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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 275, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)

Bipartite maximum matching and its variants are well-studied problems under various models of computation with the vast majority of approaches centering around various methods to find and eliminate augmenting paths. Beginning with the seminal papers of Demange, Gale and Sotomayor [DGS86] and Bertsekas [Ber81], bipartite maximum matching problems have also been studied in the context of auction algorithms. These algorithms model the maximum matching problem as an auction where one side of the bipartite graph consists of bidders and the other side consists of items; as such, these algorithms offer a very different approach to solving this problem that do not use classical methods. Dobzinski, Nisan and Oren [DNO14] demonstrated the utility of such algorithms in distributed, interactive settings by providing a simple and elegant O(log n/ε²) round maximum cardinality bipartite matching (MCM) algorithm that has small round and communication complexity and gives a (1-ε)-approximation for any (not necessarily constant) ε > 0. They leave as an open problem whether an auction algorithm, with similar guarantees, can be found for the maximum weighted bipartite matching (MWM) problem. Very recently, Assadi, Liu, and Tarjan [ALT21] extended the utility of auction algorithms for MCM into the semi-streaming and massively parallel computation (MPC) models, by cleverly using maximal matching as a subroutine, to give a new auction algorithm that uses O(1/ε²) rounds and achieves the state-of-the-art bipartite MCM results in the streaming and MPC settings.
In this paper, we give new auction algorithms for maximum weighted bipartite matching (MWM) and maximum cardinality bipartite b-matching (MCbM). Our algorithms run in O(log n/ε⁸) and O(log n/ε²) rounds, respectively, in the distributed setting. We show that our MWM algorithm can be implemented in the distributed, interactive setting using O(log² n) and O(log n) bit messages, respectively, directly answering the open question posed by Demange, Gale and Sotomayor [DNO14]. Furthermore, we implement our algorithms in a variety of other models including the the semi-streaming model, the shared-memory work-depth model, and the massively parallel computation model. Our semi-streaming MWM algorithm uses O(1/ε⁸) passes in O(n log n ⋅ log(1/ε)) space and our MCbM algorithm runs in O(1/ε²) passes using O((∑_{i ∈ L} b_i + |R|) log(1/ε)) space (where parameters b_i represent the degree constraints on the b-matching and L and R represent the left and right side of the bipartite graph, respectively). Both of these algorithms improves exponentially the dependence on ε in the space complexity in the semi-streaming model against the best-known algorithms for these problems, in addition to improvements in round complexity for MCbM. Finally, our algorithms eliminate the large polylogarithmic dependence on n in depth and number of rounds in the work-depth and massively parallel computation models, respectively, improving on previous results which have large polylogarithmic dependence on n (and exponential dependence on ε in the MPC model).

Quanquan C. Liu, Yiduo Ke, and Samir Khuller. Scalable Auction Algorithms for Bipartite Maximum Matching Problems. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 275, pp. 28:1-28:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{liu_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.28, author = {Liu, Quanquan C. and Ke, Yiduo and Khuller, Samir}, title = {{Scalable Auction Algorithms for Bipartite Maximum Matching Problems}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)}, pages = {28:1--28:24}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-296-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {275}, editor = {Megow, Nicole and Smith, Adam}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.28}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-188537}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.28}, annote = {Keywords: auction algorithms, maximum weight bipartite matching, maximum b-matching, distributed blackboard model, parallel work-depth model, streaming model, massively parallel computation model} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

Many deployments of differential privacy in industry are in the local model, where each party releases its private information via a differentially private randomizer. We study triangle counting in the noninteractive and interactive local model with edge differential privacy (that, intuitively, requires that the outputs of the algorithm on graphs that differ in one edge be indistinguishable). In this model, each party’s local view consists of the adjacency list of one vertex.
In the noninteractive model, we prove that additive Ω(n²) error is necessary, where n is the number of nodes. This lower bound is our main technical contribution. It uses a reconstruction attack with a new class of linear queries and a novel mix-and-match strategy of running the local randomizers with different completions of their adjacency lists. It matches the additive error of the algorithm based on Randomized Response, proposed by Imola, Murakami and Chaudhuri (USENIX2021) and analyzed by Imola, Murakami and Chaudhuri (CCS2022) for constant ε. We use a different postprocessing of Randomized Response and provide tight bounds on the variance of the resulting algorithm.
In the interactive setting, we prove a lower bound of Ω(n^{3/2}) on the additive error. Previously, no hardness results were known for interactive, edge-private algorithms in the local model, except for those that follow trivially from the results for the central model. Our work significantly improves on the state of the art in differentially private graph analysis in the local model.

Talya Eden, Quanquan C. Liu, Sofya Raskhodnikova, and Adam Smith. Triangle Counting with Local Edge Differential Privacy. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 52:1-52:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{eden_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.52, author = {Eden, Talya and Liu, Quanquan C. and Raskhodnikova, Sofya and Smith, Adam}, title = {{Triangle Counting with Local Edge Differential Privacy}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {52:1--52:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.52}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181048}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.52}, annote = {Keywords: local differential privacy, reconstruction attacks, lower bounds, triangle counting} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 256, 4th Symposium on Foundations of Responsible Computing (FORC 2023)

Massive surges of enrollments in courses have led to a crisis in several computer science departments - not only is the demand for certain courses extremely high from majors, but the demand from non-majors is also very high. Much of the time, this leads to significant frustration on the part of the students, and getting seats in desired courses is a rather ad-hoc process. One approach is to first collect information from students about which courses they want to take and to develop optimization models for assigning students to available seats in a fair manner. What makes this problem complex is that the courses themselves have time conflicts, and the students have credit caps (an upper bound on the number of courses they would like to enroll in). We model this problem as follows. We have n agents (students), and there are "resources" (these correspond to courses). Each agent is only interested in a subset of the resources (courses of interest), and each resource can only be assigned to a bounded number of agents (available seats). In addition, each resource corresponds to an interval of time, and the objective is to assign non-overlapping resources to agents so as to produce "fair and high utility" schedules.
In this model, we provide a number of results under various settings and objective functions. Specifically, in this paper, we consider the following objective functions: total utility, max-min (Santa Claus objective), and envy-freeness. The total utility objective function maximizes the sum of the utilities of all courses assigned to students. The max-min objective maximizes the minimum utility obtained by any student. Finally, envy-freeness ensures that no student envies another student’s allocation. Under these settings and objective functions, we show a number of theoretical results. Specifically, we show that the course allocation under the time conflicts problem is NP-complete but becomes polynomial-time solvable when given only a constant number of students or all credits, course lengths, and utilities are uniform. Furthermore, we give a near-linear time algorithm for obtaining a constant 1/2-factor approximation for the general maximizing total utility problem when utility functions are binary. In addition, we show that there exists a near-linear time algorithm that obtains a 1/2-factor approximation on total utility and a 1/4-factor approximation on max-min utility when given uniform credit caps and uniform utilities. For the setting of binary valuations, we show three polynomial time algorithms for 1/2-factor approximation of total utility, envy-freeness up to one item, and a constant factor approximation of the max-min utility value when course lengths are within a constant factor of each other. Finally, we conclude with experimental results that demonstrate that our algorithms yield high-quality results in real-world settings.

Arpita Biswas, Yiduo Ke, Samir Khuller, and Quanquan C. Liu. An Algorithmic Approach to Address Course Enrollment Challenges. In 4th Symposium on Foundations of Responsible Computing (FORC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 256, pp. 8:1-8:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{biswas_et_al:LIPIcs.FORC.2023.8, author = {Biswas, Arpita and Ke, Yiduo and Khuller, Samir and Liu, Quanquan C.}, title = {{An Algorithmic Approach to Address Course Enrollment Challenges}}, booktitle = {4th Symposium on Foundations of Responsible Computing (FORC 2023)}, pages = {8:1--8:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-272-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {256}, editor = {Talwar, Kunal}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FORC.2023.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-179297}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FORC.2023.8}, annote = {Keywords: fairness, allocation, matching, algorithms} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 245, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)

Over the last two decades, frameworks for distributed-memory parallel computation, such as MapReduce, Hadoop, Spark and Dryad, have gained significant popularity with the growing prevalence of large network datasets. The Massively Parallel Computation (MPC) model is the de-facto standard for studying graph algorithms in these frameworks theoretically. Subgraph counting is one such fundamental problem in analyzing massive graphs, with the main algorithmic challenges centering on designing methods which are both scalable and accurate.
Given a graph G = (V, E) with n vertices, m edges and T triangles, our first result is an algorithm that outputs a (1+ε)-approximation to T, with asymptotically optimal round and total space complexity provided any S ≥ max{(√ m, n²/m)} space per machine and assuming T = Ω(√{m/n}). Our result gives a quadratic improvement on the bound on T over previous works. We also provide a simple extension of our result to counting any subgraph of k size for constant k ≥ 1. Our second result is an O_δ(log log n)-round algorithm for exactly counting the number of triangles, whose total space usage is parametrized by the arboricity α of the input graph. We extend this result to exactly counting k-cliques for any constant k. Finally, we prove that a recent result of Bera, Pashanasangi and Seshadhri (ITCS 2020) for exactly counting all subgraphs of size at most 5 can be implemented in the MPC model in Õ_δ(√{log n}) rounds, O(n^δ) space per machine and O(mα³) total space.
In addition to our theoretical results, we simulate our triangle counting algorithms in real-world graphs obtained from the Stanford Network Analysis Project (SNAP) database. Our results show that both our approximate and exact counting algorithms exhibit improvements in terms of round complexity and approximation ratio, respectively, compared to two previous widely used algorithms for these problems.

Amartya Shankha Biswas, Talya Eden, Quanquan C. Liu, Ronitt Rubinfeld, and Slobodan Mitrović. Massively Parallel Algorithms for Small Subgraph Counting. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 245, pp. 39:1-39:28, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{biswas_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.39, author = {Biswas, Amartya Shankha and Eden, Talya and Liu, Quanquan C. and Rubinfeld, Ronitt and Mitrovi\'{c}, Slobodan}, title = {{Massively Parallel Algorithms for Small Subgraph Counting}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)}, pages = {39:1--39:28}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-249-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {245}, editor = {Chakrabarti, Amit and Swamy, Chaitanya}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.39}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-171619}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.39}, annote = {Keywords: triangle counting, massively parallel computation, clique counting, approximation algorithms, subgraph counting} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 219, 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)

We consider the problem of efficiently scheduling jobs with precedence constraints on a set of identical machines in the presence of a uniform communication delay. Such precedence-constrained jobs can be modeled as a directed acyclic graph, G = (V, E). In this setting, if two precedence-constrained jobs u and v, with v dependent on u (u ≺ v), are scheduled on different machines, then v must start at least ρ time units after u completes. The scheduling objective is to minimize makespan, i.e. the total time from when the first job starts to when the last job finishes. The focus of this paper is to provide an efficient approximation algorithm with near-linear running time. We build on the algorithm of Lepere and Rapine [STACS 2002] for this problem to give an O((ln ρ)/(ln ln ρ))-approximation algorithm that runs in Õ(|V|+|E|) time.

Quanquan C. Liu, Manish Purohit, Zoya Svitkina, Erik Vee, and Joshua R. Wang. Scheduling with Communication Delay in Near-Linear Time. In 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 219, pp. 47:1-47:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{liu_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2022.47, author = {Liu, Quanquan C. and Purohit, Manish and Svitkina, Zoya and Vee, Erik and Wang, Joshua R.}, title = {{Scheduling with Communication Delay in Near-Linear Time}}, booktitle = {39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)}, pages = {47:1--47:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-222-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {219}, editor = {Berenbrink, Petra and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.47}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-158570}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.47}, annote = {Keywords: near-linear time scheduling, scheduling with duplication, precedence-constrained jobs, graph algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

The field of dynamic graph algorithms aims at achieving a thorough understanding of real-world networks whose topology evolves with time. Traditionally, the focus has been on the classic sequential, centralized setting where the main quality measure of an algorithm is its update time, i.e. the time needed to restore the solution after each update. While real-life networks are very often distributed across multiple machines, the fundamental question of finding efficient dynamic, distributed graph algorithms received little attention to date. The goal in this setting is to optimize both the round and message complexities incurred per update step, ideally achieving a message complexity that matches the centralized update time in O(1) (perhaps amortized) rounds.
Toward initiating a systematic study of dynamic, distributed algorithms, we study some of the most central symmetry-breaking problems: maximal independent set (MIS), maximal matching/(approx-) maximum cardinality matching (MM/MCM), and (Δ + 1)-vertex coloring. This paper focuses on dynamic, distributed algorithms that are deterministic, and in particular - robust against an adaptive adversary. Most of our focus is on our MIS algorithm, which achieves O (m^{2/3}log² n) amortized messages in O(log² n) amortized rounds in the Congest model. Notably, the amortized message complexity of our algorithm matches the amortized update time of the best-known deterministic centralized MIS algorithm by Gupta and Khan [SOSA'21] up to a polylog n factor. The previous best deterministic distributed MIS algorithm, by Assadi et al. [STOC'18], uses O(m^{3/4}) amortized messages in O(1) amortized rounds, i.e., we achieve a polynomial improvement in the message complexity by a polylog n increase to the round complexity; moreover, the algorithm of Assadi et al. makes an implicit assumption that the network is connected at all times, which seems excessively strong when it comes to dynamic networks. Using techniques similar to the ones we developed for our MIS algorithm, we also provide deterministic algorithms for MM, approximate MCM and (Δ + 1)-vertex coloring whose message complexities match or nearly match the update times of the best centralized algorithms, while having either constant or polylog(n) round complexities.

Shiri Antaki, Quanquan C. Liu, and Shay Solomon. Near-Optimal Distributed Implementations of Dynamic Algorithms for Symmetry Breaking Problems. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 7:1-7:25, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{antaki_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.7, author = {Antaki, Shiri and Liu, Quanquan C. and Solomon, Shay}, title = {{Near-Optimal Distributed Implementations of Dynamic Algorithms for Symmetry Breaking Problems}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {7:1--7:25}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156039}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.7}, annote = {Keywords: dynamic graph algorithms, distributed algorithms, symmetry breaking problems, maximal independent set, matching, coloring} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 209, 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)

Nakamoto consensus underlies the security of many of the world’s largest cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. Common lore is that Nakamoto consensus only achieves consistency and liveness under a regime where the difficulty of its underlying mining puzzle is very high, negatively impacting overall throughput and latency. In this work, we study Nakamoto consensus under a wide range of puzzle difficulties, including very easy puzzles. We first analyze an adversary-free setting and show that, surprisingly, the common prefix of the blockchain grows quickly even with easy puzzles. In a setting with adversaries, we provide a small backwards-compatible change to Nakamoto consensus to achieve consistency and liveness with easy puzzles. Our insight relies on a careful choice of symmetry-breaking strategy, which was significantly underestimated in prior work. We introduce a new method - coalescing random walks - to analyzing the correctness of Nakamoto consensus under the uniformly-at-random symmetry-breaking strategy. This method is more powerful than existing analysis methods that focus on bounding the number of convergence opportunities.

Lili Su, Quanquan C. Liu, and Neha Narula. The Power of Random Symmetry-Breaking in Nakamoto Consensus. In 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 209, pp. 39:1-39:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{su_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2021.39, author = {Su, Lili and Liu, Quanquan C. and Narula, Neha}, title = {{The Power of Random Symmetry-Breaking in Nakamoto Consensus}}, booktitle = {35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)}, pages = {39:1--39:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-210-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {209}, editor = {Gilbert, Seth}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.39}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-148413}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.39}, annote = {Keywords: Nakamoto consensus, Byzantine consensus, blockchain, symmetry-breaking, coalescing random walks} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 157, 10th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2021) (2020)

In the Nikoli pencil-and-paper game Tatamibari, a puzzle consists of an m x n grid of cells, where each cell possibly contains a clue among ⊞, ⊟, ◫. The goal is to partition the grid into disjoint rectangles, where every rectangle contains exactly one clue, rectangles containing ⊞ are square, rectangles containing ⊟ are strictly longer horizontally than vertically, rectangles containing ◫ are strictly longer vertically than horizontally, and no four rectangles share a corner. We prove this puzzle NP-complete, establishing a Nikoli gap of 16 years. Along the way, we introduce a gadget framework for proving hardness of similar puzzles involving area coverage, and show that it applies to an existing NP-hardness proof for Spiral Galaxies. We also present a mathematical puzzle font for Tatamibari.

Aviv Adler, Jeffrey Bosboom, Erik D. Demaine, Martin L. Demaine, Quanquan C. Liu, and Jayson Lynch. Tatamibari Is NP-Complete. In 10th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 157, pp. 1:1-1:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{adler_et_al:LIPIcs.FUN.2021.1, author = {Adler, Aviv and Bosboom, Jeffrey and Demaine, Erik D. and Demaine, Martin L. and Liu, Quanquan C. and Lynch, Jayson}, title = {{Tatamibari Is NP-Complete}}, booktitle = {10th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2021)}, pages = {1:1--1:24}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-145-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {157}, editor = {Farach-Colton, Martin and Prencipe, Giuseppe and Uehara, Ryuhei}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2021.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-127624}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2021.1}, annote = {Keywords: Nikoli puzzles, NP-hardness, rectangle covering} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 144, 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)

We develop a framework for generalizing approximation algorithms from the structural graph algorithm literature so that they apply to graphs somewhat close to that class (a scenario we expect is common when working with real-world networks) while still guaranteeing approximation ratios. The idea is to edit a given graph via vertex- or edge-deletions to put the graph into an algorithmically tractable class, apply known approximation algorithms for that class, and then lift the solution to apply to the original graph. We give a general characterization of when an optimization problem is amenable to this approach, and show that it includes many well-studied graph problems, such as Independent Set, Vertex Cover, Feedback Vertex Set, Minimum Maximal Matching, Chromatic Number, (l-)Dominating Set, Edge (l-)Dominating Set, and Connected Dominating Set.
To enable this framework, we develop new editing algorithms that find the approximately-fewest edits required to bring a given graph into one of a few important graph classes (in some cases these are bicriteria algorithms which simultaneously approximate both the number of editing operations and the target parameter of the family). For bounded degeneracy, we obtain an O(r log{n})-approximation and a bicriteria (4,4)-approximation which also extends to a smoother bicriteria trade-off. For bounded treewidth, we obtain a bicriteria (O(log^{1.5} n), O(sqrt{log w}))-approximation, and for bounded pathwidth, we obtain a bicriteria (O(log^{1.5} n), O(sqrt{log w} * log n))-approximation. For treedepth 2 (related to bounded expansion), we obtain a 4-approximation. We also prove complementary hardness-of-approximation results assuming P != NP: in particular, these problems are all log-factor inapproximable, except the last which is not approximable below some constant factor 2 (assuming UGC).

Erik D. Demaine, Timothy D. Goodrich, Kyle Kloster, Brian Lavallee, Quanquan C. Liu, Blair D. Sullivan, Ali Vakilian, and Andrew van der Poel. Structural Rounding: Approximation Algorithms for Graphs Near an Algorithmically Tractable Class. In 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 144, pp. 37:1-37:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{demaine_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2019.37, author = {Demaine, Erik D. and Goodrich, Timothy D. and Kloster, Kyle and Lavallee, Brian and Liu, Quanquan C. and Sullivan, Blair D. and Vakilian, Ali and van der Poel, Andrew}, title = {{Structural Rounding: Approximation Algorithms for Graphs Near an Algorithmically Tractable Class}}, booktitle = {27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)}, pages = {37:1--37:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-124-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {144}, editor = {Bender, Michael A. and Svensson, Ola and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.37}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111583}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.37}, annote = {Keywords: structural rounding, graph editing, approximation algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 94, 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)

This paper initiates the study of I/O algorithms (minimizing cache misses) from the perspective of fine-grained complexity
(conditional polynomial lower bounds). Specifically, we aim to answer why sparse graph problems are so hard, and why the Longest Common Subsequence problem gets a savings of a factor of the size of cache times the length of a cache line, but no more. We take the reductions and techniques from complexity and fine-grained complexity and apply them to the I/O model to generate new (conditional) lower bounds as well as new faster algorithms. We also prove the existence of a time hierarchy for the I/O model, which motivates the fine-grained reductions.
- Using fine-grained reductions, we give an algorithm for distinguishing 2 vs. 3 diameter and radius that runs in O(|E|^2/(MB)) cache misses, which for sparse graphs improves over the previous O(|V|^2/B) running time.
- We give new reductions from radius and diameter to Wiener index and median. These reductions are new in both the RAM and I/O models.
- We show meaningful reductions between problems that have linear-time solutions in the RAM model. The reductions use low I/O complexity (typically O(n/B)), and thus help to finely capture between "I/O linear time" O(n/B) and RAM linear time O(n).
- We generate new I/O assumptions based on the difficulty of improving sparse graph problem running times in the I/O model. We create conjectures that the current best known algorithms for Single Source Shortest Paths (SSSP), diameter, and radius are optimal.
- From these I/O-model assumptions, we show that many of the known reductions in the word-RAM model can naturally extend to hold in the I/O model as well (e.g., a lower bound on the I/O complexity of Longest Common Subsequence that matches the best known running time).
- We prove an analog of the Time Hierarchy Theorem in the I/O model, further motivating the study of fine-grained algorithmic differences.

Erik D. Demaine, Andrea Lincoln, Quanquan C. Liu, Jayson Lynch, and Virginia Vassilevska Williams. Fine-grained I/O Complexity via Reductions: New Lower Bounds, Faster Algorithms, and a Time Hierarchy. In 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 94, pp. 34:1-34:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{demaine_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.34, author = {Demaine, Erik D. and Lincoln, Andrea and Liu, Quanquan C. and Lynch, Jayson and Vassilevska Williams, Virginia}, title = {{Fine-grained I/O Complexity via Reductions: New Lower Bounds, Faster Algorithms, and a Time Hierarchy}}, booktitle = {9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)}, pages = {34:1--34:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-060-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {94}, editor = {Karlin, Anna R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.34}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-83335}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.34}, annote = {Keywords: IO model, Fine-grained Complexity, Algorithms} }

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