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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 285, 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)

Given a graph G and an integer b, Bandwidth asks whether there exists a bijection π from V(G) to {1, …, |V(G)|} such that max_{{u, v} ∈ E(G)} | π(u) - π(v) | ≤ b. This is a classical NP-complete problem, known to remain NP-complete even on very restricted classes of graphs, such as trees of maximum degree 3 and caterpillars of hair length 3. In the realm of parameterized complexity, these results imply that the problem remains NP-hard on graphs of bounded pathwidth, while it is additionally known to be W[1]-hard when parameterized by the treedepth of the input graph. In contrast, the problem does become FPT when parameterized by the vertex cover number of the input graph. In this paper, we make progress towards the parameterized (in)tractability of Bandwidth. We first show that it is FPT when parameterized by the cluster vertex deletion number cvd plus the clique number ω of the input graph, thus generalizing the previously mentioned result for vertex cover. On the other hand, we show that Bandwidth is W[1]-hard when parameterized only by cvd. Our results generalize some of the previous results and narrow some of the complexity gaps.

Tatsuya Gima, Eun Jung Kim, Noleen Köhler, Nikolaos Melissinos, and Manolis Vasilakis. Bandwidth Parameterized by Cluster Vertex Deletion Number. In 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 285, pp. 21:1-21:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{gima_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.21, author = {Gima, Tatsuya and Kim, Eun Jung and K\"{o}hler, Noleen and Melissinos, Nikolaos and Vasilakis, Manolis}, title = {{Bandwidth Parameterized by Cluster Vertex Deletion Number}}, booktitle = {18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)}, pages = {21:1--21:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-305-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {285}, editor = {Misra, Neeldhara and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.21}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194401}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.21}, annote = {Keywords: Bandwidth, Clique number, Cluster vertex deletion number, Parameterized complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 272, 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)

Given a graph G and an integer k, Max Min FVS asks whether there exists a minimal set of vertices of size at least k whose deletion destroys all cycles. We present several results that improve upon the state of the art of the parameterized complexity of this problem with respect to both structural and natural parameters.
Using standard DP techniques, we first present an algorithm of time tw^O(tw) n^O(1), significantly generalizing a recent algorithm of Gaikwad et al. of time vc^O(vc) n^O(1), where tw, vc denote the input graph’s treewidth and vertex cover respectively. Subsequently, we show that both of these algorithms are essentially optimal, since a vc^o(vc) n^O(1) algorithm would refute the ETH.
With respect to the natural parameter k, the aforementioned recent work by Gaikwad et al. claimed an FPT branching algorithm with complexity 10^k n^O(1). We point out that this algorithm is incorrect and present a branching algorithm of complexity 9.34^k n^O(1).

Michael Lampis, Nikolaos Melissinos, and Manolis Vasilakis. Parameterized Max Min Feedback Vertex Set. In 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 272, pp. 62:1-62:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{lampis_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.62, author = {Lampis, Michael and Melissinos, Nikolaos and Vasilakis, Manolis}, title = {{Parameterized Max Min Feedback Vertex Set}}, booktitle = {48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)}, pages = {62:1--62:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-292-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {272}, editor = {Leroux, J\'{e}r\^{o}me and Lombardy, Sylvain and Peleg, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.62}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-185965}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.62}, annote = {Keywords: ETH, Feedback vertex set, Parameterized algorithms, Treewidth} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 227, 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)

If a graph G is such that no two adjacent vertices of G have the same degree, we say that G is locally irregular. In this work we introduce and study the problem of identifying a largest induced subgraph of a given graph G that is locally irregular. Equivalently, given a graph G, find a subset S of V(G) with minimum order, such that by deleting the vertices of S from G results in a locally irregular graph; we denote with I(G) the order of such a set S. We first examine some easy graph families, namely paths, cycles, trees, complete bipartite and complete graphs. However, we show that the decision version of the introduced problem is NP-Complete, even for restricted families of graphs, such as subcubic planar bipartite, or cubic bipartite graphs. We then show that we can not even approximate an optimal solution within a ratio of 𝒪(n^{1-1/k}), where k ≥ 1 and n is the order the graph, unless 𝒫=NP, even when the input graph is bipartite.
Then, looking for more positive results, we turn our attention towards computing I(G) through the lens of parameterised complexity. In particular, we provide two algorithms that compute I(G), each one considering different parameters. The first one considers the size of the solution k and the maximum degree Δ of G with running time (2Δ)^kn^{𝒪(1)}, while the second one considers the treewidth tw and Δ of G, and has running time Δ^{2tw}n^{𝒪(1)}. Therefore, we show that the problem is FPT by both k and tw if the graph has bounded maximum degree Δ. Since these algorithms are not FPT for graphs with unbounded maximum degree (unless we consider Δ + k or Δ + tw as the parameter), it is natural to wonder if there exists an algorithm that does not include additional parameters (other than k or tw) in its dependency.
We answer negatively, to this question, by showing that our algorithms are essentially optimal. In particular, we prove that there is no algorithm that computes I(G) with dependence f(k)n^{o(k)} or f(tw)n^{o(tw)}, unless the ETH fails.

Foivos Fioravantes, Nikolaos Melissinos, and Theofilos Triommatis. Complexity of Finding Maximum Locally Irregular Induced Subgraphs. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 24:1-24:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{fioravantes_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.24, author = {Fioravantes, Foivos and Melissinos, Nikolaos and Triommatis, Theofilos}, title = {{Complexity of Finding Maximum Locally Irregular Induced Subgraphs}}, booktitle = {18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)}, pages = {24:1--24:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-236-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {227}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161842}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.24}, annote = {Keywords: Locally irregular, largest induced subgraph, FPT, treewidth, W-hardness, approximability} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 212, 32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021)

We revisit a classical crossword filling puzzle which already appeared in Garey&Jonhson’s book. We are given a grid with n vertical and horizontal slots and a dictionary with m words and are asked to place words from the dictionary in the slots so that shared cells are consistent. We attempt to pinpoint the source of intractability of this problem by carefully taking into account the structure of the grid graph, which contains a vertex for each slot and an edge if two slots intersect. Our main approach is to consider the case where this graph has a tree-like structure. Unfortunately, if we impose the common rule that words cannot be reused, we discover that the problem remains NP-hard under very severe structural restrictions, namely, if the grid graph is a union of stars and the alphabet has size 2, or the grid graph is a matching (so the crossword is a collection of disjoint crosses) and the alphabet has size 3. The problem does become slightly more tractable if word reuse is allowed, as we obtain an m^{tw} algorithm in this case, where tw is the treewidth of the grid graph. However, even in this case, we show that our algorithm cannot be improved to obtain fixed-parameter tractability. More strongly, we show that under the ETH the problem cannot be solved in time m^o(k), where k is the number of horizontal slots of the instance (which trivially bounds tw).
Motivated by these mostly negative results, we also consider the much more restricted case where the problem is parameterized by the number of slots n. Here, we show that the problem does become FPT (if the alphabet has constant size), but the parameter dependence is exponential in n². We show that this dependence is also justified: the existence of an algorithm with running time 2^o(n²), even for binary alphabet, would contradict the randomized ETH. Finally, we consider an optimization version of the problem, where we seek to place as many words on the grid as possible. Here it is easy to obtain a 1/2-approximation, even on weighted instances, simply by considering only horizontal or only vertical slots. We show that this trivial algorithm is also likely to be optimal, as obtaining a better approximation ratio in polynomial time would contradict the Unique Games Conjecture. The latter two results apply whether word reuse is allowed or not.

Laurent Gourvès, Ararat Harutyunyan, Michael Lampis, and Nikolaos Melissinos. Filling Crosswords Is Very Hard. In 32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 212, pp. 36:1-36:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{gourves_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.36, author = {Gourv\`{e}s, Laurent and Harutyunyan, Ararat and Lampis, Michael and Melissinos, Nikolaos}, title = {{Filling Crosswords Is Very Hard}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021)}, pages = {36:1--36:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-214-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {212}, editor = {Ahn, Hee-Kap and Sadakane, Kunihiko}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.36}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-154690}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.36}, annote = {Keywords: Crossword Puzzle, Treewidth, ETH} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 187, 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)

In k-Digraph Coloring we are given a digraph and are asked to partition its vertices into at most k sets, so that each set induces a DAG. This well-known problem is NP-hard, as it generalizes (undirected) k-Coloring, but becomes trivial if the input digraph is acyclic. This poses the natural parameterized complexity question of what happens when the input is "almost" acyclic. In this paper we study this question using parameters that measure the input’s distance to acyclicity in either the directed or the undirected sense.
In the directed sense perhaps the most natural notion of distance to acyclicity is directed feedback vertex set (DFVS). It is already known that, for all k ≥ 2, k-Digraph Coloring is NP-hard on digraphs of DFVS at most k+4. We strengthen this result to show that, for all k ≥ 2, k-Digraph Coloring is already NP-hard for DFVS exactly k. This immediately provides a dichotomy, as k-Digraph Coloring is trivial if DFVS is at most k-1. Refining our reduction we obtain two further consequences: (i) for all k ≥ 2, k-Digraph Coloring is NP-hard for graphs of feedback arc set (FAS) at most k²; interestingly, this leads to a second dichotomy, as we show that the problem is FPT by k if FAS is at most k²-1; (ii) k-Digraph Coloring is NP-hard for graphs of DFVS k, even if the maximum degree Δ is at most 4k-1; we show that this is also almost tight, as the problem becomes FPT for DFVS k and Δ ≤ 4k-3.
Since these results imply that the problem is also NP-hard on graphs of bounded directed treewidth, we then consider parameters that measure the distance from acyclicity of the underlying graph. On the positive side, we show that k-Digraph Coloring admits an FPT algorithm parameterized by treewidth, whose parameter dependence is (tw!)k^{tw}. Since this is considerably worse than the k^{tw} dependence of (undirected) k-Coloring, we pose the question of whether the tw! factor can be eliminated. Our main contribution in this part is to settle this question in the negative and show that our algorithm is essentially optimal, even for the much more restricted parameter treedepth and for k = 2. Specifically, we show that an FPT algorithm solving 2-Digraph Coloring with dependence td^o(td) would contradict the ETH.

Ararat Harutyunyan, Michael Lampis, and Nikolaos Melissinos. Digraph Coloring and Distance to Acyclicity. In 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 187, pp. 41:1-41:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{harutyunyan_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2021.41, author = {Harutyunyan, Ararat and Lampis, Michael and Melissinos, Nikolaos}, title = {{Digraph Coloring and Distance to Acyclicity}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)}, pages = {41:1--41:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-180-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {187}, editor = {Bl\"{a}ser, Markus and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.41}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136865}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.41}, annote = {Keywords: Digraph Coloring, Dichromatic number, NP-completeness, Parameterized complexity, Feedback vertex and arc sets} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 181, 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)

We study the approximability of the NP-complete Maximum Minimal Feedback Vertex Set problem. Informally, this natural problem seems to lie in an intermediate space between two more well-studied problems of this type: Maximum Minimal Vertex Cover, for which the best achievable approximation ratio is √n, and Upper Dominating Set, which does not admit any n^{1-ε} approximation. We confirm and quantify this intuition by showing the first non-trivial polynomial time approximation for Max Min FVS with a ratio of O(n^{2/3}), as well as a matching hardness of approximation bound of n^{2/3-ε}, improving the previous known hardness of n^{1/2-ε}. Along the way, we also obtain an O(Δ)-approximation and show that this is asymptotically best possible, and we improve the bound for which the problem is NP-hard from Δ ≥ 9 to Δ ≥ 6.
Having settled the problem’s approximability in polynomial time, we move to the context of super-polynomial time. We devise a generalization of our approximation algorithm which, for any desired approximation ratio r, produces an r-approximate solution in time n^O(n/r^{3/2}). This time-approximation trade-off is essentially tight: we show that under the ETH, for any ratio r and ε > 0, no algorithm can r-approximate this problem in time n^{O((n/r^{3/2})^{1-ε})}, hence we precisely characterize the approximability of the problem for the whole spectrum between polynomial and sub-exponential time, up to an arbitrarily small constant in the second exponent.

Louis Dublois, Tesshu Hanaka, Mehdi Khosravian Ghadikolaei, Michael Lampis, and Nikolaos Melissinos. (In)approximability of Maximum Minimal FVS. In 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 181, pp. 3:1-3:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{dublois_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.3, author = {Dublois, Louis and Hanaka, Tesshu and Khosravian Ghadikolaei, Mehdi and Lampis, Michael and Melissinos, Nikolaos}, title = {{(In)approximability of Maximum Minimal FVS}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)}, pages = {3:1--3:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-173-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {181}, editor = {Cao, Yixin and Cheng, Siu-Wing and Li, Minming}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-133477}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.3}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, ETH, Inapproximability} }