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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

We provide polynomial-time reductions between three search problems from three distinct areas: the P-matrix linear complementarity problem (P-LCP), finding the sink of a unique sink orientation (USO), and a variant of the α-Ham Sandwich problem. For all three settings, we show that "two choices are enough", meaning that the general non-binary version of the problem can be reduced in polynomial time to the binary version. This specifically means that generalized P-LCPs are equivalent to P-LCPs, and grid USOs are equivalent to cube USOs. These results are obtained by showing that both the P-LCP and our α-Ham Sandwich variant are equivalent to a new problem we introduce, P-Lin-Bellman. This problem can be seen as a new tool for formulating problems as P-LCPs.

Michaela Borzechowski, John Fearnley, Spencer Gordon, Rahul Savani, Patrick Schnider, and Simon Weber. Two Choices Are Enough for P-LCPs, USOs, and Colorful Tangents. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 32:1-32:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{borzechowski_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.32, author = {Borzechowski, Michaela and Fearnley, John and Gordon, Spencer and Savani, Rahul and Schnider, Patrick and Weber, Simon}, title = {{Two Choices Are Enough for P-LCPs, USOs, and Colorful Tangents}}, booktitle = {51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)}, pages = {32:1--32:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-322-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {297}, editor = {Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.32}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201751}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.32}, annote = {Keywords: P-LCP, Unique Sink Orientation, \alpha-Ham Sandwich, search complexity, TFNP, UEOPL} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 187, 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)

Dang et al. have given an algorithm that can find a Tarski fixed point in a k-dimensional lattice of width n using O(log^k n) queries [Chuangyin Dang et al., 2020]. Multiple authors have conjectured that this algorithm is optimal [Chuangyin Dang et al., 2020; Kousha Etessami et al., 2020], and indeed this has been proven for two-dimensional instances [Kousha Etessami et al., 2020]. We show that these conjectures are false in dimension three or higher by giving an O(log² n) query algorithm for the three-dimensional Tarski problem, which generalises to give an O(log^{k-1} n) query algorithm for the k-dimensional problem when k ≥ 3.

John Fearnley and Rahul Savani. A Faster Algorithm for Finding Tarski Fixed Points. In 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 187, pp. 29:1-29:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{fearnley_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2021.29, author = {Fearnley, John and Savani, Rahul}, title = {{A Faster Algorithm for Finding Tarski Fixed Points}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)}, pages = {29:1--29:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-180-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {187}, editor = {Bl\"{a}ser, Markus and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.29}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136741}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.29}, annote = {Keywords: query complexity, Tarski fixed points, total function problem} }

Document

Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

We prove that it is PPAD-hard to compute a Nash equilibrium in a tree polymatrix game with twenty actions per player. This is the first PPAD hardness result for a game with a constant number of actions per player where the interaction graph is acyclic. Along the way we show PPAD-hardness for finding an ε-fixed point of a 2D-LinearFIXP instance, when ε is any constant less than (√2 - 1)/2 ≈ 0.2071. This lifts the hardness regime from polynomially small approximations in k-dimensions to constant approximations in two-dimensions, and our constant is substantial when compared to the trivial upper bound of 0.5.

Argyrios Deligkas, John Fearnley, and Rahul Savani. Tree Polymatrix Games Are PPAD-Hard. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 38:1-38:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{deligkas_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.38, author = {Deligkas, Argyrios and Fearnley, John and Savani, Rahul}, title = {{Tree Polymatrix Games Are PPAD-Hard}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {38:1--38:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.38}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124458}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.38}, annote = {Keywords: Nash Equilibria, Polymatrix Games, PPAD, Brouwer Fixed Points} }

Document

Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

The complexity class CLS was proposed by Daskalakis and Papadimitriou in 2011 to understand the complexity of important NP search problems that admit both path following and potential optimizing algorithms. Here we identify a subclass of CLS - called UniqueEOPL - that applies a more specific combinatorial principle that guarantees unique solutions. We show that UniqueEOPL contains several important problems such as the P-matrix Linear Complementarity Problem, finding Fixed Point of Contraction Maps, and solving Unique Sink Orientations (USOs). UniqueEOPL seems to a proper subclass of CLS and looks more likely to be the right class for the problems of interest. We identify a problem - closely related to solving contraction maps and USOs - that is complete for UniqueEOPL. Our results also give the fastest randomised algorithm for P-matrix LCP.

John Fearnley, Spencer Gordon, Ruta Mehta, and Rahul Savani. Unique End of Potential Line. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 56:1-56:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{fearnley_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.56, author = {Fearnley, John and Gordon, Spencer and Mehta, Ruta and Savani, Rahul}, title = {{Unique End of Potential Line}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {56:1--56:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.56}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106327}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.56}, annote = {Keywords: P-matrix linear complementarity problem, unique sink orientation, contraction map, TFNP, total search problems, continuous local search} }

Document

Track C: Foundations of Networks and Multi-Agent Systems: Models, Algorithms and Information Management

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

We study the problem of finding an exact solution to the consensus halving problem. While recent work has shown that the approximate version of this problem is PPA-complete [Filos-Ratsikas and Goldberg, 2018; Filos-Ratsikas and Goldberg, 2018], we show that the exact version is much harder. Specifically, finding a solution with n agents and n cuts is FIXP-hard, and deciding whether there exists a solution with fewer than n cuts is ETR-complete. We also give a QPTAS for the case where each agent’s valuation is a polynomial.
Along the way, we define a new complexity class BU, which captures all problems that can be reduced to solving an instance of the Borsuk-Ulam problem exactly. We show that FIXP subseteq BU subseteq TFETR and that LinearBU = PPA, where LinearBU is the subclass of BU in which the Borsuk-Ulam instance is specified by a linear arithmetic circuit.

Argyrios Deligkas, John Fearnley, Themistoklis Melissourgos, and Paul G. Spirakis. Computing Exact Solutions of Consensus Halving and the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 138:1-138:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{deligkas_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.138, author = {Deligkas, Argyrios and Fearnley, John and Melissourgos, Themistoklis and Spirakis, Paul G.}, title = {{Computing Exact Solutions of Consensus Halving and the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {138:1--138:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.138}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-107141}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.138}, annote = {Keywords: PPA, FIXP, ETR, consensus halving, circuit, reduction, complexity class} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)

In this paper, we study the problem of deciding the winner of reachability switching games. We study zero-, one-, and two-player variants of these games. We show that the zero-player case is NL-hard, the one-player case is NP-complete, and that the two-player case is PSPACE-hard and in EXPTIME. For the zero-player case, we also show P-hardness for a succinctly-represented model that maintains the upper bound of NP n coNP. For the one- and two-player cases, our results hold in both the natural, explicit model and succinctly-represented model. We also study the structure of winning strategies in these games, and in particular we show that exponential memory is required in both the one- and two-player settings.

John Fearnley, Martin Gairing, Matthias Mnich, and Rahul Savani. Reachability Switching Games. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 124:1-124:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{fearnley_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.124, author = {Fearnley, John and Gairing, Martin and Mnich, Matthias and Savani, Rahul}, title = {{Reachability Switching Games}}, booktitle = {45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)}, pages = {124:1--124:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-076-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {107}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.124}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-91282}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.124}, annote = {Keywords: Deterministic Random Walks, Model Checking, Reachability, Simple Stochastic Game, Switching Systems} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 16, Computer Science Logic (CSL'12) - 26th International Workshop/21st Annual Conference of the EACSL (2012)

While model checking PCTL for Markov chains is decidable in polynomial-time, the decidability of PCTL satisfiability is a long standing open problem. While general satisfiability is an intriguing challenge from a purely theoretical point of view, we argue that general solutions would not be of interest to practitioners: such solutions could be too big to be implementable or even infinite. Inspired by bounded synthesis techniques, we turn to the more applied
problem of seeking models of a bounded size: we restrict our search to
implementable - and therefore reasonably simple - models. We propose a
procedure to decide whether or not a given PCTL formula has an implementable model by reducing it to an SMT problem. We have implemented our techniques and found that they can be applied to the practical problem of sanity checking - a procedure that allows a system designer to check whether their formula has an unexpectedly small model.

Nathalie Bertrand, John Fearnley, and Sven Schewe. Bounded Satisfiability for PCTL. In Computer Science Logic (CSL'12) - 26th International Workshop/21st Annual Conference of the EACSL. Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 16, pp. 92-106, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2012)

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@InProceedings{bertrand_et_al:LIPIcs.CSL.2012.92, author = {Bertrand, Nathalie and Fearnley, John and Schewe, Sven}, title = {{Bounded Satisfiability for PCTL}}, booktitle = {Computer Science Logic (CSL'12) - 26th International Workshop/21st Annual Conference of the EACSL}, pages = {92--106}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-42-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2012}, volume = {16}, editor = {C\'{e}gielski, Patrick and Durand, Arnaud}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CSL.2012.92}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-36667}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CSL.2012.92}, annote = {Keywords: Satisfiability, Temporal Logic, Probabilistic Logic} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 13, IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2011)

We study the time-bounded reachability problem for continuous time Markov decision processes (CTMDPs) and games (CTMGs). Existing techniques for this problem use discretization techniques to break time into discrete intervals, and optimal control is approximated for each interval separately. Current techniques provide an accuracy of O(\epsilon^2) on each interval, which leads to an infeasibly large number of intervals. We propose a sequence of approximations that achieve accuracies of O(\epsilon^3), O(\epsilon^4), and O(\epsilon^5), that allow us to drastically reduce the number of intervals that are considered. For CTMDPs, the resulting algorithms are comparable to the heuristic approach given by Buckholz and Schulz, while also being theoretically justified. All of our results generalise to CTMGs, where our results yield the first practically implementable algorithms for this problem. We also provide positional strategies for both players that achieve similar error bounds.

John Fearnley, Markus Rabe, Sven Schewe, and Lijun Zhang. Efficient Approximation of Optimal Control for Continuous-Time Markov Games. In IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2011). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 13, pp. 399-410, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2011)

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@InProceedings{fearnley_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2011.399, author = {Fearnley, John and Rabe, Markus and Schewe, Sven and Zhang, Lijun}, title = {{Efficient Approximation of Optimal Control for Continuous-Time Markov Games}}, booktitle = {IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2011)}, pages = {399--410}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-34-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2011}, volume = {13}, editor = {Chakraborty, Supratik and Kumar, Amit}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2011.399}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-33547}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2011.399}, annote = {Keywords: Continuous time Markov decision processes and games, discretisation} }

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