Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 264, 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)

Recent work has shown that many of the standard TFNP classes - such as PLS, PPADS, PPAD, SOPL, and EOPL - have corresponding proof systems in propositional proof complexity, in the sense that a total search problem is in the class if and only if the totality of the problem can be efficiently proved by the corresponding proof system. We build on this line of work by studying coloured variants of these TFNP classes: C-PLS, C-PPADS, C-PPAD, C-SOPL, and C-EOPL. While C-PLS has been studied in the literature before, the coloured variants of the other classes are introduced here for the first time. We give a family of results showing that these coloured TFNP classes are natural objects of study, and that the correspondence between TFNP and natural propositional proof systems is not an exceptional phenomenon isolated to weak TFNP classes. Namely, we show that:
- Each of the classes C-PLS, C-PPADS, and C-SOPL have corresponding proof systems characterizing them. Specifically, the proof systems for these classes are obtained by adding depth to the formulas in the corresponding proof system for the uncoloured class. For instance, while it was previously known that PLS is characterized by bounded-width Resolution (i.e. depth 0.5 Frege), we prove that C-PLS is characterized by depth-1.5 Frege (Res(polylog(n)).
- The classes C-PPAD and C-EOPL coincide exactly with the uncoloured classes PPADS and SOPL, respectively. Thus, both of these classes also have corresponding proof systems: unary Sherali-Adams and Reversible Resolution, respectively.
- Finally, we prove a coloured intersection theorem for the coloured sink classes, showing C-PLS ∩ C-PPADS = C-SOPL, generalizing the intersection theorem PLS ∩ PPADS = SOPL. However, while it is known in the uncoloured world that PLS ∩ PPAD = EOPL = CLS, we prove that this equality fails in the coloured world in the black-box setting. More precisely, we show that there is an oracle O such that C-PLS^O ∩ C-PPAD^O ⊋ C-EOPL^O. To prove our results, we introduce an abstract multivalued proof system - the Blockwise Calculus - which may be of independent interest.

Ben Davis and Robert Robere. Colourful TFNP and Propositional Proofs. In 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 264, pp. 36:1-36:21, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{davis_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2023.36, author = {Davis, Ben and Robere, Robert}, title = {{Colourful TFNP and Propositional Proofs}}, booktitle = {38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)}, pages = {36:1--36:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-282-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {264}, editor = {Ta-Shma, Amnon}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.36}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-183066}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.36}, annote = {Keywords: oracle separations, TFNP, proof complexity, Res(k), lower bounds} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)

Most recent works on cryptographic obfuscation focus on the high-end regime of obfuscating general circuits while guaranteeing computational indistinguishability between functionally equivalent circuits. Motivated by the goals of simplicity and efficiency, we initiate a systematic study of "low-end" obfuscation, focusing on simpler representation models and information-theoretic notions of security. We obtain the following results.
- Positive results via "white-box" learning. We present a general technique for obtaining perfect indistinguishability obfuscation from exact learning algorithms that are given restricted access to the representation of the input function. We demonstrate the usefulness of this approach by obtaining simple obfuscation for decision trees and multilinear read-k arithmetic formulas.
- Negative results via PAC learning. A proper obfuscation scheme obfuscates programs from a class C by programs from the same class. Assuming the existence of one-way functions, we show that there is no proper indistinguishability obfuscation scheme for k-CNF formulas for any constant k ≥ 3; in fact, even obfuscating 3-CNF by k-CNF is impossible. This result applies even to computationally secure obfuscation, and makes an unexpected use of PAC learning in the context of negative results for obfuscation.
- Separations. We study the relations between different information-theoretic notions of indistinguishability obfuscation, giving cryptographic evidence for separations between them.

Elette Boyle, Yuval Ishai, Pierre Meyer, Robert Robere, and Gal Yehuda. On Low-End Obfuscation and Learning. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 23:1-23:28, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{boyle_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.23, author = {Boyle, Elette and Ishai, Yuval and Meyer, Pierre and Robere, Robert and Yehuda, Gal}, title = {{On Low-End Obfuscation and Learning}}, booktitle = {14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)}, pages = {23:1--23:28}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-263-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {251}, editor = {Tauman Kalai, Yael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175265}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.23}, annote = {Keywords: Indistinguishability obfuscation, cryptography, learning} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 234, 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)

We show EOPL = PLS ∩ PPAD. Here the class EOPL consists of all total search problems that reduce to the End-of-Potential-Line problem, which was introduced in the works by Hubáček and Yogev (SICOMP 2020) and Fearnley et al. (JCSS 2020). In particular, our result yields a new simpler proof of the breakthrough collapse CLS = PLS ∩ PPAD by Fearnley et al. (STOC 2021). We also prove a companion result SOPL = PLS ∩ PPADS, where SOPL is the class associated with the Sink-of-Potential-Line problem.

Mika Göös, Alexandros Hollender, Siddhartha Jain, Gilbert Maystre, William Pires, Robert Robere, and Ran Tao. Further Collapses in TFNP. In 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 234, pp. 33:1-33:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{goos_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2022.33, author = {G\"{o}\"{o}s, Mika and Hollender, Alexandros and Jain, Siddhartha and Maystre, Gilbert and Pires, William and Robere, Robert and Tao, Ran}, title = {{Further Collapses in TFNP}}, booktitle = {37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)}, pages = {33:1--33:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-241-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {234}, editor = {Lovett, Shachar}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.33}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165954}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.33}, annote = {Keywords: TFNP, PPAD, PLS, EOPL} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

A language L is random-self-reducible if deciding membership in L can be reduced (in polynomial time) to deciding membership in L for uniformly random instances. It is known that several "number theoretic" languages (such as computing the permanent of a matrix) admit random self-reductions. Feigenbaum and Fortnow showed that NP-complete languages are not non-adaptively random-self-reducible unless the polynomial-time hierarchy collapses, giving suggestive evidence that NP may not admit random self-reductions. Hirahara and Santhanam introduced a weakening of random self-reductions that they called pseudorandom self-reductions, in which a language L is reduced to a distribution that is computationally indistinguishable from the uniform distribution. They then showed that the Minimum Circuit Size Problem (MCSP) admits a non-adaptive pseudorandom self-reduction, and suggested that this gave further evidence that distinguished MCSP from standard NP-Complete problems.
We show that, in fact, the Clique problem admits a non-adaptive pseudorandom self-reduction, assuming the planted clique conjecture. More generally we show the following. Call a property of graphs π hereditary if G ∈ π implies H ∈ π for every induced subgraph of G. We show that for any infinite hereditary property π, the problem of finding a maximum induced subgraph H ∈ π of a given graph G admits a non-adaptive pseudorandom self-reduction.

Reyad Abed Elrazik, Robert Robere, Assaf Schuster, and Gal Yehuda. Pseudorandom Self-Reductions for NP-Complete Problems. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 65:1-65:12, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{elrazik_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.65, author = {Elrazik, Reyad Abed and Robere, Robert and Schuster, Assaf and Yehuda, Gal}, title = {{Pseudorandom Self-Reductions for NP-Complete Problems}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {65:1--65:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.65}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156615}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.65}, annote = {Keywords: computational complexity, pseudorandomness, worst-case to average-case, self reductions, planted clique, hereditary graph family} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

We give a new characterization of the Sherali-Adams proof system, showing that there is a degree-d Sherali-Adams refutation of an unsatisfiable CNF formula C if and only if there is an ε > 0 and a degree-d conical junta J such that viol_C(x) - ε = J, where viol_C(x) counts the number of falsified clauses of C on an input x. Using this result we show that the linear separation complexity, a complexity measure recently studied by Hrubeš (and independently by de Oliveira Oliveira and Pudlák under the name of weak monotone linear programming gates), monotone feasibly interpolates Sherali-Adams proofs.
We then investigate separation results for viol_C(x) - ε. In particular, we give a family of unsatisfiable CNF formulas C which have polynomial-size and small-width resolution proofs, but for which any representation of viol_C(x) - 1 by a conical junta requires degree Ω(n); this resolves an open question of Filmus, Mahajan, Sood, and Vinyals. Since Sherali-Adams can simulate resolution, this separates the non-negative degree of viol_C(x) - 1 and viol_C(x) - ε for arbitrarily small ε > 0. Finally, by applying lifting theorems, we translate this lower bound into new separation results between extension complexity and monotone circuit complexity.

Noah Fleming, Mika Göös, Stefan Grosser, and Robert Robere. On Semi-Algebraic Proofs and Algorithms. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 69:1-69:25, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{fleming_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.69, author = {Fleming, Noah and G\"{o}\"{o}s, Mika and Grosser, Stefan and Robere, Robert}, title = {{On Semi-Algebraic Proofs and Algorithms}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {69:1--69:25}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.69}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156658}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.69}, annote = {Keywords: Proof Complexity, Extended Formulations, Circuit Complexity, Sherali-Adams} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

We further the study of supercritical tradeoffs in proof and circuit complexity, which is a type of tradeoff between complexity parameters where restricting one complexity parameter forces another to exceed its worst-case upper bound. In particular, we prove a new family of supercritical tradeoffs between depth and size for Resolution, Res(k), and Cutting Planes proofs. For each of these proof systems we construct, for each c ≤ n^{1-ε}, a formula with n^{O(c)} clauses and n variables that has a proof of size n^{O(c)} but in which any proof of size no more than roughly exponential in n^{1-ε}/c must necessarily have depth ≈ n^c. By setting c = o(n^{1-ε}) we therefore obtain exponential lower bounds on proof depth; this far exceeds the trivial worst-case upper bound of n. In doing so we give a simplified proof of a supercritical depth/width tradeoff for tree-like Resolution from [Alexander A. Razborov, 2016]. Finally, we outline several conjectures that would imply similar supercritical tradeoffs between size and depth in circuit complexity via lifting theorems.

Noah Fleming, Toniann Pitassi, and Robert Robere. Extremely Deep Proofs. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 70:1-70:23, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{fleming_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.70, author = {Fleming, Noah and Pitassi, Toniann and Robere, Robert}, title = {{Extremely Deep Proofs}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {70:1--70:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.70}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156665}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.70}, annote = {Keywords: Proof Complexity, Tradeoffs, Resolution, Cutting Planes} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 200, 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)

The Stabbing Planes proof system [Paul Beame et al., 2018] was introduced to model the reasoning carried out in practical mixed integer programming solvers. As a proof system, it is powerful enough to simulate Cutting Planes and to refute the Tseitin formulas - certain unsatisfiable systems of linear equations od 2 - which are canonical hard examples for many algebraic proof systems. In a recent (and surprising) result, Dadush and Tiwari [Daniel Dadush and Samarth Tiwari, 2020] showed that these short refutations of the Tseitin formulas could be translated into quasi-polynomial size and depth Cutting Planes proofs, refuting a long-standing conjecture. This translation raises several interesting questions. First, whether all Stabbing Planes proofs can be efficiently simulated by Cutting Planes. This would allow for the substantial analysis done on the Cutting Planes system to be lifted to practical mixed integer programming solvers. Second, whether the quasi-polynomial depth of these proofs is inherent to Cutting Planes.
In this paper we make progress towards answering both of these questions. First, we show that any Stabbing Planes proof with bounded coefficients (SP*) can be translated into Cutting Planes. As a consequence of the known lower bounds for Cutting Planes, this establishes the first exponential lower bounds on SP*. Using this translation, we extend the result of Dadush and Tiwari to show that Cutting Planes has short refutations of any unsatisfiable system of linear equations over a finite field. Like the Cutting Planes proofs of Dadush and Tiwari, our refutations also incur a quasi-polynomial blow-up in depth, and we conjecture that this is inherent. As a step towards this conjecture, we develop a new geometric technique for proving lower bounds on the depth of Cutting Planes proofs. This allows us to establish the first lower bounds on the depth of Semantic Cutting Planes proofs of the Tseitin formulas.

Noah Fleming, Mika Göös, Russell Impagliazzo, Toniann Pitassi, Robert Robere, Li-Yang Tan, and Avi Wigderson. On the Power and Limitations of Branch and Cut. In 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 200, pp. 6:1-6:30, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{fleming_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2021.6, author = {Fleming, Noah and G\"{o}\"{o}s, Mika and Impagliazzo, Russell and Pitassi, Toniann and Robere, Robert and Tan, Li-Yang and Wigderson, Avi}, title = {{On the Power and Limitations of Branch and Cut}}, booktitle = {36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)}, pages = {6:1--6:30}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-193-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {200}, editor = {Kabanets, Valentine}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-142809}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.6}, annote = {Keywords: Proof Complexity, Integer Programming, Cutting Planes, Branch and Cut, Stabbing Planes} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)

Comparator circuits are a natural circuit model for studying the concept of bounded fan-out computations, which intuitively corresponds to whether or not a computational model can make "copies" of intermediate computational steps. Comparator circuits are believed to be weaker than general Boolean circuits, but they can simulate Branching Programs and Boolean formulas. In this paper we prove the first superlinear lower bounds in the general (non-monotone) version of this model for an explicitly defined function. More precisely, we prove that the n-bit Element Distinctness function requires Ω((n/ log n)^(3/2)) size comparator circuits.

Anna Gál and Robert Robere. Lower Bounds for (Non-Monotone) Comparator Circuits. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 58:1-58:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{gal_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.58, author = {G\'{a}l, Anna and Robere, Robert}, title = {{Lower Bounds for (Non-Monotone) Comparator Circuits}}, booktitle = {11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)}, pages = {58:1--58:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-134-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {151}, editor = {Vidick, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.58}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117431}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.58}, annote = {Keywords: comparator circuits, circuit complexity, Nechiporuk, lower bounds} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 137, 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)

We establish an exactly tight relation between reversible pebblings of graphs and Nullstellensatz refutations of pebbling formulas, showing that a graph G can be reversibly pebbled in time t and space s if and only if there is a Nullstellensatz refutation of the pebbling formula over G in size t+1 and degree s (independently of the field in which the Nullstellensatz refutation is made). We use this correspondence to prove a number of strong size-degree trade-offs for Nullstellensatz, which to the best of our knowledge are the first such results for this proof system.

Susanna F. de Rezende, Jakob Nordström, Or Meir, and Robert Robere. Nullstellensatz Size-Degree Trade-offs from Reversible Pebbling. In 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 137, pp. 18:1-18:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{derezende_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2019.18, author = {de Rezende, Susanna F. and Nordstr\"{o}m, Jakob and Meir, Or and Robere, Robert}, title = {{Nullstellensatz Size-Degree Trade-offs from Reversible Pebbling}}, booktitle = {34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)}, pages = {18:1--18:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-116-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {137}, editor = {Shpilka, Amir}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.18}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-108403}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.18}, annote = {Keywords: proof complexity, Nullstellensatz, pebble games, trade-offs, size, degree} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 124, 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019)

Separations: We introduce a monotone variant of Xor-Sat and show it has exponential monotone circuit complexity. Since Xor-Sat is in NC^2, this improves qualitatively on the monotone vs. non-monotone separation of Tardos (1988). We also show that monotone span programs over R can be exponentially more powerful than over finite fields. These results can be interpreted as separating subclasses of TFNP in communication complexity.
Characterizations: We show that the communication (resp. query) analogue of PPA (subclass of TFNP) captures span programs over F_2 (resp. Nullstellensatz degree over F_2). Previously, it was known that communication FP captures formulas (Karchmer - Wigderson, 1988) and that communication PLS captures circuits (Razborov, 1995).

Mika Göös, Pritish Kamath, Robert Robere, and Dmitry Sokolov. Adventures in Monotone Complexity and TFNP. In 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 124, pp. 38:1-38:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{goos_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.38, author = {G\"{o}\"{o}s, Mika and Kamath, Pritish and Robere, Robert and Sokolov, Dmitry}, title = {{Adventures in Monotone Complexity and TFNP}}, booktitle = {10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019)}, pages = {38:1--38:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-095-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {124}, editor = {Blum, Avrim}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.38}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-101316}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.38}, annote = {Keywords: TFNP, Monotone Complexity, Communication Complexity, Proof Complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 94, 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)

We introduce and develop a new semi-algebraic proof system, called Stabbing Planes that is in the style of DPLL-based modern SAT solvers. As with DPLL, there is only one rule: the current polytope can be subdivided by branching on an inequality and its "integer negation." That is, we can (nondeterministically choose) a hyperplane a x >= b with integer coefficients, which partitions the polytope into three pieces: the points in the polytope satisfying a x >= b, the points satisfying a x <= b-1, and the middle slab b-1 < a x < b. Since the middle slab contains no integer points it can be safely discarded, and the algorithm proceeds recursively on the other two branches. Each path terminates when the current polytope is empty, which is polynomial-time checkable. Among our results, we show somewhat surprisingly that Stabbing Planes can efficiently simulate Cutting Planes, and moreover, is strictly stronger than Cutting Planes under a reasonable conjecture. We prove linear lower bounds on the rank of Stabbing Planes refutations, by adapting
a lifting argument in communication complexity.

Paul Beame, Noah Fleming, Russell Impagliazzo, Antonina Kolokolova, Denis Pankratov, Toniann Pitassi, and Robert Robere. Stabbing Planes. In 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 94, pp. 10:1-10:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{beame_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.10, author = {Beame, Paul and Fleming, Noah and Impagliazzo, Russell and Kolokolova, Antonina and Pankratov, Denis and Pitassi, Toniann and Robere, Robert}, title = {{Stabbing Planes}}, booktitle = {9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)}, pages = {10:1--10:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-060-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {94}, editor = {Karlin, Anna R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-83418}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.10}, annote = {Keywords: Complexity Theory, Proof Complexity, Communication Complexity, Cutting Planes, Semi-Algebraic Proof Systems, Pseudo Boolean Solvers, SAT solvers, Inte} }

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