Document

Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

We study the problem of estimating the ST-diameter of a graph that is subject to a bounded number of edge failures. An f-edge fault-tolerant ST-diameter oracle (f-FDO-ST) is a data structure that preprocesses a given graph G, two sets of vertices S,T, and positive integer f. When queried with a set F of at most f edges, the oracle returns an estimate D̂ of the ST-diameter diam(G-F,S,T), the maximum distance between vertices in S and T in G-F. The oracle has stretch σ ⩾ 1 if diam(G-F,S,T) ⩽ D̂ ⩽ σ diam(G-F,S,T). If S and T both contain all vertices, the data structure is called an f-edge fault-tolerant diameter oracle (f-FDO). An f-edge fault-tolerant distance sensitivity oracles (f-DSO) estimates the pairwise graph distances under up to f failures.
We design new f-FDOs and f-FDO-STs by reducing their construction to that of all-pairs and single-source f-DSOs. We obtain several new tradeoffs between the size of the data structure, stretch guarantee, query and preprocessing times for diameter oracles by combining our black-box reductions with known results from the literature.
We also provide an information-theoretic lower bound on the space requirement of approximate f-FDOs. We show that there exists a family of graphs for which any f-FDO with sensitivity f ⩾ 2 and stretch less than 5/3 requires Ω(n^{3/2}) bits of space, regardless of the query time.

Davide Bilò, Keerti Choudhary, Sarel Cohen, Tobias Friedrich, Simon Krogmann, and Martin Schirneck. Fault-Tolerant ST-Diameter Oracles. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 24:1-24:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{bilo_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.24, author = {Bil\`{o}, Davide and Choudhary, Keerti and Cohen, Sarel and Friedrich, Tobias and Krogmann, Simon and Schirneck, Martin}, title = {{Fault-Tolerant ST-Diameter Oracles}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {24:1--24:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180762}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.24}, annote = {Keywords: diameter oracles, distance sensitivity oracles, space lower bounds, fault-tolerant data structures} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)

We construct data structures for extremal and pairwise distances in directed graphs in the presence of transient edge failures. Henzinger et al. [ITCS 2017] initiated the study of fault-tolerant (sensitivity) oracles for the diameter and vertex eccentricities. We extend this with a special focus on space efficiency. We present several new data structures, among them the first fault-tolerant eccentricity oracle for dual failures in subcubic space. We further prove lower bounds that show limits to approximation vs. space and diameter vs. space trade-offs for fault-tolerant oracles. They highlight key differences between data structures for undirected and directed graphs.
Initially, our oracles are randomized leaning on a sampling technique frequently used in sensitivity analysis. Building on the work of Alon, Chechik, and Cohen [ICALP 2019] as well as Karthik and Parter [SODA 2021], we develop a hierarchical framework to derandomize fault-tolerant data structures. We first apply it to our own diameter and eccentricity oracles and then show its versatility by derandomizing algorithms from the literature: the distance sensitivity oracle of Ren [JCSS 2022] and the Single-Source Replacement Path algorithm of Chechik and Magen [ICALP 2020]. This way, we obtain the first deterministic distance sensitivity oracle with subcubic preprocessing time.

Davide Bilò, Keerti Choudhary, Sarel Cohen, Tobias Friedrich, and Martin Schirneck. Deterministic Sensitivity Oracles for Diameter, Eccentricities and All Pairs Distances. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 22:1-22:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{bilo_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.22, author = {Bil\`{o}, Davide and Choudhary, Keerti and Cohen, Sarel and Friedrich, Tobias and Schirneck, Martin}, title = {{Deterministic Sensitivity Oracles for Diameter, Eccentricities and All Pairs Distances}}, booktitle = {49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)}, pages = {22:1--22:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-235-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {229}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.22}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163633}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.22}, annote = {Keywords: derandomization, diameter, eccentricity, fault-tolerant data structure, sensitivity oracle, space lower bound} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)

In this paper, we consider reachability oracles and reachability preservers for directed graphs/networks prone to edge/node failures. Let G = (V, E) be a directed graph on n-nodes, and P ⊆ V× V be a set of vertex pairs in G. We present the first non-trivial constructions of single and dual fault-tolerant pairwise reachability oracle with constant query time. Furthermore, we provide extremal bounds for sparse fault-tolerant reachability preservers, resilient to two or more failures. Prior to this work, such oracles and reachability preservers were widely studied for the special scenario of single-source and all-pairs settings. However, for the scenario of arbitrary pairs, no prior (non-trivial) results were known for dual (or more) failures, except those implied from the single-source setting. One of the main questions is whether it is possible to beat the O(n |P|) size bound (derived from the single-source setting) for reachability oracle and preserver for dual failures (or O(2^k n|P|) bound for k failures). We answer this question affirmatively. Below we summarize our contributions.
- For an n-vertex directed graph G = (V, E) and P ⊆ V× V, we present a construction of O(n √{|P|}) sized dual fault-tolerant pairwise reachability oracle with constant query time. We further provide a matching (up to the word size) lower bound of Ω(n √{|P|}) on the size (in bits) of the oracle for the dual fault setting, thereby proving that our oracle is (near-)optimal.
- Next, we provide a construction of O(n + min{|P|√ n,~n√{|P|}}) sized oracle with O(1) query time, resilient to single node/edge failure. In particular, for |P| bounded by O(√n) this yields an oracle of just O(n) size. We complement the upper bound with a lower bound of Ω(n^{2/3}|P|^{1/2}) (in bits), refuting the possibility of a linear-sized oracle for P of size ω(n^{2/3}).
- We also present a construction of O(n^{4/3} |P|^{1/3}) sized pairwise reachability preservers resilient to dual edge/vertex failures. Previously, such preservers were known to exist only under single failure and had O(n+min{|P|√n,~n√ {|P|}}) size [Chakraborty and Choudhary, ICALP'20]. We also show a lower bound of Ω(n √{|P|}) edges on the size of dual fault-tolerant reachability preservers, thereby providing a sharp gap between single and dual fault-tolerant reachability preservers for |P| = o(n).
- Finally, we provide a generic pairwise reachability preserver construction that provides a o(2^k n |P|) sized subgraph resilient to k failures, for any k ≥ 1. Before this work, we only knew of an O(2^k n |P|) bound implied from the single-source setting [Baswana, Choudhary, and Roditty, STOC'16].

Diptarka Chakraborty, Kushagra Chatterjee, and Keerti Choudhary. Pairwise Reachability Oracles and Preservers Under Failures. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 35:1-35:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.35, author = {Chakraborty, Diptarka and Chatterjee, Kushagra and Choudhary, Keerti}, title = {{Pairwise Reachability Oracles and Preservers Under Failures}}, booktitle = {49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)}, pages = {35:1--35:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-235-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {229}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.35}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163768}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.35}, annote = {Keywords: Fault-tolerant, Reachability Oracle, Reachability Preservers, Graph sparsification, Lower bounds} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

We combine ideas from distance sensitivity oracles (DSOs) and fixed-parameter tractability (FPT) to design sensitivity oracles for FPT graph problems. An oracle with sensitivity f for an FPT problem Π on a graph G with parameter k preprocesses G in time O(g(f,k) ⋅ poly(n)). When queried with a set F of at most f edges of G, the oracle reports the answer to the Π - with the same parameter k - on the graph G-F, i.e., G deprived of F. The oracle should answer queries in a time that is significantly faster than merely running the best-known FPT algorithm on G-F from scratch.
We design sensitivity oracles for the k-Path and the k-Vertex Cover problem. Our first oracle for k-Path has size O(k^{f+1}) and query time O(f min{f, log(f) + k}). We use a technique inspired by the work of Weimann and Yuster [FOCS 2010, TALG 2013] on distance sensitivity problems to reduce the space to O(({f+k}/f)^f ({f+k}/k)^k fk⋅log(n)) at the expense of increasing the query time to O(({f+k}/f)^f ({f+k}/k)^k f min{f,k}⋅log(n)). Both oracles can be modified to handle vertex-failures, but we need to replace k with 2k in all the claimed bounds.
Regarding k-Vertex Cover, we design three oracles offering different trade-offs between the size and the query time. The first oracle takes O(3^{f+k}) space and has O(2^f) query time, the second one has a size of O(2^{f+k²+k}) and a query time of O(f+k²); finally, the third one takes O(fk+k²) space and can be queried in time O(1.2738^k + f). All our oracles are computable in time (at most) proportional to their size and the time needed to detect a k-path or k-vertex cover, respectively. We also provide an interesting connection between k-Vertex Cover and the fault-tolerant shortest path problem, by giving a DSO of size O(poly(f,k) ⋅ n) with query time in O(poly(f,k)), where k is the size of a vertex cover.
Following our line of research connecting fault-tolerant FPT and shortest paths problems, we introduce parameterization to the computation of distance preservers. We study the problem, given a directed unweighted graph with a fixed source s and parameters f and k, to construct a polynomial-sized oracle that efficiently reports, for any target vertex v and set F of at most f edges, whether the distance from s to v increases at most by an additive term of k in G-F. The oracle size is O(2^k k²⋅n), while the time needed to answer a query is O(2^k f^ω k^ω), where ω < 2.373 is the matrix multiplication exponent. The second problem we study is about the construction of bounded-stretch fault-tolerant preservers. We construct a subgraph with O(2^{fk+f+k} k ⋅ n) edges that preserves those s-v-distances that do not increase by more than k upon failure of F. This improves significantly over the Õ(f n^{2-1/(2^f)}) bound in the unparameterized case by Bodwin et al. [ICALP 2017].

Davide Bilò, Katrin Casel, Keerti Choudhary, Sarel Cohen, Tobias Friedrich, J.A. Gregor Lagodzinski, Martin Schirneck, and Simon Wietheger. Fixed-Parameter Sensitivity Oracles. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 23:1-23:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{bilo_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.23, author = {Bil\`{o}, Davide and Casel, Katrin and Choudhary, Keerti and Cohen, Sarel and Friedrich, Tobias and Lagodzinski, J.A. Gregor and Schirneck, Martin and Wietheger, Simon}, title = {{Fixed-Parameter Sensitivity Oracles}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {23:1--23:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156196}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.23}, annote = {Keywords: data structures, distance preservers, distance sensitivity oracles, fault tolerance, fixed-parameter tractability, k-path, vertex cover} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 202, 46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021)

We study the Budgeted Dominating Set (BDS) problem on uncertain graphs, namely, graphs with a probability distribution p associated with the edges, such that an edge e exists in the graph with probability p(e). The input to the problem consists of a vertex-weighted uncertain graph 𝒢 = (V, E, p, ω) and an integer budget (or solution size) k, and the objective is to compute a vertex set S of size k that maximizes the expected total domination (or total weight) of vertices in the closed neighborhood of S. We refer to the problem as the Probabilistic Budgeted Dominating Set (PBDS) problem. In this article, we present the following results on the complexity of the PBDS problem.
1) We show that the PBDS problem is NP-complete even when restricted to uncertain trees of diameter at most four. This is in sharp contrast with the well-known fact that the BDS problem is solvable in polynomial time in trees. We further show that PBDS is 𝖶[1]-hard for the budget parameter k, and under the Exponential time hypothesis it cannot be solved in n^o(k) time.
2) We show that if one is willing to settle for (1-ε) approximation, then there exists a PTAS for PBDS on trees. Moreover, for the scenario of uniform edge-probabilities, the problem can be solved optimally in polynomial time.
3) We consider the parameterized complexity of the PBDS problem, and show that Uni-PBDS (where all edge probabilities are identical) is 𝖶[1]-hard for the parameter pathwidth. On the other hand, we show that it is FPT in the combined parameters of the budget k and the treewidth.
4) Finally, we extend some of our parameterized results to planar and apex-minor-free graphs.
Our first hardness proof (Thm. 1) makes use of the new problem of k-Subset Σ-Π Maximization (k-SPM), which we believe is of independent interest. We prove its NP-hardness by a reduction from the well-known k-SUM problem, presenting a close relationship between the two problems.

Keerti Choudhary, Avi Cohen, N. S. Narayanaswamy, David Peleg, and R. Vijayaragunathan. Budgeted Dominating Sets in Uncertain Graphs. In 46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 202, pp. 32:1-32:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{choudhary_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.32, author = {Choudhary, Keerti and Cohen, Avi and Narayanaswamy, N. S. and Peleg, David and Vijayaragunathan, R.}, title = {{Budgeted Dominating Sets in Uncertain Graphs}}, booktitle = {46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021)}, pages = {32:1--32:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-201-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {202}, editor = {Bonchi, Filippo and Puglisi, Simon J.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.32}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-144723}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.32}, annote = {Keywords: Uncertain graphs, Dominating set, NP-hard, PTAS, treewidth, planar graph} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 173, 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)

We study a graph realization problem that pertains to degrees in vertex neighborhoods. The classical problem of degree sequence realizability asks whether or not a given sequence of n positive integers is equal to the degree sequence of some n-vertex undirected simple graph. While the realizability problem of degree sequences has been well studied for different classes of graphs, there has been relatively little work concerning the realizability of other types of information profiles, such as the vertex neighborhood profiles.
In this paper we introduce and explore the minimum degrees in vertex neighborhood profile as it is one of the most natural extensions of the classical degree profile to vertex neighboring degree profiles. Given a graph G = (V,E), the min-degree of a vertex v ∈ V, namely MinND(v), is given by min{deg(w) ∣ w ∈ N[v]}. Our input is a sequence σ = (d_𝓁^{n_𝓁}, ⋯ , d₁^{n₁}), where d_{i+1} > d_i and each n_i is a positive integer. We provide some necessary and sufficient conditions for σ to be realizable. Furthermore, under the restriction that the realization is acyclic, i.e., a tree or a forest, we provide a full characterization of realizable sequences, along with a corresponding constructive algorithm.
We believe our results are a crucial step towards understanding extremal neighborhood degree relations in graphs.

Amotz Bar-Noy, Keerti Choudhary, Avi Cohen, David Peleg, and Dror Rawitz. Minimum Neighboring Degree Realization in Graphs and Trees. In 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 173, pp. 10:1-10:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{barnoy_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2020.10, author = {Bar-Noy, Amotz and Choudhary, Keerti and Cohen, Avi and Peleg, David and Rawitz, Dror}, title = {{Minimum Neighboring Degree Realization in Graphs and Trees}}, booktitle = {28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)}, pages = {10:1--10:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-162-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {173}, editor = {Grandoni, Fabrizio and Herman, Grzegorz and Sanders, Peter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-128765}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.10}, annote = {Keywords: Graph realization, neighborhood profile, graph algorithms, degree sequences} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

Fault tolerant distance preservers are sparse subgraphs that preserve distances between given pairs of nodes under edge or vertex failures. In this paper, we present the first non-trivial constructions of subset distance preservers, which preserve all distances among a subset of nodes S, that can handle either an edge or a vertex fault.
- For an n-vertex undirected weighted graph or weighted DAG G = (V,E) and S ⊆ V, we present a construction of a subset preserver with Õ(|S|n) edges that is resilient to a single fault. In the single pair case (|S| = 2), the bound improves to O(n). We further provide a nearly-matching lower bound of Ω(|S|n) in either setting, and we show that the same lower bound holds conditionally even if attention is restricted to unweighted graphs.
- For an n-vertex directed unweighted graph G = (V,E) and r ∈ V, S ⊆ V, we present a construction of a preserver of distances in {r} × S with Õ(n^{4/3} |S|^{5/6}) edges that is resilient to a single fault. In the case |S| = 1 the bound improves to O(n^{4/3}), and for this case we provide another matching conditional lower bound.
- For an n-vertex directed weighted graph G = (V, E) and r ∈ V, S ⊆ V, we present a construction of a preserver of distances in {r} × S with Õ(n^{3/2} |S|^{3/4}) edges that is resilient to a single vertex fault. (It was proved in [Greg Bodwin et al., 2017] that the bound improves to O(n^{3/2}) when |S| = 1, and that this is conditionally tight.)

Greg Bodwin, Keerti Choudhary, Merav Parter, and Noa Shahar. New Fault Tolerant Subset Preservers. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 15:1-15:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{bodwin_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.15, author = {Bodwin, Greg and Choudhary, Keerti and Parter, Merav and Shahar, Noa}, title = {{New Fault Tolerant Subset Preservers}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {15:1--15:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124222}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.15}, annote = {Keywords: Subset Preservers, Distances, Fault-tolerance} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

In this paper, we consider the question of computing sparse subgraphs for any input directed graph G = (V,E) on n vertices and m edges, that preserves reachability and/or strong connectivity structures.
- We show O(n+min{|P|√n, n√|P|}) bound on a subgraph that is an 1-fault-tolerant reachability preserver for a given vertex-pair set P ⊆ V× V, i.e., it preserves reachability between any pair of vertices in P under single edge (or vertex) failure. Our result is a significant improvement over the previous best O(n |P|) bound obtained as a corollary of single-source reachability preserver construction. We prove our upper bound by exploiting the special structure of single fault-tolerant reachability preserver for any pair, and then considering the interaction among such structures for different pairs.
- In the lower bound side, we show that a 2-fault-tolerant reachability preserver for a vertex-pair set P ⊆ V×V of size Ω(n^ε), for even any arbitrarily small ε, requires at least Ω(n^(1+ε/8)) edges. This refutes the existence of linear-sized dual fault-tolerant preservers for reachability for any polynomial sized vertex-pair set.
- We also present the first sub-quadratic bound of at most Õ(k 2^k n^(2-1/k)) size, for strong-connectivity preservers of directed graphs under k failures. To the best of our knowledge no non-trivial bound for this problem was known before, for a general k. We get our result by adopting the color-coding technique of Alon, Yuster, and Zwick [JACM'95].

Diptarka Chakraborty and Keerti Choudhary. New Extremal Bounds for Reachability and Strong-Connectivity Preservers Under Failures. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 25:1-25:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.25, author = {Chakraborty, Diptarka and Choudhary, Keerti}, title = {{New Extremal Bounds for Reachability and Strong-Connectivity Preservers Under Failures}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {25:1--25:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.25}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124327}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.25}, annote = {Keywords: Preservers, Strong-connectivity, Reachability, Fault-tolerant, Graph sparsification} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 162, 17th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2020)

The classical problem of degree sequence realizability asks whether or not a given sequence of n positive integers is equal to the degree sequence of some n-vertex undirected simple graph. While the realizability problem of degree sequences has been well studied for different classes of graphs, there has been relatively little work concerning the realizability of other types of information profiles, such as the vertex neighborhood profiles.
In this paper, we initiate the study of neighborhood degree profiles, wherein, our focus is on the natural problem of realizing maximum neighborhood degrees. More specifically, we ask the following question: "Given a sequence D of n non-negative integers 0≤ d₁≤ ⋯ ≤ d_n, does there exist a simple graph with vertices v₁,…, v_n such that for every 1≤ i ≤ n, the maximum degree in the neighborhood of v_i is exactly d_i?"
We provide in this work various results for maximum-neighborhood-degree for general n vertex graphs. Our results are first of its kind that studies extremal neighborhood degree profiles. For closed as well as open neighborhood degree profiles, we provide a complete realizability criteria. We also provide tight bounds for the number of maximum neighbouring degree profiles of length n that are realizable. Our conditions are verifiable in linear time and our realizations can be constructed in polynomial time.

Amotz Bar-Noy, Keerti Choudhary, David Peleg, and Dror Rawitz. Graph Realizations: Maximum Degree in Vertex Neighborhoods. In 17th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 162, pp. 10:1-10:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{barnoy_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2020.10, author = {Bar-Noy, Amotz and Choudhary, Keerti and Peleg, David and Rawitz, Dror}, title = {{Graph Realizations: Maximum Degree in Vertex Neighborhoods}}, booktitle = {17th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2020)}, pages = {10:1--10:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-150-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {162}, editor = {Albers, Susanne}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2020.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-122572}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2020.10}, annote = {Keywords: Graph realization, neighborhood profile, extremum-degree} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 149, 30th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2019)

We consider the problem of realizable interval-sequences. An interval sequence comprises of n integer intervals [a_i,b_i] such that 0 <= a_i <= b_i <= n-1, and is said to be graphic/realizable if there exists a graph with degree sequence, say, D=(d_1,...,d_n) satisfying the condition a_i <= d_i <= b_i, for each i in [1,n]. There is a characterisation (also implying an O(n) verifying algorithm) known for realizability of interval-sequences, which is a generalization of the Erdös-Gallai characterisation for graphic sequences. However, given any realizable interval-sequence, there is no known algorithm for computing a corresponding graphic certificate in o(n^2) time.
In this paper, we provide an O(n log n) time algorithm for computing a graphic sequence for any realizable interval sequence. In addition, when the interval sequence is non-realizable, we show how to find a graphic sequence having minimum deviation with respect to the given interval sequence, in the same time. Finally, we consider variants of the problem such as computing the most regular graphic sequence, and computing a minimum extension of a length p non-graphic sequence to a graphic one.

Amotz Bar-Noy, Keerti Choudhary, David Peleg, and Dror Rawitz. Efficiently Realizing Interval Sequences. In 30th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 149, pp. 47:1-47:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{barnoy_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2019.47, author = {Bar-Noy, Amotz and Choudhary, Keerti and Peleg, David and Rawitz, Dror}, title = {{Efficiently Realizing Interval Sequences}}, booktitle = {30th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2019)}, pages = {47:1--47:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-130-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {149}, editor = {Lu, Pinyan and Zhang, Guochuan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2019.47}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-115430}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2019.47}, annote = {Keywords: Graph realization, graphic sequence, interval sequence} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 96, 35th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2018)

Real life graphs and networks are prone to failure of nodes (vertices) and links (edges). In particular, for a pair of nodes s and t and a failing edge e in an n-vertex unweighted graph G=(V(G),E(G)), the replacement path pi_{G-e}(s,t) is a shortest s-t path that avoids e. In this paper we present several efficient constructions that, for every (s,t) \in S x T, where S, T \subseteq V(G), and every e \in E(G), maintain the collection of all pi_{G-e}(s,t), either implicitly (i.e., through compact data structures a.k.a. distance sensitivity oracles (DSO)), or explicitly (i.e., through sparse subgraphs a.k.a. fault-tolerant preservers (FTP)).
More precisely, we provide the following results:
(1) DSO:
For every S,T \subseteq V(G), we construct a DSO for maintaining S x T distances under single edge (or vertex) faults. This DSO has size tilde{O}(n\sqrt{|S||T|}) and query time of
O(\sqrt{|S||T|}). At the expense of having quasi-polynomial query time,
the size of the oracle can be improved to tilde{O}(n|S|+|T|\sqrt{|S|n}), which is optimal for |T| = Omega(sqrt{n|S|}). When |T| = Omega(n^frac{3}{4} |S|^frac{1}{4}), the construction can be further refined in order to get a polynomial query time. We also consider the approximate additive setting, and show a family of DSOs that exhibits a tradeoff between the additive stretch and the size of the oracle. Finally, for the meaningful single-source case, the above result is complemented by a lower bound conditioned on the Set-Intersection conjecture. This lower bound establishes a separation between the oracle and the subgraph settings.
(2) FTP:
We show the construction of a path-reporting DSO of size tilde{O}(n^{4/3}(|S||T|)^{1/3}) reporting pi_{G-e}(s,t) in O(|pi_{G-e}(s,t)|+(n|S||T|)^{1/3}) time. Such a DSO can be transformed into a FTP having the same size, and moreover it can be elaborated in order to make it optimal (up to a poly-logarithmic factor) both in space and query time for the special case in which T=V(G). Our FTP improves over previous constructions when |T|=O(sqrt{|S|n}) (up to inverse poly-logarithmic factors).
(3) Routing and Labeling Schemes:
For the well-studied single-source setting, we present a novel routing scheme, that allows to route messages on pi_{G-e}(s,t) by using edge labels and routing tables of size tilde{O}(\sqrt{n}), and a header message of poly-logarithmic size. We also present a labeling scheme for the setting which is optimal in space up to constant factors.

Davide Bilò, Keerti Choudhary, Luciano Gualà, Stefano Leucci, Merav Parter, and Guido Proietti. Efficient Oracles and Routing Schemes for Replacement Paths. In 35th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 96, pp. 13:1-13:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{bilo_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2018.13, author = {Bil\`{o}, Davide and Choudhary, Keerti and Gual\`{a}, Luciano and Leucci, Stefano and Parter, Merav and Proietti, Guido}, title = {{Efficient Oracles and Routing Schemes for Replacement Paths}}, booktitle = {35th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2018)}, pages = {13:1--13:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-062-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {96}, editor = {Niedermeier, Rolf and Vall\'{e}e, Brigitte}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2018.13}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-85249}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2018.13}, annote = {Keywords: Fault tolerant, Shortest path, Oracle, Routing} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

In this paper we study the problem of maintaining the strongly connected components of a graph in the presence of failures. In particular, we show that given a directed graph G=(V,E) with n=|V| and m=|E|, and an integer value k\geq 1, there is an algorithm that computes in O(2^{k}n log^2 n) time for any set F of size at most k the strongly connected components of the graph G\F. The running time of our algorithm is almost optimal since the time for outputting the SCCs of G\F is at least \Omega(n). The algorithm uses a data structure that is computed in a preprocessing phase in polynomial time and is of size O(2^{k} n^2).
Our result is obtained using a new observation on the relation between strongly connected components (SCCs) and reachability. More specifically, one of the main building blocks in our result is a restricted variant of the problem in which we only compute strongly connected components that intersect a certain path. Restricting our attention to a path allows us to implicitly compute reachability between the path vertices and the rest of the graph in time that depends logarithmically rather than linearly in the size of the path. This new observation alone, however, is not enough, since we need to find an efficient way to represent the strongly connected components using paths. For this purpose we use a mixture of old and classical techniques such as the heavy path decomposition of Sleator and Tarjan and the classical Depth-First-Search algorithm. Although, these are by now standard techniques, we are not aware of any usage of them in the context of dynamic maintenance of SCCs. Therefore, we expect that our new insights and mixture of new and old techniques will be of independent interest.

Surender Baswana, Keerti Choudhary, and Liam Roditty. An Efficient Strongly Connected Components Algorithm in the Fault Tolerant Model. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 72:1-72:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{baswana_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.72, author = {Baswana, Surender and Choudhary, Keerti and Roditty, Liam}, title = {{An Efficient Strongly Connected Components Algorithm in the Fault Tolerant Model}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {72:1--72:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.72}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-74168}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.72}, annote = {Keywords: Fault tolerant, Directed graph, Strongly connected components} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 55, 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)

Let G=(V,E) be an n-vertices m-edges directed graph. Let s inV be any designated source vertex. We address the problem of reporting the reachability information from s under two vertex failures. We show that it is possible to compute in polynomial time an O(n) size data structure that for any query vertex v, and any pair of failed vertices f_1, f_2, answers in O(1) time whether or not there exists a path from s to v in G\{f_1,f_2}.
For the simpler case of single vertex failure such a data structure can be obtained using the dominator-tree from the celebrated work of Lengauer and Tarjan [TOPLAS 1979, Vol. 1]. However, no efficient data structure was known in the past for handling more than one failures. We, in addition, also present a labeling scheme with O(log^3(n))-bit size labels such that for any f_1, f_2, v in V , it is possible to determine in poly-logarithmic time if v is reachable from s in G\{f_1,f_2} using only the labels of f1, f_2 and v.
Our data structure can also be seen as an efficient mechanism for verifying double-dominators. For any given x, y, v in V we can determine in O(1) time if the pair (x,y) is a double-dominator of v. Earlier the best known method for this problem was using dominator chain from which verification of double-dominators of only a single vertex was possible.

Keerti Choudhary. An Optimal Dual Fault Tolerant Reachability Oracle. In 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 55, pp. 130:1-130:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{choudhary:LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.130, author = {Choudhary, Keerti}, title = {{An Optimal Dual Fault Tolerant Reachability Oracle}}, booktitle = {43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)}, pages = {130:1--130:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-013-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {55}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Mitzenmacher, Michael and Rabani, Yuval and Sangiorgi, Davide}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.130}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-62659}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.130}, annote = {Keywords: Fault tolerant, Directed graph, Reachability oracle, Labeling scheme} }

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