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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 275, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)

A temporal graph is a graph whose edges appear only at certain points in time. In these graphs, reachability among nodes relies on paths that traverse edges in chronological order (temporal paths). Unlike standard paths, temporal paths may not be composable, thus the reachability relation is not transitive and connected components (i.e., sets of pairwise temporally connected nodes) do not form equivalence classes, a fact with far-reaching consequences.
Recently, Casteigts et al. [FOCS 2021] proposed a natural temporal analog of the seminal Erdős-Rényi random graph model, based on the same parameters n and p. The proposed model is obtained by randomly permuting the edges of an Erdős-Rényi random graph and interpreting this permutation as an ordering of presence times. Casteigts et al. showed that the well-known single threshold for connectivity in the Erdős-Rényi model fans out into multiple phase transitions for several distinct notions of reachability in the temporal setting.
The second most basic phenomenon studied by Erdős and Rényi in static (i.e., non-temporal) random graphs is the emergence of a giant connected component. However, the existence of a similar phase transition in the temporal model was left open until now. In this paper, we settle this question. We identify a sharp threshold at p = log n/n, where the size of the largest temporally connected component increases from o(n) to n-o(n) nodes. This transition occurs significantly later than in the static setting, where a giant component of size n-o(n) already exists for any p ∈ ω(1/n) (i.e., as soon as p is larger than a constant fraction of n). Interestingly, the threshold that we obtain holds for both open and closed connected components, i.e., components that allow, respectively forbid, their connecting paths to use external nodes - a distinction arising from the absence of transitivity.
We achieve these results by strengthening the tools from Casteigts et al. and developing new techniques that provide means to decouple dependencies between past and future events in temporal Erdős-Rényi graphs, which could be of general interest in future investigations of these objects.

Ruben Becker, Arnaud Casteigts, Pierluigi Crescenzi, Bojana Kodric, Malte Renken, Michael Raskin, and Viktor Zamaraev. Giant Components in Random Temporal Graphs. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 275, pp. 29:1-29:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{becker_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.29, author = {Becker, Ruben and Casteigts, Arnaud and Crescenzi, Pierluigi and Kodric, Bojana and Renken, Malte and Raskin, Michael and Zamaraev, Viktor}, title = {{Giant Components in Random Temporal Graphs}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)}, pages = {29:1--29:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-296-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {275}, editor = {Megow, Nicole and Smith, Adam}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.29}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-188542}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.29}, annote = {Keywords: random temporal graph, Erd\H{o}s–R\'{e}nyi random graph, sharp threshold, temporal connectivity, temporal connected component, edge-ordered graph} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

Wheeler nondeterministic finite automata (WNFAs) were introduced in (Gagie et al., TCS 2017) as a powerful generalization of prefix sorting from strings to labeled graphs. WNFAs admit optimal solutions to classic hard problems on labeled graphs and languages such as compression and regular expression matching. The problem of deciding whether a given NFA is Wheeler is known to be NP-complete (Gibney and Thankachan, ESA 2019). Recently, however, Alanko et al. (Information and Computation 2021) showed how to side-step this complexity by switching to preorders: letting Q be the set of states and δ the set of transitions, they provided a O(|δ|⋅|Q|²)-time algorithm computing a totally-ordered partition (i.e. equivalence relation) of the WNFA’s states such that (1) equivalent states recognize the same regular language, and (2) the order of (the classes of) non-equivalent states is consistent with any Wheeler order, when one exists. As a result, the output is a preorder of the states as useful for pattern matching as standard Wheeler orders.
Further extensions of this line of work (Cotumaccio et al., SODA 2021 and DCC 2022) generalized these concepts to arbitrary NFAs by introducing co-lex partial preorders: in general, any NFA admits a partial preorder of its states reflecting the co-lexicographic order of their accepted strings; the smaller the width of such preorder is, the faster regular expression matching queries can be performed. To date, the fastest algorithm for computing the smallest-width partial preorder on NFAs runs in O(|δ|² + |Q|^{5/2}) time (Cotumaccio, DCC 2022), while on DFAs the same task can be accomplished in O(min(|Q|²log|Q|, |δ|⋅|Q|)) time (Kim et al., CPM 2023).
In this paper, we provide much more efficient solutions to the co-lex order computation problem. Our results are achieved by extending a classic algorithm for the relational coarsest partition refinement problem of Paige and Tarjan to work with ordered partitions. More specifically, we provide a O(|δ|log|Q|)-time algorithm computing a co-lex total preorder when the input is a Wheeler NFA, and an algorithm with the same time complexity computing the smallest-width co-lex partial order of any DFA. In addition, we present implementations of our algorithms and show that they are very efficient also in practice.

Ruben Becker, Manuel Cáceres, Davide Cenzato, Sung-Hwan Kim, Bojana Kodric, Francisco Olivares, and Nicola Prezza. Sorting Finite Automata via Partition Refinement. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 15:1-15:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{becker_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.15, author = {Becker, Ruben and C\'{a}ceres, Manuel and Cenzato, Davide and Kim, Sung-Hwan and Kodric, Bojana and Olivares, Francisco and Prezza, Nicola}, title = {{Sorting Finite Automata via Partition Refinement}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {15:1--15:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186684}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.15}, annote = {Keywords: Wheeler automata, prefix sorting, pattern matching, graph compression, sorting, partition refinement} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 265, 21st International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2023)

Identifying influential nodes in a network is arguably one of the most important tasks in graph mining and network analysis. A large variety of centrality measures, all aiming at correctly quantifying a node’s importance in the network, have been formulated in the literature. One of the most cited ones is the betweenness centrality, formally introduced by Freeman (Sociometry, 1977). On the other hand, researchers have recently been very interested in capturing the dynamic nature of real-world networks by studying temporal graphs, rather than static ones. Clearly, centrality measures, including the betweenness centrality, have also been extended to temporal graphs. Buß et al. (KDD, 2020) gave algorithms to compute various notions of temporal betweenness centrality, including the perhaps most natural one - shortest temporal betweenness. Their algorithm computes centrality values of all nodes in time O(n³ T²), where n is the size of the network and T is the total number of time steps. For real-world networks, which easily contain tens of thousands of nodes, this complexity becomes prohibitive. Thus, it is reasonable to consider proxies for shortest temporal betweenness rankings that are more efficiently computed, and, therefore, allow for measuring the relative importance of nodes in very large temporal graphs. In this paper, we compare several such proxies on a diverse set of real-world networks. These proxies can be divided into global and local proxies. The considered global proxies include the exact algorithm for static betweenness (computed on the underlying graph), prefix foremost temporal betweenness of Buß et al., which is more efficiently computable than shortest temporal betweenness, and the recently introduced approximation approach of Santoro and Sarpe (WWW, 2022). As all of these global proxies are still expensive to compute on very large networks, we also turn to more efficiently computable local proxies. Here, we consider temporal versions of the ego-betweenness in the sense of Everett and Borgatti (Social Networks, 2005), standard degree notions, and a novel temporal degree notion termed the pass-through degree, that we introduce in this paper and which we consider to be one of our main contributions. We show that the pass-through degree, which measures the number of pairs of neighbors of a node that are temporally connected through it, can be computed in nearly linear time for all nodes in the network and we experimentally observe that it is surprisingly competitive as a proxy for shortest temporal betweenness.

Ruben Becker, Pierluigi Crescenzi, Antonio Cruciani, and Bojana Kodric. Proxying Betweenness Centrality Rankings in Temporal Networks. In 21st International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 265, pp. 6:1-6:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{becker_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2023.6, author = {Becker, Ruben and Crescenzi, Pierluigi and Cruciani, Antonio and Kodric, Bojana}, title = {{Proxying Betweenness Centrality Rankings in Temporal Networks}}, booktitle = {21st International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2023)}, pages = {6:1--6:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-279-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {265}, editor = {Georgiadis, Loukas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2023.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-183568}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2023.6}, annote = {Keywords: node centrality, betweenness, temporal graphs, graph mining} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)

We study the price of anarchy of mechanisms in the presence of risk-averse agents. Previous work has focused on agents with quasilinear utilities, possibly with a budget. Our model subsumes this as a special case but also captures that agents might be less sensitive to payments than in the risk-neutral model. We show that many positive price-of-anarchy results proved in the smoothness framework continue to hold in the more general risk-averse setting. A sufficient condition is that agents can never end up with negative quasilinear utility after playing an undominated strategy. This is true, e.g., for first-price and second-price auctions. For all-pay auctions, similar results do not hold: We show that there are Bayes-Nash equilibria with arbitrarily bad social welfare compared to the optimum.

Thomas Kesselheim and Bojana Kodric. Price of Anarchy for Mechanisms with Risk-Averse Agents. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 155:1-155:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{kesselheim_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.155, author = {Kesselheim, Thomas and Kodric, Bojana}, title = {{Price of Anarchy for Mechanisms with Risk-Averse Agents}}, booktitle = {45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)}, pages = {155:1--155:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-076-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {107}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.155}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-91599}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.155}, annote = {Keywords: Mechanism Design, Price of Anarchy, Risk Aversion, Smoothness} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

The secretary problem is a classic model for online decision making. Recently, combinatorial extensions such as matroid or matching secretary problems have become an important tool to study algorithmic problems in dynamic markets. Here the decision maker must know the numerical value of each arriving element, which can be a demanding informational assumption. In this paper, we initiate the study of combinatorial secretary problems with ordinal information, in which the decision maker only needs to be aware of a preference order consistent with the values of arrived elements. The goal is to design online algorithms with small competitive ratios.
For a variety of combinatorial problems, such as bipartite matching, general packing LPs, and independent set with bounded local independence number, we design new algorithms that obtain constant competitive ratios.
For the matroid secretary problem, we observe that many existing algorithms for special matroid structures maintain their competitive ratios even in the ordinal model. In these cases, the restriction to ordinal information does not represent any additional obstacle. Moreover, we show that ordinal variants of the submodular matroid secretary problems can be solved using algorithms for the linear versions by extending [Feldman and Zenklusen, 2015]. In contrast, we provide a lower bound of Omega(sqrt(n)/log(n)) for algorithms that are oblivious to the matroid structure, where n is the total number of elements. This contrasts an upper bound of O(log n) in the cardinal model, and it shows that the technique of thresholding is not sufficient for good algorithms in the ordinal model.

Martin Hoefer and Bojana Kodric. Combinatorial Secretary Problems with Ordinal Information. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 133:1-133:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{hoefer_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.133, author = {Hoefer, Martin and Kodric, Bojana}, title = {{Combinatorial Secretary Problems with Ordinal Information}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {133:1--133:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.133}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-74594}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.133}, annote = {Keywords: Secretary Problem, Matroid Secretary, Ordinal Information, Online Algorithms} }

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