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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 306, 49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024)

Romeo and Juliet is a two player Rendezvous game played on graphs where one player controls two agents, Romeo (ℛ) and Juliet (𝒥) who aim to meet at a vertex against k adversaries, called dividers, controlled by the other player. The optimization in this game lies at deciding the minimum number of dividers sufficient to restrict ℛ and 𝒥 from meeting in a graph, called the dynamic separation number. We establish that Romeo and Juliet is EXPTIME-complete, settling a conjecture of Fomin, Golovach, and Thilikos [Inf. and Comp., 2023] positively. We also consider the game for directed graphs and establish that although the game is EXPTIME-complete for general directed graphs, it is PSPACE-complete and co-W[2]-hard for directed acyclic graphs.

Harmender Gahlawat, Jan Matyáš Křišťan, and Tomáš Valla. Romeo and Juliet Is EXPTIME-Complete. In 49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 306, pp. 54:1-54:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{gahlawat_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.54, author = {Gahlawat, Harmender and K\v{r}i\v{s}\v{t}an, Jan Maty\'{a}\v{s} and Valla, Tom\'{a}\v{s}}, title = {{Romeo and Juliet Is EXPTIME-Complete}}, booktitle = {49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024)}, pages = {54:1--54:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-335-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {306}, editor = {Kr\'{a}lovi\v{c}, Rastislav and Ku\v{c}era, Anton{\'\i}n}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.54}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-206106}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.54}, annote = {Keywords: Rendezvous Games on graphs, EXPTIME-completeness, Dynamic Separators} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 285, 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)

Given an undirected graph G and a multiset of k terminal pairs 𝒳, the Vertex-Disjoint Paths (VDP) and Edge-Disjoint Paths (EDP) problems ask whether G has k pairwise internally vertex-disjoint paths and k pairwise edge-disjoint paths, respectively, connecting every terminal pair in 𝒳. In this paper, we study the kernelization complexity of VDP and EDP on subclasses of chordal graphs. For VDP, we design a 4k vertex kernel on split graphs and an 𝒪(k²) vertex kernel on well-partitioned chordal graphs. We also show that the problem becomes polynomial-time solvable on threshold graphs. For EDP, we first prove that the problem is NP-complete on complete graphs. Then, we design an 𝒪(k^{2.75}) vertex kernel for EDP on split graphs, and improve it to a 7k+1 vertex kernel on threshold graphs. Lastly, we provide an 𝒪(k²) vertex kernel for EDP on block graphs and a 2k+1 vertex kernel for clique paths. Our contributions improve upon several results in the literature, as well as resolve an open question by Heggernes et al. [Theory Comput. Syst., 2015].

Juhi Chaudhary, Harmender Gahlawat, Michal Włodarczyk, and Meirav Zehavi. Kernels for the Disjoint Paths Problem on Subclasses of Chordal Graphs. In 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 285, pp. 10:1-10:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{chaudhary_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.10, author = {Chaudhary, Juhi and Gahlawat, Harmender and W{\l}odarczyk, Michal and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Kernels for the Disjoint Paths Problem on Subclasses of Chordal Graphs}}, booktitle = {18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)}, pages = {10:1--10:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-305-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {285}, editor = {Misra, Neeldhara and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194296}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.10}, annote = {Keywords: Kernelization, Parameterized Complexity, Vertex-Disjoint Paths Problem, Edge-Disjoint Paths Problem} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 284, 43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023)

Fair division of resources among competing agents is a fundamental problem in computational social choice and economic game theory. It has been intensively studied on various kinds of items (divisible and indivisible) and under various notions of fairness. We focus on Connected Fair Division (CFD), the variant of fair division on graphs, where the resources are modeled as an item graph. Here, each agent has to be assigned a connected subgraph of the item graph, and each item has to be assigned to some agent.
We introduce a generalization of CFD, termed Incomplete CFD (ICFD), where exactly p vertices of the item graph should be assigned to the agents. This might be useful, in particular when the allocations are intended to be "economical" as well as fair. We consider four well-known notions of fairness: PROP, EF, EF1, EFX. First, we prove that EF-ICFD, EF1-ICFD, and EFX-ICFD are W[1]-hard parameterized by p plus the number of agents, even for graphs having constant vertex cover number (vcn). In contrast, we present a randomized FPT algorithm for PROP-ICFD parameterized only by p. Additionally, we prove both positive and negative results concerning the kernelization complexity of ICFD under all four fairness notions, parameterized by p, vcn, and the total number of different valuations in the item graph (val).

Harmender Gahlawat and Meirav Zehavi. Parameterized Complexity of Incomplete Connected Fair Division. In 43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 284, pp. 14:1-14:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{gahlawat_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.14, author = {Gahlawat, Harmender and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Parameterized Complexity of Incomplete Connected Fair Division}}, booktitle = {43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023)}, pages = {14:1--14:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-304-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {284}, editor = {Bouyer, Patricia and Srinivasan, Srikanth}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.14}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-193877}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.14}, annote = {Keywords: Fair Division, Kernelization, Connected Fair Allocation, Fixed parameter tractability} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 272, 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)

The Hunters and Rabbit game is played on a graph G where the Hunter player shoots at k vertices in every round while the Rabbit player occupies an unknown vertex and, if it is not shot, must move to a neighbouring vertex after each round. The Rabbit player wins if it can ensure that its position is never shot. The Hunter player wins otherwise. The hunter number h(G) of a graph G is the minimum integer k such that the Hunter player has a winning strategy (i.e., allowing him to win whatever be the strategy of the Rabbit player). This game has been studied in several graph classes, in particular in bipartite graphs (grids, trees, hypercubes...), but the computational complexity of computing h(G) remains open in general graphs and even in more restricted graph classes such as trees. To progress further in this study, we propose a notion of monotonicity (a well-studied and useful property in classical pursuit-evasion games such as Graph Searching games) for the Hunters and Rabbit game imposing that, roughly, a vertex that has already been shot "must not host the rabbit anymore". This allows us to obtain new results in various graph classes.
More precisely, let the monotone hunter number mh(G) of a graph G be the minimum integer k such that the Hunter player has a monotone winning strategy. We show that pw(G) ≤ mh(G) ≤ pw(G)+1 for any graph G with pathwidth pw(G), which implies that computing mh(G), or even approximating mh(G) up to an additive constant, is NP-hard. Then, we show that mh(G) can be computed in polynomial time in split graphs, interval graphs, cographs and trees. These results go through structural characterisations which allow us to relate the monotone hunter number with the pathwidth in some of these graph classes. In all cases, this allows us to specify the hunter number or to show that there may be an arbitrary gap between h and mh, i.e., that monotonicity does not help. In particular, we show that, for every k ≥ 3, there exists a tree T with h(T) = 2 and mh(T) = k. We conclude by proving that computing h (resp., mh) is FPT parameterised by the minimum size of a vertex cover.

Thomas Dissaux, Foivos Fioravantes, Harmender Gahlawat, and Nicolas Nisse. Recontamination Helps a Lot to Hunt a Rabbit. In 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 272, pp. 42:1-42:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{dissaux_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.42, author = {Dissaux, Thomas and Fioravantes, Foivos and Gahlawat, Harmender and Nisse, Nicolas}, title = {{Recontamination Helps a Lot to Hunt a Rabbit}}, booktitle = {48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)}, pages = {42:1--42:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-292-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {272}, editor = {Leroux, J\'{e}r\^{o}me and Lombardy, Sylvain and Peleg, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.42}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-185763}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.42}, annote = {Keywords: Hunter and Rabbit, Monotonicity, Graph Searching} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 272, 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)

Pursuit-evasion games have been intensively studied for several decades due to their numerous applications in artificial intelligence, robot motion planning, database theory, distributed computing, and algorithmic theory. Cops and Robber (CnR) is one of the most well-known pursuit-evasion games played on graphs, where multiple cops pursue a single robber. The aim is to compute the cop number of a graph, k, which is the minimum number of cops that ensures the capture of the robber.
From the viewpoint of parameterized complexity, CnR is W[2]-hard parameterized by k [Fomin et al., TCS, 2010]. Thus, we study structural parameters of the input graph. We begin with the vertex cover number (vcn). First, we establish that k ≤ vcn/3+1. Second, we prove that CnR parameterized by vcn is FPT by designing an exponential kernel. We complement this result by showing that it is unlikely for CnR parameterized by vcn to admit a polynomial compression. We extend our exponential kernels to the parameters cluster vertex deletion number and deletion to stars number, and design a linear vertex kernel for neighborhood diversity. Additionally, we extend all of our results to several well-studied variations of CnR.

Harmender Gahlawat and Meirav Zehavi. Parameterized Analysis of the Cops and Robber Game. In 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 272, pp. 49:1-49:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{gahlawat_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.49, author = {Gahlawat, Harmender and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Parameterized Analysis of the Cops and Robber Game}}, booktitle = {48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)}, pages = {49:1--49:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-292-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {272}, editor = {Leroux, J\'{e}r\^{o}me and Lombardy, Sylvain and Peleg, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.49}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-185837}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.49}, annote = {Keywords: Cops and Robber, Kernelization, Graph Searching, Fixed parameter tractability} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 248, 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)

A path is isometric if it is a shortest path between its endpoints. In this article, we consider the graph covering problem Isometric Path Cover, where we want to cover all the vertices of the graph using a minimum-size set of isometric paths. Although this problem has been considered from a structural point of view (in particular, regarding applications to pursuit-evasion games), it is little studied from the algorithmic perspective. We consider Isometric Path Cover on chordal graphs, and show that the problem is NP-hard for this class. On the positive side, for chordal graphs, we design a 4-approximation algorithm and an FPT algorithm for the parameter solution size. The approximation algorithm is based on a reduction to the classic path covering problem on a suitable directed acyclic graph obtained from a breadth first search traversal of the graph. The approximation ratio of our algorithm is 3 for interval graphs and 2 for proper interval graphs. Moreover, we extend the analysis of our approximation algorithm to k-chordal graphs (graphs whose induced cycles have length at most k) by showing that it has an approximation ratio of k+7 for such graphs, and to graphs of treelength at most 𝓁, where the approximation ratio is at most 6𝓁+2.

Dibyayan Chakraborty, Antoine Dailly, Sandip Das, Florent Foucaud, Harmender Gahlawat, and Subir Kumar Ghosh. Complexity and Algorithms for ISOMETRIC PATH COVER on Chordal Graphs and Beyond. In 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 248, pp. 12:1-12:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.12, author = {Chakraborty, Dibyayan and Dailly, Antoine and Das, Sandip and Foucaud, Florent and Gahlawat, Harmender and Ghosh, Subir Kumar}, title = {{Complexity and Algorithms for ISOMETRIC PATH COVER on Chordal Graphs and Beyond}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)}, pages = {12:1--12:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-258-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {248}, editor = {Bae, Sang Won and Park, Heejin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-172974}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.12}, annote = {Keywords: Shortest paths, Isometric path cover, Chordal graph, Interval graph, AT-free graph, Approximation algorithm, FPT algorithm, Treewidth, Chordality, Treelength} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 248, 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)

Cops and Robber is a well-studied two-player pursuit-evasion game played on a graph, where a group of cops tries to capture the robber. The cop number of a graph is the minimum number of cops required to capture the robber. We show that the cop number of a string graph is at most 13, improving upon a result of Gavenčiak et al. [Eur. J. of Comb. 72, 45-69 (2018)]. Using similar techniques, we also show that four cops have a winning strategy for a variant of Cops and Robber, named Fully Active Cops and Robber, on planar graphs, addressing an open question of Gromovikov et al. [Austr. J. Comb. 76(2), 248-265 (2020)].

Sandip Das and Harmender Gahlawat. On the Cop Number of String Graphs. In 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 248, pp. 45:1-45:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{das_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.45, author = {Das, Sandip and Gahlawat, Harmender}, title = {{On the Cop Number of String Graphs}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)}, pages = {45:1--45:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-258-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {248}, editor = {Bae, Sang Won and Park, Heejin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.45}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-173308}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.45}, annote = {Keywords: Cop number, string graphs, intersection graphs, planar graphs, pursuit-evasion games} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 181, 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)

We study the complexity of finding the geodetic number on subclasses of planar graphs and chordal graphs. A set S of vertices of a graph G is a geodetic set if every vertex of G lies in a shortest path between some pair of vertices of S. The Minimum Geodetic Set (MGS) problem is to find a geodetic set with minimum cardinality of a given graph. The problem is known to remain NP-hard on bipartite graphs, chordal graphs, planar graphs and subcubic graphs. We first study MGS on restricted classes of planar graphs: we design a linear-time algorithm for MGS on solid grids, improving on a 3-approximation algorithm by Chakraborty et al. (CALDAM, 2020) and show that MGS remains NP-hard even for subcubic partial grids of arbitrary girth. This unifies some results in the literature. We then turn our attention to chordal graphs, showing that MGS is fixed parameter tractable for inputs of this class when parameterized by their treewidth (which equals the clique number minus one). This implies a linear-time algorithm for k-trees, for fixed k. Then, we show that MGS is NP-hard on interval graphs, thereby answering a question of Ekim et al. (LATIN, 2012). As interval graphs are very constrained, to prove the latter result we design a rather sophisticated reduction technique to work around their inherent linear structure.

Dibyayan Chakraborty, Sandip Das, Florent Foucaud, Harmender Gahlawat, Dimitri Lajou, and Bodhayan Roy. Algorithms and Complexity for Geodetic Sets on Planar and Chordal Graphs. In 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 181, pp. 7:1-7:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.7, author = {Chakraborty, Dibyayan and Das, Sandip and Foucaud, Florent and Gahlawat, Harmender and Lajou, Dimitri and Roy, Bodhayan}, title = {{Algorithms and Complexity for Geodetic Sets on Planar and Chordal Graphs}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)}, pages = {7:1--7:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-173-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {181}, editor = {Cao, Yixin and Cheng, Siu-Wing and Li, Minming}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-133516}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.7}, annote = {Keywords: Geodetic set, Planar graph, Chordal graph, Interval graph, FPT algorithm} }