Chakraborty, Anna Gál, Sophie Laplante, Rajat Mittal, and Anupa Sunny. Certificate Games. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 32:1-32:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.32, author = {Chakraborty, Sourav and G\'{a}l, Anna and Laplante, Sophie and Mittal, Rajat and Sunny, Anupa}, title = {{Certificate Games}}, booktitle = {14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)}, pages = {32:1--32:24}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-263-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {251}, editor = {Tauman Kalai, Yael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.32}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175353}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.32}, annote = {Keywords: block sensitivity, boolean function complexity, certificate complexity, query complexity, sensitivity, zero-communication two-player games} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 245, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)

The framework of distribution testing is currently ubiquitous in the field of property testing. In this model, the input is a probability distribution accessible via independently drawn samples from an oracle. The testing task is to distinguish a distribution that satisfies some property from a distribution that is far in some distance measure from satisfying it. The task of tolerant testing imposes a further restriction, that distributions close to satisfying the property are also accepted.
This work focuses on the connection between the sample complexities of non-tolerant testing of distributions and their tolerant testing counterparts. When limiting our scope to label-invariant (symmetric) properties of distributions, we prove that the gap is at most quadratic, ignoring poly-logarithmic factors. Conversely, the property of being the uniform distribution is indeed known to have an almost-quadratic gap.
When moving to general, not necessarily label-invariant properties, the situation is more complicated, and we show some partial results. We show that if a property requires the distributions to be non-concentrated, that is, the probability mass of the distribution is sufficiently spread out, then it cannot be non-tolerantly tested with o(√n) many samples, where n denotes the universe size. Clearly, this implies at most a quadratic gap, because a distribution can be learned (and hence tolerantly tested against any property) using 𝒪(n) many samples. Being non-concentrated is a strong requirement on properties, as we also prove a close to linear lower bound against their tolerant tests.
Apart from the case where the distribution is non-concentrated, we also show if an input distribution is very concentrated, in the sense that it is mostly supported on a subset of size s of the universe, then it can be learned using only 𝒪(s) many samples. The learning procedure adapts to the input, and works without knowing s in advance.

Sourav Chakraborty, Eldar Fischer, Arijit Ghosh, Gopinath Mishra, and Sayantan Sen. Exploring the Gap Between Tolerant and Non-Tolerant Distribution Testing. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 245, pp. 27:1-27:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.27, author = {Chakraborty, Sourav and Fischer, Eldar and Ghosh, Arijit and Mishra, Gopinath and Sen, Sayantan}, title = {{Exploring the Gap Between Tolerant and Non-Tolerant Distribution Testing}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)}, pages = {27:1--27:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-249-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {245}, editor = {Chakrabarti, Amit and Swamy, Chaitanya}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.27}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-171497}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.27}, annote = {Keywords: Distribution Testing, Tolerant Testing, Non-tolerant Testing, Sample Complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 244, 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)

Given a data stream 𝒟 = ⟨ a₁, a₂, …, a_m ⟩ of m elements where each a_i ∈ [n], the Distinct Elements problem is to estimate the number of distinct elements in 𝒟. Distinct Elements has been a subject of theoretical and empirical investigations over the past four decades resulting in space optimal algorithms for it. All the current state-of-the-art algorithms are, however, beyond the reach of an undergraduate textbook owing to their reliance on the usage of notions such as pairwise independence and universal hash functions. We present a simple, intuitive, sampling-based space-efficient algorithm whose description and the proof are accessible to undergraduates with the knowledge of basic probability theory.

Sourav Chakraborty, N. V. Vinodchandran¹, and Kuldeep S. Meel. Distinct Elements in Streams: An Algorithm for the (Text) Book. In 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 244, pp. 34:1-34:6, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2022.34, author = {Chakraborty, Sourav and Vinodchandran¹, N. V. and Meel, Kuldeep S.}, title = {{Distinct Elements in Streams: An Algorithm for the (Text) Book}}, booktitle = {30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)}, pages = {34:1--34:6}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-247-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {244}, editor = {Chechik, Shiri and Navarro, Gonzalo and Rotenberg, Eva and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.34}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-169725}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.34}, annote = {Keywords: F₀ Estimation, Streaming, Sampling} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 235, 28th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2022)

The problem of uniform sampling is, given a formula F, sample solutions of F uniformly at random from the solution space of F. Uniform sampling is a fundamental problem with widespread applications, including configuration testing, bug synthesis, function synthesis, and many more. State-of-the-art approaches for uniform sampling have a trade-off between scalability and theoretical guarantees. Many state of the art uniform samplers do not provide any theoretical guarantees on the distribution of samples generated, however, empirically they have shown promising results. In such cases, the main challenge is to test whether the distribution according to which samples are generated is indeed uniform or not.
Recently, Chakraborty and Meel (2019) designed the first scalable sampling tester, Barbarik, based on a grey-box sampling technique for testing if the distribution, according to which the given sampler is sampling, is close to the uniform or far from uniform. They were able to show that many off-the-self samplers are far from a uniform sampler. The availability of Barbarik increased the test-driven development of samplers. More recently, Golia, Soos, Chakraborty and Meel (2021), designed a uniform like sampler, CMSGen, which was shown to be accepted by Barbarik on all the instances. However, CMSGen does not provide any theoretical analysis of the sampling quality.
CMSGen leads us to observe the need for a tester to provide a quantitative answer to determine the quality of underlying samplers instead of merely a qualitative answer of Accept or Reject. Towards this goal, we design a computational hardness-based tester ScalBarbarik that provides a more nuanced analysis of the quality of a sampler. ScalBarbarik allows more expressive measurement of the quality of the underlying samplers. We empirically show that the state-of-the-art sampler, CMSGen is not accepted as a uniform-like sampler by ScalBarbarik. Furthermore, we show that ScalBarbarik can be used to design a sampler that can achieve balance between scalability and uniformity.

Mate Soos, Priyanka Golia, Sourav Chakraborty, and Kuldeep S. Meel. On Quantitative Testing of Samplers. In 28th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 235, pp. 36:1-36:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{soos_et_al:LIPIcs.CP.2022.36, author = {Soos, Mate and Golia, Priyanka and Chakraborty, Sourav and Meel, Kuldeep S.}, title = {{On Quantitative Testing of Samplers}}, booktitle = {28th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2022)}, pages = {36:1--36:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-240-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {235}, editor = {Solnon, Christine}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CP.2022.36}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-166655}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CP.2022.36}, annote = {Keywords: SAT Sampling, Testing of Samplers, SAT Solvers} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)

The role of symmetry in Boolean functions f:{0, 1}ⁿ → {0, 1} has been extensively studied in complexity theory. For example, symmetric functions, that is, functions that are invariant under the action of 𝖲_n, is an important class of functions in the study of Boolean functions. A function f:{0, 1}ⁿ → {0, 1} is called transitive (or weakly-symmetric) if there exists a transitive group 𝖦 of 𝖲_n such that f is invariant under the action of 𝖦. In other words, the value of the function remains unchanged even after the input bits of f are moved around according to some permutation σ ∈ 𝖦. Understanding various complexity measures of transitive functions has been a rich area of research for the past few decades.
This work studies transitive functions in light of several combinatorial measures. The question that we try to address in this paper is what are the maximum separations between various pairs of combinatorial measures for transitive functions. Such study for general Boolean functions has been going on for many years. Aaronson et al. (STOC, 2021) have nicely compiled the current best-known results for general Boolean functions. But before this paper, no such systematic study had been done on the case of transitive functions.
Separations between a pair of combinatorial measures are shown by constructing interesting functions that demonstrate the separation. Over the past three decades, various interesting classes of functions have been designed for this purpose. In this context, one of the celebrated classes of functions is the "pointer functions". Ambainis et al. (JACM, 2017) constructed several functions, which are modifications of the pointer function in Göös et al. (SICOMP, 2018 / FOCS, 2015), to demonstrate the separation between various pairs of measures. In the last few years, pointer functions have been used to show separation between various other pairs of measures (Eg: Mukhopadhyay et al. (FSTTCS, 2015), Ben-David et al. (ITCS, 2017), Göös et al. (ToCT, 2018 / ICALP, 2017)).
However, the pointer functions themselves are not transitive. Based on the various kinds of pointer functions, we construct new transitive functions, which we use to demonstrate similar separations between various pairs of combinatorial measures as demonstrated by the original pointer functions. Our construction of transitive functions depends crucially on the construction of particular classes of transitive groups whose actions, though involved, help to preserve certain structural features of the input strings. The transitive groups we construct may be of independent interest in other areas of mathematics and theoretical computer science.
We summarize the current knowledge of relations between various combinatorial measures of transitive functions in a table similar to the table compiled by Aaronson et al. (STOC, 2021) for general functions.

Sourav Chakraborty, Chandrima Kayal, and Manaswi Paraashar. Separations Between Combinatorial Measures for Transitive Functions. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 36:1-36:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.36, author = {Chakraborty, Sourav and Kayal, Chandrima and Paraashar, Manaswi}, title = {{Separations Between Combinatorial Measures for Transitive Functions}}, booktitle = {49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)}, pages = {36:1--36:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-235-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {229}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.36}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163779}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.36}, annote = {Keywords: Transitive functions, Combinatorial complexity of Boolean functions} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 219, 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)

Buhrman, Cleve and Wigderson (STOC'98) showed that for every Boolean function f : {-1,1}ⁿ → {-1,1} and G ∈ {AND₂, XOR₂}, the bounded-error quantum communication complexity of the composed function f∘G equals O(𝖰(f) log n), where 𝖰(f) denotes the bounded-error quantum query complexity of f. This is achieved by Alice running the optimal quantum query algorithm for f, using a round of O(log n) qubits of communication to implement each query. This is in contrast with the classical setting, where it is easy to show that 𝖱^{cc}(f∘G) ≤ 2𝖱(f), where 𝖱^{cc} and 𝖱 denote bounded-error communication and query complexity, respectively. Chakraborty et al. (CCC'20) exhibited a total function for which the log n overhead in the BCW simulation is required. This established the somewhat surprising fact that quantum reductions are in some cases inherently more expensive than classical reductions. We improve upon their result in several ways.
- We show that the log n overhead is not required when f is symmetric (i.e., depends only on the Hamming weight of its input), generalizing a result of Aaronson and Ambainis for the Set-Disjointness function (Theory of Computing'05). Our upper bound assumes a shared entangled state, though for most symmetric functions the assumed number of entangled qubits is less than the communication and hence could be part of the communication.
- In order to prove the above, we design an efficient distributed version of noisy amplitude amplification that allows us to prove the result when f is the OR function. This also provides a different, and arguably simpler, proof of Aaronson and Ambainis’s O(√n) communication upper bound for Set-Disjointness.
- In view of our first result above, one may ask whether the log n overhead in the BCW simulation can be avoided even when f is transitive, which is a weaker notion of symmetry. We give a strong negative answer by showing that the log n overhead is still necessary for some transitive functions even when we allow the quantum communication protocol an error probability that can be arbitrarily close to 1/2 (this corresponds to the unbounded-error model of communication).
- We also give, among other things, a general recipe to construct functions for which the log n overhead is required in the BCW simulation in the bounded-error communication model, even if the parties are allowed to share an arbitrary prior entangled state for free.

Sourav Chakraborty, Arkadev Chattopadhyay, Peter Høyer, Nikhil S. Mande, Manaswi Paraashar, and Ronald de Wolf. Symmetry and Quantum Query-To-Communication Simulation. In 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 219, pp. 20:1-20:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2022.20, author = {Chakraborty, Sourav and Chattopadhyay, Arkadev and H{\o}yer, Peter and Mande, Nikhil S. and Paraashar, Manaswi and de Wolf, Ronald}, title = {{Symmetry and Quantum Query-To-Communication Simulation}}, booktitle = {39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)}, pages = {20:1--20:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-222-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {219}, editor = {Berenbrink, Petra and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.20}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-158309}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.20}, annote = {Keywords: Classical and quantum communication complexity, query-to-communication-simulation, quantum computing} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 213, 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)

Chang’s lemma (Duke Mathematical Journal, 2002) is a classical result in mathematics, with applications spanning across additive combinatorics, combinatorial number theory, analysis of Boolean functions, communication complexity and algorithm design. For a Boolean function f that takes values in {-1, 1} let r(f) denote its Fourier rank (i.e., the dimension of the span of its Fourier support). For each positive threshold t, Chang’s lemma provides a lower bound on δ(f) := Pr[f(x) = -1] in terms of the dimension of the span of its characters with Fourier coefficients of magnitude at least 1/t. In this work we examine the tightness of Chang’s lemma with respect to the following three natural settings of the threshold:
- the Fourier sparsity of f, denoted k(f),
- the Fourier max-supp-entropy of f, denoted k'(f), defined to be the maximum value of the reciprocal of the absolute value of a non-zero Fourier coefficient,
- the Fourier max-rank-entropy of f, denoted k''(f), defined to be the minimum t such that characters whose coefficients are at least 1/t in magnitude span a r(f)-dimensional space. In this work we prove new lower bounds on δ(f) in terms of the above measures. One of our lower bounds, δ(f) = Ω(r(f)²/(k(f) log² k(f))), subsumes and refines the previously best known upper bound r(f) = O(√{k(f)}log k(f)) on r(f) in terms of k(f) by Sanyal (Theory of Computing, 2019). We improve upon this bound and show r(f) = O(√{k(f)δ(f)}log k(f)). Another lower bound, δ(f) = Ω(r(f)/(k''(f) log k(f))), is based on our improvement of a bound by Chattopadhyay, Hatami, Lovett and Tal (ITCS, 2019) on the sum of absolute values of level-1 Fourier coefficients in terms of 𝔽₂-degree. We further show that Chang’s lemma for the above-mentioned choices of the threshold is asymptotically outperformed by our bounds for most settings of the parameters involved.
Next, we show that our bounds are tight for a wide range of the parameters involved, by constructing functions witnessing their tightness. All the functions we construct are modifications of the Addressing function, where we replace certain input variables by suitable functions. Our final contribution is to construct Boolean functions f for which our lower bounds asymptotically match δ(f), and for any choice of the threshold t, the lower bound obtained from Chang’s lemma is asymptotically smaller than δ(f).
Our results imply more refined deterministic one-way communication complexity upper bounds for XOR functions. Given the wide-ranging application of Chang’s lemma to areas like additive combinatorics, learning theory and communication complexity, we strongly feel that our refinements of Chang’s lemma will find many more applications.

Sourav Chakraborty, Nikhil S. Mande, Rajat Mittal, Tulasimohan Molli, Manaswi Paraashar, and Swagato Sanyal. Tight Chang’s-Lemma-Type Bounds for Boolean Functions. In 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 213, pp. 10:1-10:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.10, author = {Chakraborty, Sourav and Mande, Nikhil S. and Mittal, Rajat and Molli, Tulasimohan and Paraashar, Manaswi and Sanyal, Swagato}, title = {{Tight Chang’s-Lemma-Type Bounds for Boolean Functions}}, booktitle = {41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)}, pages = {10:1--10:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-215-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {213}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Chekuri, Chandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-155215}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.10}, annote = {Keywords: Analysis of Boolean functions, Chang’s lemma, Parity decision trees, Fourier dimension} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 207, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)

The graph isomorphism distance between two graphs G_u and G_k is the fraction of entries in the adjacency matrix that has to be changed to make G_u isomorphic to G_k. We study the problem of estimating, up to a constant additive factor, the graph isomorphism distance between two graphs in the query model. In other words, if G_k is a known graph and G_u is an unknown graph whose adjacency matrix has to be accessed by querying the entries, what is the query complexity for testing whether the graph isomorphism distance between G_u and G_k is less than γ₁ or more than γ₂, where γ₁ and γ₂ are two constants with 0 ≤ γ₁ < γ₂ ≤ 1. It is also called the tolerant property testing of graph isomorphism in the dense graph model. The non-tolerant version (where γ₁ is 0) has been studied by Fischer and Matsliah (SICOMP'08).
In this paper, we prove a (interesting) connection between tolerant graph isomorphism testing and tolerant testing of the well studied Earth Mover’s Distance (EMD). We prove that deciding tolerant graph isomorphism is equivalent to deciding tolerant EMD testing between multi-sets in the query setting. Moreover, the reductions between tolerant graph isomorphism and tolerant EMD testing (in query setting) can also be extended directly to work in the two party Alice-Bob communication model (where Alice and Bob have one graph each and they want to solve tolerant graph isomorphism problem by communicating bits), and possibly in other sublinear models as well.
Testing tolerant EMD between two probability distributions is equivalent to testing EMD between two multi-sets, where the multiplicity of each element is taken appropriately, and we sample elements from the unknown multi-set with replacement. In this paper, our (main) contribution is to introduce the problem of {(tolerant) EMD testing between multi-sets (over Hamming cube) when we get samples from the unknown multi-set without replacement} and to show that this variant of tolerant testing of EMD is as hard as tolerant testing of graph isomorphism between two graphs. {Thus, while testing of equivalence between distributions is at the heart of the non-tolerant testing of graph isomorphism, we are showing that the estimation of the EMD over a Hamming cube (when we are allowed to sample without replacement) is at the heart of tolerant graph isomorphism.} We believe that the introduction of the problem of testing EMD between multi-sets (when we get samples without replacement) opens an entirely new direction in the world of testing properties of distributions.

Sourav Chakraborty, Arijit Ghosh, Gopinath Mishra, and Sayantan Sen. Interplay Between Graph Isomorphism and Earth Mover’s Distance in the Query and Communication Worlds. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 207, pp. 34:1-34:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.34, author = {Chakraborty, Sourav and Ghosh, Arijit and Mishra, Gopinath and Sen, Sayantan}, title = {{Interplay Between Graph Isomorphism and Earth Mover’s Distance in the Query and Communication Worlds}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)}, pages = {34:1--34:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-207-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {207}, editor = {Wootters, Mary and Sanit\`{a}, Laura}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.34}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-147273}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.34}, annote = {Keywords: Graph Isomorphism, Earth Mover Distance, Query Complexity} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)

The disjointness problem - where Alice and Bob are given two subsets of {1, … , n} and they have to check if their sets intersect - is a central problem in the world of communication complexity. While both deterministic and randomized communication complexities for this problem are known to be Θ(n), it is also known that if the sets are assumed to be drawn from some restricted set systems then the communication complexity can be much lower. In this work, we explore how communication complexity measures change with respect to the complexity of the underlying set system. The complexity measure for the set system that we use in this work is the Vapnik–Chervonenkis (VC) dimension. More precisely, on any set system with VC dimension bounded by d, we analyze how large can the deterministic and randomized communication complexities be, as a function of d and n. The d-sparse set disjointness problem, where the sets have size at most d, is one such set system with VC dimension d. The deterministic and the randomized communication complexities of the d-sparse set disjointness problem have been well studied and is known to be Θ (d log ({n}/{d})) and Θ(d), respectively, in the multi-round communication setting. In this paper, we address the question of whether the randomized communication complexity is always upper bounded by a function of the VC dimension of the set system, and does there always exist a gap between the deterministic and randomized communication complexity for set systems with small VC dimension.
In this paper, we construct two natural set systems of VC dimension d, motivated from geometry. Using these set systems we show that the deterministic and randomized communication complexity can be Θ̃(dlog (n/d)) for set systems of VC dimension d and this matches the deterministic upper bound for all set systems of VC dimension d. We also study the deterministic and randomized communication complexities of the set intersection problem when sets belong to a set system of bounded VC dimension. We show that there exists set systems of VC dimension d such that both deterministic and randomized (one-way and multi-round) complexities for the set intersection problem can be as high as Θ(dlog (n/d)), and this is tight among all set systems of VC dimension d.

Anup Bhattacharya, Sourav Chakraborty, Arijit Ghosh, Gopinath Mishra, and Manaswi Paraashar. Disjointness Through the Lens of Vapnik–Chervonenkis Dimension: Sparsity and Beyond. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 23:1-23:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{bhattacharya_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.23, author = {Bhattacharya, Anup and Chakraborty, Sourav and Ghosh, Arijit and Mishra, Gopinath and Paraashar, Manaswi}, title = {{Disjointness Through the Lens of Vapnik–Chervonenkis Dimension: Sparsity and Beyond}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)}, pages = {23:1--23:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-164-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {176}, editor = {Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126261}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.23}, annote = {Keywords: Communication complexity, VC dimension, Sparsity, and Geometric Set System} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 169, 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)

Buhrman, Cleve and Wigderson (STOC'98) observed that for every Boolean function f:{-1,1}ⁿ → {-1,1} and •:{-1,1}² → {-1,1} the two-party bounded-error quantum communication complexity of (f ∘ •) is O(Q(f) log n), where Q(f) is the bounded-error quantum query complexity of f. Note that the bounded-error randomized communication complexity of (f ∘ •) is bounded by O(R(f)), where R(f) denotes the bounded-error randomized query complexity of f. Thus, the BCW simulation has an extra O(log n) factor appearing that is absent in classical simulation. A natural question is if this factor can be avoided. Razborov (IZV MATH'03) showed that the bounded-error quantum communication complexity of Set-Disjointness is Ω(√n). The BCW simulation yields an upper bound of O(√n log n). Høyer and de Wolf (STACS'02) showed that this can be reduced to c^(log^* n) for some constant c, and subsequently Aaronson and Ambainis (FOCS'03) showed that this factor can be made a constant. That is, the quantum communication complexity of the Set-Disjointness function (which is NOR_n ∘ ∧) is O(Q(NOR_n)).
Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, we show that when • = ⊕, then the extra log n factor in the BCW simulation is unavoidable. In other words, we exhibit a total function F:{-1,1}ⁿ → {-1,1} such that Q^{cc}(F ∘ ⊕) = Θ(Q(F) log n).
To the best of our knowledge, it was not even known prior to this work whether there existed a total function F and 2-bit function •, such that Q^{cc}(F ∘ •) = ω(Q(F)).

Sourav Chakraborty, Arkadev Chattopadhyay, Nikhil S. Mande, and Manaswi Paraashar. Quantum Query-To-Communication Simulation Needs a Logarithmic Overhead. In 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 169, pp. 32:1-32:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2020.32, author = {Chakraborty, Sourav and Chattopadhyay, Arkadev and Mande, Nikhil S. and Paraashar, Manaswi}, title = {{Quantum Query-To-Communication Simulation Needs a Logarithmic Overhead}}, booktitle = {35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)}, pages = {32:1--32:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-156-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {169}, editor = {Saraf, Shubhangi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.32}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125842}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.32}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum query complexity, quantum communication complexity, approximate degree, approximate spectral norm} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 154, 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)

Given a Boolean function f:{-1,1}ⁿ→ {-1,1}, define the Fourier distribution to be the distribution on subsets of [n], where each S ⊆ [n] is sampled with probability f̂(S)². The Fourier Entropy-Influence (FEI) conjecture of Friedgut and Kalai [E. Friedgut and G. Kalai, 1996] seeks to relate two fundamental measures associated with the Fourier distribution: does there exist a universal constant C>0 such that ℍ(f̂²)≤ C⋅ Inf(f), where ℍ(f̂²) is the Shannon entropy of the Fourier distribution of f and Inf(f) is the total influence of f?
In this paper we present three new contributions towards the FEI conjecture:
ii) Our first contribution shows that ℍ(f̂²) ≤ 2⋅ aUC^⊕(f), where aUC^⊕(f) is the average unambiguous parity-certificate complexity of f. This improves upon several bounds shown by Chakraborty et al. [S. Chakraborty et al., 2016]. We further improve this bound for unambiguous DNFs.
iii) We next consider the weaker Fourier Min-entropy-Influence (FMEI) conjecture posed by O'Donnell and others [R. O'Donnell et al., 2011; R. O'Donnell, 2014] which asks if ℍ_{∞}(f̂²) ≤ C⋅ Inf(f), where ℍ_{∞}(f̂²) is the min-entropy of the Fourier distribution. We show ℍ_{∞}(f̂²) ≤ 2⋅?_{min}^⊕(f), where ?_{min}^⊕(f) is the minimum parity certificate complexity of f. We also show that for all ε ≥ 0, we have ℍ_{∞}(f̂²) ≤ 2log (‖f̂‖_{1,ε}/(1-ε)), where ‖f̂‖_{1,ε} is the approximate spectral norm of f. As a corollary, we verify the FMEI conjecture for the class of read-k DNFs (for constant k).
iv) Our third contribution is to better understand implications of the FEI conjecture for the structure of polynomials that 1/3-approximate a Boolean function on the Boolean cube. We pose a conjecture: no flat polynomial (whose non-zero Fourier coefficients have the same magnitude) of degree d and sparsity 2^ω(d) can 1/3-approximate a Boolean function. This conjecture is known to be true assuming FEI and we prove the conjecture unconditionally (i.e., without assuming the FEI conjecture) for a class of polynomials. We discuss an intriguing connection between our conjecture and the constant for the Bohnenblust-Hille inequality, which has been extensively studied in functional analysis.

Srinivasan Arunachalam, Sourav Chakraborty, Michal Koucký, Nitin Saurabh, and Ronald de Wolf. Improved Bounds on Fourier Entropy and Min-Entropy. In 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 154, pp. 45:1-45:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{arunachalam_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2020.45, author = {Arunachalam, Srinivasan and Chakraborty, Sourav and Kouck\'{y}, Michal and Saurabh, Nitin and de Wolf, Ronald}, title = {{Improved Bounds on Fourier Entropy and Min-Entropy}}, booktitle = {37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)}, pages = {45:1--45:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-140-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {154}, editor = {Paul, Christophe and Bl\"{a}ser, Markus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.45}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-119062}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.45}, annote = {Keywords: Fourier analysis of Boolean functions, FEI conjecture, query complexity, polynomial approximation, approximate degree, certificate complexity} }

Document

Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

We present two new results about exact learning by quantum computers. First, we show how to exactly learn a k-Fourier-sparse n-bit Boolean function from O(k^{1.5}(log k)^2) uniform quantum examples for that function. This improves over the bound of Theta~(kn) uniformly random classical examples (Haviv and Regev, CCC'15). Our main tool is an improvement of Chang’s lemma for sparse Boolean functions. Second, we show that if a concept class {C} can be exactly learned using Q quantum membership queries, then it can also be learned using O ({Q^2}/{log Q} * log|C|) classical membership queries. This improves the previous-best simulation result (Servedio-Gortler, SICOMP'04) by a log Q-factor.

Srinivasan Arunachalam, Sourav Chakraborty, Troy Lee, Manaswi Paraashar, and Ronald de Wolf. Two New Results About Quantum Exact Learning. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 16:1-16:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{arunachalam_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.16, author = {Arunachalam, Srinivasan and Chakraborty, Sourav and Lee, Troy and Paraashar, Manaswi and de Wolf, Ronald}, title = {{Two New Results About Quantum Exact Learning}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {16:1--16:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.16}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-105929}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.16}, annote = {Keywords: quantum computing, exact learning, analysis of Boolean functions, Fourier sparse Boolean functions} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 8, IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2010)

We present several new examples of speed-ups obtainable by quantum algorithms in the context of property testing.
First, motivated by sampling algorithms, we consider probability distributions given in the form of an oracle $f:[n]\to[m]$. Here the probability $P_f(j)$ of an outcome $j$ in $[m]$ is the fraction of its domain that $f$ maps to $j$. We give quantum algorithms for testing whether two such distributions are identical or $epsilon$-far in $L_1$-norm. Recently, Bravyi, Hassidim, and Harrow showed that if
$P_f$ and $P_g$ are both unknown (i.e., given by oracles $f$ and $g$), then this testing can be done in roughly $sqrt{m}$ quantum queries to the functions. We consider the case where the second distribution is known, and show that testing can be done with roughly $m^{1/3}$ quantum queries, which we prove to be essentially optimal. In contrast, it is known that classical testing algorithms need about $m^{2/3}$ queries in the unknown-unknown case and about $sqrt{m}$ queries in the known-unknown case. Based on this result, we also reduce the query complexity of graph isomorphism testers with quantum oracle access.
While those examples provide polynomial quantum speed-ups, our third example gives a much larger improvement (constant quantum queries vs polynomial classical queries) for the problem of testing periodicity, based on Shor's algorithm and a modification of a classical lower bound by Lachish and Newman. This provides an alternative to a recent constant-vs-polynomial speed-up due to Aaronson.

Sourav Chakraborty, Eldar Fischer, Arie Matsliah, and Ronald de Wolf. New Results on Quantum Property Testing. In IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2010). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 8, pp. 145-156, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2010)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2010.145, author = {Chakraborty, Sourav and Fischer, Eldar and Matsliah, Arie and de Wolf, Ronald}, title = {{New Results on Quantum Property Testing}}, booktitle = {IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2010)}, pages = {145--156}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-23-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2010}, volume = {8}, editor = {Lodaya, Kamal and Mahajan, Meena}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2010.145}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-28603}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2010.145}, annote = {Keywords: quantum algorithm, property testing} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 5, 27th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (2010)

A {\em parametric weighted graph} is a graph whose edges are labeled with continuous real functions of a single common variable. For any instantiation of the variable, one obtains a standard edge-weighted graph. Parametric weighted graph problems are generalizations of weighted graph problems, and arise in various natural scenarios. Parametric weighted graph algorithms consist of two phases. A {\em preprocessing phase} whose input is a parametric weighted graph, and whose output is a data structure, the advice, that is later used by the {\em instantiation phase}, where a specific value for the variable is given. The instantiation phase outputs the solution to the (standard) weighted graph problem that arises from the instantiation. The goal is to have the running time of the instantiation phase supersede the running time of any algorithm that solves the weighted graph problem from scratch, by taking advantage of the advice.
In this paper we construct several parametric algorithms for the
shortest path problem. For the case of linear function weights we
present an algorithm for the single source shortest path problem. Its
preprocessing phase runs in $\tilde{O}(V^4)$ time, while its instantiation phase runs in only $O(E+V \log V)$ time. The fastest standard algorithm for single source shortest path runs in $O(VE)$ time. For the case of weight functions defined by degree $d$ polynomials, we present an algorithm with quasi-polynomial preprocessing time $O(V^{(1 + \log f(d))\log V})$ and instantiation time only $\tilde{O}(V)$. In fact, for any pair of vertices $u,v$, the instantiation phase computes the distance from $u$ to $v$ in only $O(\log^2 V)$ time. Finally, for linear function weights, we present
a randomized algorithm whose preprocessing time is $\tilde{O (V^{3.5})$ and so that for any pair of vertices $u,v$ and any instantiation variable, the instantiation phase computes, in $O(1)$ time, a length of a path from $u$ to $v$ that is at most (additively) $\epsilon$ larger than the length of a shortest path. In particular, an all-pairs shortest path solution, up to an additive constant error, can be computed in $O(V^2)$ time.

Sourav Chakraborty, Eldar Fischer, Oded Lachish, and Raphael Yuster. Two-phase Algorithms for the Parametric Shortest Path Problem. In 27th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science. Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 5, pp. 167-178, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2010)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2010.2452, author = {Chakraborty, Sourav and Fischer, Eldar and Lachish, Oded and Yuster, Raphael}, title = {{Two-phase Algorithms for the Parametric Shortest Path Problem}}, booktitle = {27th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science}, pages = {167--178}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-16-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2010}, volume = {5}, editor = {Marion, Jean-Yves and Schwentick, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2010.2452}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-24523}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2010.2452}, annote = {Keywords: Parametric Algorithms, Shortest path problem} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 3, 26th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (2009)

An edge-colored graph $G$ is {\em rainbow connected} if any two vertices are connected by a path whose edges have distinct colors. The {\em rainbow connectivity} of a connected graph $G$, denoted $rc(G)$, is the smallest number of colors that are needed in order to make $G$ rainbow connected. In addition to being a natural combinatorial problem, the rainbow connectivity problem is motivated by applications in cellular networks. In this paper we give the first proof that computing $rc(G)$ is NP-Hard. In fact, we prove that it is already NP-Complete to decide if $rc(G)=2$, and also that it is NP-Complete to decide whether a given edge-colored (with an unbounded number of colors) graph is rainbow connected. On the positive side, we prove that for every $\epsilon >0$, a connected graph with minimum degree at least $\epsilon n$ has bounded rainbow connectivity, where the bound depends only on $\epsilon$, and the corresponding coloring can be constructed in polynomial time. Additional non-trivial upper bounds, as well as open problems and conjectures are also presented.

Sourav Chakraborty, Eldar Fischer, Arie Matsliah, and Raphael Yuster. Hardness and Algorithms for Rainbow Connectivity. In 26th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science. Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 3, pp. 243-254, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2009)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2009.1811, author = {Chakraborty, Sourav and Fischer, Eldar and Matsliah, Arie and Yuster, Raphael}, title = {{Hardness and Algorithms for Rainbow Connectivity}}, booktitle = {26th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science}, pages = {243--254}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-09-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2009}, volume = {3}, editor = {Albers, Susanne and Marion, Jean-Yves}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2009.1811}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-18115}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2009.1811}, annote = {Keywords: } }

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