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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 285, 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)

We initiate the study of the parameterized complexity of the Collective Graph Exploration (CGE) problem. In CGE, the input consists of an undirected connected graph G and a collection of k robots, initially placed at the same vertex r of G, and each one of them has an energy budget of B. The objective is to decide whether G can be explored by the k robots in B time steps, i.e., there exist k closed walks in G, one corresponding to each robot, such that every edge is covered by at least one walk, every walk starts and ends at the vertex r, and the maximum length of any walk is at most B. Unfortunately, this problem is NP-hard even on trees [Fraigniaud et al., 2006]. Further, we prove that the problem remains W[1]-hard parameterized by k even for trees of treedepth 3. Due to the para-NP-hardness of the problem parameterized by treedepth, and motivated by real-world scenarios, we study the parameterized complexity of the problem parameterized by the vertex cover number (vc) of the graph, and prove that the problem is fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) parameterized by vc. Additionally, we study the optimization version of CGE, where we want to optimize B, and design an approximation algorithm with an additive approximation factor of O(vc).

Siddharth Gupta, Guy Sa'ar, and Meirav Zehavi. Collective Graph Exploration Parameterized by Vertex Cover. In 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 285, pp. 22:1-22:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{gupta_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.22, author = {Gupta, Siddharth and Sa'ar, Guy and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Collective Graph Exploration Parameterized by Vertex Cover}}, booktitle = {18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)}, pages = {22:1--22:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-305-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {285}, editor = {Misra, Neeldhara and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.22}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194413}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.22}, annote = {Keywords: Collective Graph Exploration, Parameterized Complexity, Approximation Algorithm, Vertex Cover, Treedepth} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 285, 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)

Over the past decade, we witness an increasing amount of interest in the design of exact exponential-time and parameterized algorithms for problems in Graph Drawing. Unfortunately, we still lack knowledge of general methods to develop such algorithms. An even more serious issue is that, here, "standard" parameters very often yield intractability. In particular, for the most common structural parameter, namely, treewidth, we frequently observe NP-hardness already when the input graphs are restricted to have constant (often, being just 1 or 2) treewidth.
Our work deals with both drawbacks simultaneously. We introduce a novel form of tree decomposition that, roughly speaking, does not decompose (only) a graph, but an entire drawing. As such, its bags and separators are of geometric (rather than only combinatorial) nature. While the corresponding parameter - like treewidth - can be arbitrarily smaller than the height (and width) of the drawing, we show that - unlike treewidth - it gives rise to efficient algorithms. Specifically, we get slice-wise polynomial (XP) time algorithms parameterized by our parameter. We present a general scheme for the design of such algorithms, and apply it to several central problems in Graph Drawing, including the recognition of grid graphs, minimization of crossings and bends, and compaction. Other than for the class of problems we discussed in the paper, we believe that our decomposition and scheme are of independent interest and can be further extended or generalized to suit even a wider class of problems. Additionally, we discuss classes of drawings where our parameter is bounded by 𝒪(√n) (where n is the number of vertices of the graph), yielding subexponential-time algorithms. Lastly, we prove which relations exist between drawn treewidth and other width measures, including treewidth, pathwidth, (dual) carving-width and embedded-width.

Siddharth Gupta, Guy Sa'ar, and Meirav Zehavi. Drawn Tree Decomposition: New Approach for Graph Drawing Problems. In 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 285, pp. 23:1-23:22, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{gupta_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.23, author = {Gupta, Siddharth and Sa'ar, Guy and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Drawn Tree Decomposition: New Approach for Graph Drawing Problems}}, booktitle = {18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)}, pages = {23:1--23:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-305-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {285}, editor = {Misra, Neeldhara and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194424}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.23}, annote = {Keywords: Graph Drawing, Parameterized Complexity, Tree decomposition} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 249, 17th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2022)

We consider the Sparse Hitting Set (Sparse-HS) problem, where we are given a set system (V,ℱ,ℬ) with two families ℱ,ℬ of subsets of the universe V. The task is to find a hitting set for ℱ that minimizes the maximum number of elements in any of the sets of ℬ. This generalizes several problems that have been studied in the literature. Our focus is on determining the complexity of some of these special cases of Sparse-HS with respect to the sparseness k, which is the optimum number of hitting set elements in any set of ℬ (i.e., the value of the objective function).
For the Sparse Vertex Cover (Sparse-VC) problem, the universe is given by the vertex set V of a graph, and ℱ is its edge set. We prove NP-hardness for sparseness k ≥ 2 and polynomial time solvability for k = 1. We also provide a polynomial-time 2-approximation algorithm for any k. A special case of Sparse-VC is Fair Vertex Cover (Fair-VC), where the family ℬ is given by vertex neighbourhoods. For this problem it was open whether it is FPT (or even XP) parameterized by the sparseness k. We answer this question in the negative, by proving NP-hardness for constant k. We also provide a polynomial-time (2-1/k)-approximation algorithm for Fair-VC, which is better than any approximation algorithm possible for Sparse-VC or the Vertex Cover problem (under the Unique Games Conjecture).
We then switch to a different set of problems derived from Sparse-HS related to the highway dimension, which is a graph parameter modelling transportation networks. In recent years a growing literature has shown interesting algorithms for graphs of low highway dimension. To exploit the structure of such graphs, most of them compute solutions to the r-Shortest Path Cover (r-SPC) problem, where r > 0, ℱ contains all shortest paths of length between r and 2r, and ℬ contains all balls of radius 2r. It is known that there is an XP algorithm that computes solutions to r-SPC of sparseness at most h if the input graph has highway dimension h. However it was not known whether a corresponding FPT algorithm exists as well. We prove that r-SPC and also the related r-Highway Dimension (r-HD) problem, which can be used to formally define the highway dimension of a graph, are both W[1]-hard. Furthermore, by the result of Abraham et al. [ICALP 2011] there is a polynomial-time O(log k)-approximation algorithm for r-HD, but for r-SPC such an algorithm is not known. We prove that r-SPC admits a polynomial-time O(log n)-approximation algorithm.

Johannes Blum, Yann Disser, Andreas Emil Feldmann, Siddharth Gupta, and Anna Zych-Pawlewicz. On Sparse Hitting Sets: From Fair Vertex Cover to Highway Dimension. In 17th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 249, pp. 5:1-5:23, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{blum_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2022.5, author = {Blum, Johannes and Disser, Yann and Feldmann, Andreas Emil and Gupta, Siddharth and Zych-Pawlewicz, Anna}, title = {{On Sparse Hitting Sets: From Fair Vertex Cover to Highway Dimension}}, booktitle = {17th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2022)}, pages = {5:1--5:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-260-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {249}, editor = {Dell, Holger and Nederlof, Jesper}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2022.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-173612}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2022.5}, annote = {Keywords: sparse hitting set, fair vertex cover, highway dimension} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 244, 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)

An obstacle representation of a graph G consists of a set of pairwise disjoint simply-connected closed regions and a one-to-one mapping of the vertices of G to points such that two vertices are adjacent in G if and only if the line segment connecting the two corresponding points does not intersect any obstacle. The obstacle number of a graph is the smallest number of obstacles in an obstacle representation of the graph in the plane such that all obstacles are simple polygons.
It is known that the obstacle number of each n-vertex graph is O(n log n) [Balko, Cibulka, and Valtr, 2018] and that there are n-vertex graphs whose obstacle number is Ω(n/(log log n)²) [Dujmović and Morin, 2015]. We improve this lower bound to Ω(n/log log n) for simple polygons and to Ω(n) for convex polygons. To obtain these stronger bounds, we improve known estimates on the number of n-vertex graphs with bounded obstacle number, solving a conjecture by Dujmović and Morin. We also show that if the drawing of some n-vertex graph is given as part of the input, then for some drawings Ω(n²) obstacles are required to turn them into an obstacle representation of the graph. Our bounds are asymptotically tight in several instances.
We complement these combinatorial bounds by two complexity results. First, we show that computing the obstacle number of a graph G is fixed-parameter tractable in the vertex cover number of G. Second, we show that, given a graph G and a simple polygon P, it is NP-hard to decide whether G admits an obstacle representation using P as the only obstacle.

Martin Balko, Steven Chaplick, Robert Ganian, Siddharth Gupta, Michael Hoffmann, Pavel Valtr, and Alexander Wolff. Bounding and Computing Obstacle Numbers of Graphs. In 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 244, pp. 11:1-11:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{balko_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2022.11, author = {Balko, Martin and Chaplick, Steven and Ganian, Robert and Gupta, Siddharth and Hoffmann, Michael and Valtr, Pavel and Wolff, Alexander}, title = {{Bounding and Computing Obstacle Numbers of Graphs}}, booktitle = {30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)}, pages = {11:1--11:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-247-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {244}, editor = {Chechik, Shiri and Navarro, Gonzalo and Rotenberg, Eva and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-169495}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.11}, annote = {Keywords: Obstacle representation, Obstacle number, Visibility, NP-hardness, FPT} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 212, 32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021)

Grid graphs, and, more generally, k×r grid graphs, form one of the most basic classes of geometric graphs. Over the past few decades, a large body of works studied the (in)tractability of various computational problems on grid graphs, which often yield substantially faster algorithms than general graphs. Unfortunately, the recognition of a grid graph (given a graph G, decide whether it can be embedded into a grid graph) is particularly hard - it was shown to be NP-hard even on trees of pathwidth 3 already in 1987. Yet, in this paper, we provide several positive results in this regard in the framework of parameterized complexity (additionally, we present new and complementary hardness results). Specifically, our contribution is threefold. First, we show that the problem is fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) parameterized by k+mcc where mcc is the maximum size of a connected component of G. This also implies that the problem is FPT parameterized by td+k where td is the treedepth of G, as td ≤ mcc (to be compared with the hardness for pathwidth 2 where k = 3). (We note that when k and r are unrestricted, the problem is trivially FPT parameterized by td.) Further, we derive as a corollary that strip packing is FPT with respect to the height of the strip plus the maximum of the dimensions of the packed rectangles, which was previously only known to be in XP. Second, we present a new parameterization, denoted a_G, relating graph distance to geometric distance, which may be of independent interest. We show that the problem is para-NP-hard parameterized by a_G, but FPT parameterized by a_G on trees, as well as FPT parameterized by k+a_G. Third, we show that the recognition of k× r grid graphs is NP-hard on graphs of pathwidth 2 where k = 3. Moreover, when k and r are unrestricted, we show that the problem is NP-hard on trees of pathwidth 2, but trivially solvable in polynomial time on graphs of pathwidth 1.

Siddharth Gupta, Guy Sa'ar, and Meirav Zehavi. Grid Recognition: Classical and Parameterized Computational Perspectives. In 32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 212, pp. 37:1-37:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{gupta_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.37, author = {Gupta, Siddharth and Sa'ar, Guy and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Grid Recognition: Classical and Parameterized Computational Perspectives}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021)}, pages = {37:1--37:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-214-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {212}, editor = {Ahn, Hee-Kap and Sadakane, Kunihiko}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.37}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-154703}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.37}, annote = {Keywords: Grid Recognition, Grid Graph, Parameterized Complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 148, 14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019)

For a clustered graph, i.e, a graph whose vertex set is recursively partitioned into clusters, the C-Planarity Testing problem asks whether it is possible to find a planar embedding of the graph and a representation of each cluster as a region homeomorphic to a closed disk such that 1. the subgraph induced by each cluster is drawn in the interior of the corresponding disk, 2. each edge intersects any disk at most once, and 3. the nesting between clusters is reflected by the representation, i.e., child clusters are properly contained in their parent cluster. The computational complexity of this problem, whose study has been central to the theory of graph visualization since its introduction in 1995 [Feng, Cohen, and Eades, Planarity for clustered graphs, ESA'95], has only been recently settled [Fulek and Tóth, Atomic Embeddability, Clustered Planarity, and Thickenability, to appear at SODA'20]. Before such a breakthrough, the complexity question was still unsolved even when the graph has a prescribed planar embedding, i.e, for embedded clustered graphs.
We show that the C-Planarity Testing problem admits a single-exponential single-parameter FPT algorithm for embedded clustered graphs, when parameterized by the carving-width of the dual graph of the input. This is the first FPT algorithm for this long-standing open problem with respect to a single notable graph-width parameter. Moreover, in the general case, the polynomial dependency of our FPT algorithm is smaller than the one of the algorithm by Fulek and Tóth. To further strengthen the relevance of this result, we show that the C-Planarity Testing problem retains its computational complexity when parameterized by several other graph-width parameters, which may potentially lead to faster algorithms.

Giordano Da Lozzo, David Eppstein, Michael T. Goodrich, and Siddharth Gupta. C-Planarity Testing of Embedded Clustered Graphs with Bounded Dual Carving-Width. In 14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 148, pp. 9:1-9:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{dalozzo_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.9, author = {Da Lozzo, Giordano and Eppstein, David and Goodrich, Michael T. and Gupta, Siddharth}, title = {{C-Planarity Testing of Embedded Clustered Graphs with Bounded Dual Carving-Width}}, booktitle = {14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019)}, pages = {9:1--9:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-129-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {148}, editor = {Jansen, Bart M. P. and Telle, Jan Arne}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.9}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-114705}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.9}, annote = {Keywords: Clustered planarity, carving-width, non-crossing partitions, FPT} }

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Track C: Foundations of Networks and Multi-Agent Systems: Models, Algorithms and Information Management

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

For fixed h >= 2, we consider the task of adding to a graph G a set of weighted shortcut edges on the same vertex set, such that the length of a shortest h-hop path between any pair of vertices in the augmented graph is exactly the same as the original distance between these vertices in G. A set of shortcut edges with this property is called an exact h-hopset and may be applied in processing distance queries on graph G. In particular, a 2-hopset directly corresponds to a distributed distance oracle known as a hub labeling. In this work, we explore centralized distance oracles based on 3-hopsets and display their advantages in several practical scenarios. In particular, for graphs of constant highway dimension, and more generally for graphs of constant skeleton dimension, we show that 3-hopsets require exponentially fewer shortcuts per node than any previously described distance oracle, and also offer a speedup in query time when compared to simple oracles based on a direct application of 2-hopsets. Finally, we consider the problem of computing minimum-size h-hopset (for any h >= 2) for a given graph G, showing a polylogarithmic-factor approximation for the case of unique shortest path graphs. When h=3, for a given bound on the space used by the distance oracle, we provide a construction of hopset achieving polylog approximation both for space and query time compared to the optimal 3-hopset oracle given the space bound.

Siddharth Gupta, Adrian Kosowski, and Laurent Viennot. Exploiting Hopsets: Improved Distance Oracles for Graphs of Constant Highway Dimension and Beyond. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 143:1-143:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{gupta_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.143, author = {Gupta, Siddharth and Kosowski, Adrian and Viennot, Laurent}, title = {{Exploiting Hopsets: Improved Distance Oracles for Graphs of Constant Highway Dimension and Beyond}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {143:1--143:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.143}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-107199}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.143}, annote = {Keywords: Hopsets, Distance Oracles, Graph Algorithms, Data Structures} }

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