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Track B: Automata, Logic, Semantics, and Theory of Programming

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

We consider numbers of the form S_β(u): = ∑_{n=0}^∞ (u_n)/(βⁿ), where u = ⟨u_n⟩_{n=0}^∞ is an infinite word over a finite alphabet and β ∈ ℂ satisfies |β| > 1. Our main contribution is to present a combinatorial criterion on u, called echoing, that implies that S_β(u) is transcendental whenever β is algebraic. We show that every Sturmian word is echoing, as is the Tribonacci word, a leading example of an Arnoux-Rauzy word. We furthermore characterise ̅{ℚ}-linear independence of sets of the form {1, S_β(u₁),…,S_β(u_k)}, where u₁,…,u_k are Sturmian words having the same slope. Finally, we give an application of the above linear independence criterion to the theory of dynamical systems, showing that for a contracted rotation on the unit circle with algebraic slope, its limit set is either finite or consists exclusively of transcendental elements other than its endpoints 0 and 1. This confirms a conjecture of Bugeaud, Kim, Laurent, and Nogueira.

Pavol Kebis, Florian Luca, Joël Ouaknine, Andrew Scoones, and James Worrell. On Transcendence of Numbers Related to Sturmian and Arnoux-Rauzy Words. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 144:1-144:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{kebis_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.144, author = {Kebis, Pavol and Luca, Florian and Ouaknine, Jo\"{e}l and Scoones, Andrew and Worrell, James}, title = {{On Transcendence of Numbers Related to Sturmian and Arnoux-Rauzy Words}}, booktitle = {51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)}, pages = {144:1--144:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-322-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {297}, editor = {Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.144}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202873}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.144}, annote = {Keywords: Transcendence, Subspace Theorem, Fibonacci Word, Tribonacci Word} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 241, 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)

The celebrated Skolem-Mahler-Lech Theorem states that the set of zeros of a linear recurrence sequence is the union of a finite set and finitely many arithmetic progressions. The corresponding computational question, the Skolem Problem, asks to determine whether a given linear recurrence sequence has a zero term. Although the Skolem-Mahler-Lech Theorem is almost 90 years old, decidability of the Skolem Problem remains open. The main contribution of this paper is an algorithm to solve the Skolem Problem for simple linear recurrence sequences (those with simple characteristic roots). Whenever the algorithm terminates, it produces a stand-alone certificate that its output is correct - a set of zeros together with a collection of witnesses that no further zeros exist. We give a proof that the algorithm always terminates assuming two classical number-theoretic conjectures: the Skolem Conjecture (also known as the Exponential Local-Global Principle) and the p-adic Schanuel Conjecture. Preliminary experiments with an implementation of this algorithm within the tool Skolem point to the practical applicability of this method.

Yuri Bilu, Florian Luca, Joris Nieuwveld, Joël Ouaknine, David Purser, and James Worrell. Skolem Meets Schanuel. In 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 241, pp. 20:1-20:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{bilu_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.20, author = {Bilu, Yuri and Luca, Florian and Nieuwveld, Joris and Ouaknine, Jo\"{e}l and Purser, David and Worrell, James}, title = {{Skolem Meets Schanuel}}, booktitle = {47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)}, pages = {20:1--20:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-256-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {241}, editor = {Szeider, Stefan and Ganian, Robert and Silva, Alexandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.20}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-168180}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.20}, annote = {Keywords: Skolem Problem, Skolem Conjecture, Exponential Local-Global Principle, p-adic Schanuel Conjecture} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 241, 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)

The Skolem Problem asks to decide whether a given integer linear recurrence sequence (LRS) has a zero term. Decidability of this problem has been open for many decades, with little progress since the 1980s. Recently, a new approach was initiated via the notion of a Skolem set - a set of positive integers relative to which the Skolem Problem is decidable. More precisely, 𝒮 is a Skolem set for a class ℒ of integer LRS if there is an effective procedure that, given an LRS in ℒ, decides whether the sequence has a zero in 𝒮. A recent work exhibited a Skolem set for the class of all LRS that, while infinite, had density zero. In the present work we construct a Skolem set of positive lower density for the class of simple LRS .

Florian Luca, Joël Ouaknine, and James Worrell. A Universal Skolem Set of Positive Lower Density. In 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 241, pp. 73:1-73:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{luca_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.73, author = {Luca, Florian and Ouaknine, Jo\"{e}l and Worrell, James}, title = {{A Universal Skolem Set of Positive Lower Density}}, booktitle = {47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)}, pages = {73:1--73:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-256-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {241}, editor = {Szeider, Stefan and Ganian, Robert and Silva, Alexandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.73}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-168711}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.73}, annote = {Keywords: Linear Recurrence Sequences, Skolem Problem, Exponential Diophantine Equations, Sieve Methods} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 202, 46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021)

An infinite sequence ⟨u_n⟩_n of real numbers is holonomic (also known as P-recursive or P-finite) if it satisfies a linear recurrence relation with polynomial coefficients. Such a sequence is said to be positive if each u_n ≥ 0, and minimal if, given any other linearly independent sequence ⟨v_n⟩_n satisfying the same recurrence relation, the ratio u_n/v_n → 0 as n → ∞.
In this paper we give a Turing reduction of the problem of deciding positivity of second-order holonomic sequences to that of deciding minimality of such sequences. More specifically, we give a procedure for determining positivity of second-order holonomic sequences that terminates in all but an exceptional number of cases, and we show that in these exceptional cases positivity can be determined using an oracle for deciding minimality.

George Kenison, Oleksiy Klurman, Engel Lefaucheux, Florian Luca, Pieter Moree, Joël Ouaknine, Markus A. Whiteland, and James Worrell. On Positivity and Minimality for Second-Order Holonomic Sequences. In 46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 202, pp. 67:1-67:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{kenison_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.67, author = {Kenison, George and Klurman, Oleksiy and Lefaucheux, Engel and Luca, Florian and Moree, Pieter and Ouaknine, Jo\"{e}l and Whiteland, Markus A. and Worrell, James}, title = {{On Positivity and Minimality for Second-Order Holonomic Sequences}}, booktitle = {46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021)}, pages = {67:1--67:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-201-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {202}, editor = {Bonchi, Filippo and Puglisi, Simon J.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.67}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-145071}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.67}, annote = {Keywords: Holonomic sequences, Minimal solutions, Positivity Problem} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 203, 32nd International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2021)

We study a parametric version of the Kannan-Lipton Orbit Problem for linear dynamical systems. We show decidability in the case of one parameter and Skolem-hardness with two or more parameters.
More precisely, consider a d-dimensional square matrix M whose entries are algebraic functions in one or more real variables. Given initial and target vectors u,v ∈ ℚ^d, the parametric point-to-point orbit problem asks whether there exist values of the parameters giving rise to a concrete matrix N ∈ ℝ^{d× d}, and a positive integer n ∈ ℕ, such that N^{n} u = v.
We show decidability for the case in which M depends only upon a single parameter, and we exhibit a reduction from the well-known Skolem Problem for linear recurrence sequences, suggesting intractability in the case of two or more parameters.

Christel Baier, Florian Funke, Simon Jantsch, Toghrul Karimov, Engel Lefaucheux, Florian Luca, Joël Ouaknine, David Purser, Markus A. Whiteland, and James Worrell. The Orbit Problem for Parametric Linear Dynamical Systems. In 32nd International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 203, pp. 28:1-28:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{baier_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2021.28, author = {Baier, Christel and Funke, Florian and Jantsch, Simon and Karimov, Toghrul and Lefaucheux, Engel and Luca, Florian and Ouaknine, Jo\"{e}l and Purser, David and Whiteland, Markus A. and Worrell, James}, title = {{The Orbit Problem for Parametric Linear Dynamical Systems}}, booktitle = {32nd International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2021)}, pages = {28:1--28:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-203-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {203}, editor = {Haddad, Serge and Varacca, Daniele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2021.28}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-144053}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2021.28}, annote = {Keywords: Orbit problem, parametric, linear dynamical systems} }

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