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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 258, 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)

We study dynamic planar graphs with n vertices, subject to edge deletion, edge contraction, edge insertion across a face, and the splitting of a vertex in specified corners. We dynamically maintain a combinatorial embedding of such a planar graph, subject to connectivity and 2-vertex-connectivity (biconnectivity) queries between pairs of vertices. Whenever a query pair is connected and not biconnected, we find the first and last cutvertex separating them.
Additionally, we allow local changes to the embedding by flipping the embedding of a subgraph that is connected by at most two vertices to the rest of the graph.
We support all queries and updates in deterministic, worst-case, O(log² n) time, using an O(n)-sized data structure.

Jacob Holm, Ivor van der Hoog, and Eva Rotenberg. Worst-Case Deterministic Fully-Dynamic Biconnectivity in Changeable Planar Embeddings. In 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 258, pp. 40:1-40:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{holm_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.40, author = {Holm, Jacob and van der Hoog, Ivor and Rotenberg, Eva}, title = {{Worst-Case Deterministic Fully-Dynamic Biconnectivity in Changeable Planar Embeddings}}, booktitle = {39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)}, pages = {40:1--40:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-273-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {258}, editor = {Chambers, Erin W. and Gudmundsson, Joachim}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.40}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-178909}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.40}, annote = {Keywords: dynamic graphs, planarity, connectivity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 241, 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)

A graph has arboricity α if its edges can be partitioned into α forests. The dynamic arboricity decomposition problem is to update a partitioning of the graph’s edges into forests, as a graph undergoes insertions and deletions of edges. We present an algorithm for maintaining partitioning into α+1 forests, provided the arboricity of the dynamic graph never exceeds α. Our algorithm has an update time of Õ(n^{3/4}) when α is at most polylogarithmic in n.
Similarly, the dynamic bounded out-orientation problem is to orient the edges of the graph such that the out-degree of each vertex is at all times bounded. For this problem, we give an algorithm that orients the edges such that the out-degree is at all times bounded by α+1, with an update time of Õ(n^{5/7}), when α is at most polylogarithmic in n. Here, the choice of α+1 should be viewed in the light of the well-known lower bound by Brodal and Fagerberg which establishes that, for general graphs, maintaining only α out-edges would require linear update time.
However, the lower bound by Brodal and Fagerberg is non-planar. In this paper, we give a lower bound showing that even for planar graphs, linear update time is needed in order to maintain an explicit three-out-orientation. For planar graphs, we show that the dynamic four forest decomposition and four-out-orientations, can be updated in Õ(n^{1/2}) time.

Aleksander B. G. Christiansen, Jacob Holm, Eva Rotenberg, and Carsten Thomassen. On Dynamic α + 1 Arboricity Decomposition and Out-Orientation. In 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 241, pp. 34:1-34:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{christiansen_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.34, author = {Christiansen, Aleksander B. G. and Holm, Jacob and Rotenberg, Eva and Thomassen, Carsten}, title = {{On Dynamic \alpha + 1 Arboricity Decomposition and Out-Orientation}}, booktitle = {47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)}, pages = {34:1--34:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-256-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {241}, editor = {Szeider, Stefan and Ganian, Robert and Silva, Alexandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.34}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-168320}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.34}, annote = {Keywords: Dynamic graphs, bounded arboricity, data structures} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 187, 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)

We present a data structure that, given a graph G of n vertices and m edges, and a suitable pair of nested r-divisions of G, preprocesses G in O(m+n) time and handles any series of edge-deletions in O(m) total time while answering queries to pairwise biconnectivity in worst-case O(1) time. In case the vertices are not biconnected, the data structure can return a cutvertex separating them in worst-case O(1) time.
As an immediate consequence, this gives optimal amortized decremental biconnectivity, 2-edge connectivity, and connectivity for large classes of graphs, including planar graphs and other minor free graphs.

Jacob Holm and Eva Rotenberg. Good r-Divisions Imply Optimal Amortized Decremental Biconnectivity. In 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 187, pp. 42:1-42:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{holm_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2021.42, author = {Holm, Jacob and Rotenberg, Eva}, title = {{Good r-Divisions Imply Optimal Amortized Decremental Biconnectivity}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)}, pages = {42:1--42:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-180-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {187}, editor = {Bl\"{a}ser, Markus and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.42}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136875}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.42}, annote = {Keywords: Dynamic graphs, 2-connectivity, graph minors, r-divisions, graph separators} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 112, 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)

We present a decremental data structure for maintaining the SPQR-tree of a planar graph subject to edge contractions and deletions. The update time, amortized over Omega(n) operations, is O(log^2 n). Via SPQR-trees, we give a decremental data structure for maintaining 3-vertex connectivity in planar graphs. It answers queries in O(1) time and processes edge deletions and contractions in O(log^2 n) amortized time. The previous best supported deletions and insertions in O(sqrt{n}) time.

Jacob Holm, Giuseppe F. Italiano, Adam Karczmarz, Jakub Lacki, and Eva Rotenberg. Decremental SPQR-trees for Planar Graphs. In 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 112, pp. 46:1-46:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{holm_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2018.46, author = {Holm, Jacob and Italiano, Giuseppe F. and Karczmarz, Adam and Lacki, Jakub and Rotenberg, Eva}, title = {{Decremental SPQR-trees for Planar Graphs}}, booktitle = {26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)}, pages = {46:1--46:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-081-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {112}, editor = {Azar, Yossi and Bast, Hannah and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.46}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-95091}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.46}, annote = {Keywords: Graph embeddings, data structures, graph algorithms, planar graphs, SPQR-trees, triconnectivity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)

Given a graph, does there exist an orientation of the edges such that the resulting directed graph is strongly connected? Robbins' theorem [Robbins, Am. Math. Monthly, 1939] asserts that such an orientation exists if and only if the graph is 2-edge connected. A natural extension of this problem is the following: Suppose that the edges of the graph are partitioned into trails. Can the trails be oriented consistently such that the resulting directed graph is strongly connected?
We show that 2-edge connectivity is again a sufficient condition and we provide a linear time algorithm for finding such an orientation.
The generalised Robbins' theorem [Boesch, Am. Math. Monthly, 1980] for mixed multigraphs asserts that the undirected edges of a mixed multigraph can be oriented to make the resulting directed graph strongly connected exactly when the mixed graph is strongly connected and the underlying graph is bridgeless.
We consider the natural extension where the undirected edges of a mixed multigraph are partitioned into trails. It turns out that in this case the condition of the generalised Robbin's Theorem is not sufficient. However, we show that as long as each cut either contains at least 2 undirected edges or directed edges in both directions, there exists an orientation of the trails such that the resulting directed graph is strongly connected. Moreover, if the condition is satisfied, we may start by orienting an arbitrary trail in an arbitrary direction. Using this result one obtains a very simple polynomial time algorithm for finding a strong trail orientation if it exists, both in the undirected and the mixed setting.

Anders Aamand, Niklas Hjuler, Jacob Holm, and Eva Rotenberg. One-Way Trail Orientations. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 6:1-6:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{aamand_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.6, author = {Aamand, Anders and Hjuler, Niklas and Holm, Jacob and Rotenberg, Eva}, title = {{One-Way Trail Orientations}}, booktitle = {45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)}, pages = {6:1--6:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-076-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {107}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-90109}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.6}, annote = {Keywords: Graph algorithms, Robbins' theorem, Graph orientation} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 87, 25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017)

We present a data structure that can maintain a simple planar graph under edge contractions in linear total time. The data structure supports adjacency queries and provides access to neighbor lists in O(1) time. Moreover, it can report all the arising self-loops and parallel edges.
By applying the data structure, we can achieve optimal running times for decremental bridge detection, 2-edge connectivity, maximal 3-edge connected components, and the problem of finding a unique perfect matching for a static planar graph. Furthermore, we improve the running times of algorithms for several planar graph problems, including decremental 2-vertex and 3-edge connectivity, and we show that using our data structure in a black-box manner, one obtains conceptually simple optimal algorithms for computing MST and 5-coloring in planar graphs.

Jacob Holm, Giuseppe F. Italiano, Adam Karczmarz, Jakub Lacki, Eva Rotenberg, and Piotr Sankowski. Contracting a Planar Graph Efficiently. In 25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 87, pp. 50:1-50:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{holm_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2017.50, author = {Holm, Jacob and Italiano, Giuseppe F. and Karczmarz, Adam and Lacki, Jakub and Rotenberg, Eva and Sankowski, Piotr}, title = {{Contracting a Planar Graph Efficiently}}, booktitle = {25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017)}, pages = {50:1--50:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-049-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {87}, editor = {Pruhs, Kirk and Sohler, Christian}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2017.50}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-78755}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2017.50}, annote = {Keywords: planar graphs, algorithms, data structures, connectivity, coloring} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

A graph U is an induced universal graph for a family F of graphs if every graph in F is a vertex-induced subgraph of U.
We give upper and lower bounds for the size of induced universal graphs for the family of graphs with n vertices of maximum degree D. Our new bounds improve several previous results except for the special cases where D is either near-constant or almost n/2. For constant even D Butler [Graphs and Combinatorics 2009] has shown O(n^(D/2)) and recently Alon and Nenadov [SODA 2017] showed the same bound for constant odd D. For constant D Butler also gave a matching lower bound. For generals graphs, which corresponds to D = n, Alon [Geometric and Functional Analysis, to appear] proved the existence of an induced universal graph with (1+o(1)) \cdot 2^((n-1)/2) vertices, leading to a smaller constant than in the previously best known bound of 16 * 2^(n/2) by Alstrup, Kaplan, Thorup, and Zwick [STOC 2015].
In this paper we give the following lower and upper bound of
binom(floor(n/2))(floor(D/2)) * n^(-O(1))
and
binom(floor(n/2))(floor(D/2)) * 2^(O(sqrt(D log D) * log(n/D))),
respectively, where the upper bound is the main contribution. The proof that it is an induced universal graph relies on a randomized argument. We also give a deterministic upper bound of O(n^k / (k-1)!). These upper bounds are the best known when D <= n/2 - tilde-Omega(n^(3/4)) and either D is even and D = omega(1) or D is odd and D = omega(log n/log log n). In this range we improve asymptotically on the previous best known results by Butler [Graphs and Combinatorics 2009], Esperet, Arnaud and Ochem [IPL 2008], Adjiashvili and Rotbart [ICALP 2014], Alon and Nenadov [SODA 2017], and Alon [Geometric and Functional Analysis, to appear].

Mikkel Abrahamsen, Stephen Alstrup, Jacob Holm, Mathias Bæk Tejs Knudsen, and Morten Stöckel. Near-Optimal Induced Universal Graphs for Bounded Degree Graphs. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 128:1-128:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{abrahamsen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.128, author = {Abrahamsen, Mikkel and Alstrup, Stephen and Holm, Jacob and Knudsen, Mathias B{\ae}k Tejs and St\"{o}ckel, Morten}, title = {{Near-Optimal Induced Universal Graphs for Bounded Degree Graphs}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {128:1--128:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.128}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-74114}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.128}, annote = {Keywords: Adjacency labeling schemes, Bounded degree graphs, Induced universal graphs, Distributed computing} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 77, 33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017)

We answer the following question dating back to J.E. Littlewood (1885-1977): Can two lions catch a man in a bounded area with rectifiable lakes? The lions and the man are all assumed to be points moving with at most unit speed. That the lakes are rectifiable means that their boundaries are finitely long. This requirement is to avoid pathological examples where the man survives forever because any path to the lions is infinitely long. We show that the answer to the question is not always "yes", by giving an example of a region R in the plane where the man has a strategy to survive forever. R is a polygonal region with holes and the exterior and interior boundaries are pairwise disjoint, simple polygons. Our construction is the first truly two-dimensional example where the man can survive.
Next, we consider the following game played on the entire plane instead of a bounded area: There is any finite number of unit speed lions and one fast man who can run with speed 1+epsilon for some value epsilon>0. Can the man always survive? We answer the question in the affirmative for any constant epsilon>0.

Mikkel Abrahamsen, Jacob Holm, Eva Rotenberg, and Christian Wulff-Nilsen. Best Laid Plans of Lions and Men. In 33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 77, pp. 6:1-6:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{abrahamsen_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.6, author = {Abrahamsen, Mikkel and Holm, Jacob and Rotenberg, Eva and Wulff-Nilsen, Christian}, title = {{Best Laid Plans of Lions and Men}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017)}, pages = {6:1--6:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-038-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {77}, editor = {Aronov, Boris and Katz, Matthew J.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-72053}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.6}, annote = {Keywords: Lion and man game, Pursuit evasion game, Winning strategy} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 30, 32nd International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2015)

We present an algorithm to support the dynamic embedding in the plane
of a dynamic graph. An edge can be inserted across a face between two vertices on the boundary (we call such a vertex pair linkable), and edges can be deleted. The planar embedding can also be changed locally by flipping components that are connected to the rest of the graph by at most two vertices. Given vertices u,v, linkable(u,v) decides whether u and v are linkable, and if so, returns a list of suggestions for the placement of (u,v) in the embedding. For non-linkable vertices u,v, we define a new query, one-flip-linkable(u,v) providing a suggestion for a flip that will make them linkable if one exists. We will support all updates and queries in O(log^2 n) time. Our time bounds match those of Italiano et al. for a static (flipless) embedding of a dynamic graph.
Our new algorithm is simpler, exploiting that the complement of a spanning tree of a connected plane graph is a spanning tree of the dual graph. The primal and dual trees are interpreted as having the same Euler tour, and a main idea of the new algorithm is an elegant
interaction between top trees over the two trees via their common Euler tour.

Jacob Holm and Eva Rotenberg. Dynamic Planar Embeddings of Dynamic Graphs. In 32nd International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 30, pp. 434-446, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{holm_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2015.434, author = {Holm, Jacob and Rotenberg, Eva}, title = {{Dynamic Planar Embeddings of Dynamic Graphs}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2015)}, pages = {434--446}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-78-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {30}, editor = {Mayr, Ernst W. and Ollinger, Nicolas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2015.434}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-49319}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2015.434}, annote = {Keywords: dynamic graphs, planar embeddings, data structures} }

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