Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)

This paper considers elections in which voters choose one candidate each, independently according to known probability distributions. A candidate receiving a strict majority (absolute or relative, depending on the version) wins. After the voters have made their choices, each vote can be inspected to determine which candidate received that vote. The time (or cost) to inspect each of the votes is known in advance. The task is to (possibly adaptively) determine the order in which to inspect the votes, so as to minimize the expected time to determine which candidate has won the election. We design polynomial-time constant-factor approximation algorithms for both the absolute-majority and the relative-majority version. Both algorithms are based on a two-phase approach. In the first phase, the algorithms reduce the number of relevant candidates to O(1), and in the second phase they utilize techniques from the literature on stochastic function evaluation to handle the remaining candidates. In the case of absolute majority, we show that the same can be achieved with only two rounds of adaptivity.

Lisa Hellerstein, Naifeng Liu, and Kevin Schewior. Quickly Determining Who Won an Election. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 61:1-61:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{hellerstein_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.61, author = {Hellerstein, Lisa and Liu, Naifeng and Schewior, Kevin}, title = {{Quickly Determining Who Won an Election}}, booktitle = {15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)}, pages = {61:1--61:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-309-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {287}, editor = {Guruswami, Venkatesan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.61}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195890}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.61}, annote = {Keywords: stochastic function evaluation, voting, approximation algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

A searcher faces a graph with edge lengths and vertex weights, initially having explored only a given starting vertex. In each step, the searcher adds an edge to the solution that connects an unexplored vertex to an explored vertex. This requires an amount of time equal to the edge length. The goal is to minimize the weighted sum of the exploration times over all vertices. We show that this problem is hard to approximate and provide algorithms with improved approximation guarantees. For the general case, we give a (2e+ε)-approximation for any ε > 0. For the case that all vertices have unit weight, we provide a 2e-approximation. Finally, we provide a PTAS for the case of a Euclidean graph. Previously, for all cases only an 8-approximation was known.

Svenja M. Griesbach, Felix Hommelsheim, Max Klimm, and Kevin Schewior. Improved Approximation Algorithms for the Expanding Search Problem. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 54:1-54:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{griesbach_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.54, author = {Griesbach, Svenja M. and Hommelsheim, Felix and Klimm, Max and Schewior, Kevin}, title = {{Improved Approximation Algorithms for the Expanding Search Problem}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {54:1--54:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.54}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187073}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.54}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithm, Expanding Search, Search Problem, Graph Exploration, Traveling Repairperson Problem} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

We study threshold testing, an elementary probing model with the goal to choose a large value out of n i.i.d. random variables. An algorithm can test each variable X_i once for some threshold t_i, and the test returns binary feedback whether X_i ≥ t_i or not. Thresholds can be chosen adaptively or non-adaptively by the algorithm. Given the results for the tests of each variable, we then select the variable with highest conditional expectation. We compare the expected value obtained by the testing algorithm with expected maximum of the variables.
Threshold testing is a semi-online variant of the gambler’s problem and prophet inequalities. Indeed, the optimal performance of non-adaptive algorithms for threshold testing is governed by the standard i.i.d. prophet inequality of approximately 0.745 + o(1) as n → ∞. We show how adaptive algorithms can significantly improve upon this ratio. Our adaptive testing strategy guarantees a competitive ratio of at least 0.869 - o(1). Moreover, we show that there are distributions that admit only a constant ratio c < 1, even when n → ∞. Finally, when each box can be tested multiple times (with n tests in total), we design an algorithm that achieves a ratio of 1 - o(1).

Martin Hoefer and Kevin Schewior. Threshold Testing and Semi-Online Prophet Inequalities. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 62:1-62:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{hoefer_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.62, author = {Hoefer, Martin and Schewior, Kevin}, title = {{Threshold Testing and Semi-Online Prophet Inequalities}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {62:1--62:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.62}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187159}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.62}, annote = {Keywords: Prophet Inequalities, Testing, Stochastic Probing} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

We consider the problem of finding an incremental solution to a cardinality-constrained maximization problem that not only captures the solution for a fixed cardinality, but also describes how to gradually grow the solution as the cardinality bound increases. The goal is to find an incremental solution that guarantees a good competitive ratio against the optimum solution for all cardinalities simultaneously. The central challenge is to characterize maximization problems where this is possible, and to determine the best-possible competitive ratio that can be attained. A lower bound of 2.18 and an upper bound of φ + 1 ≈ 2.618 are known on the competitive ratio for monotone and accountable objectives [Bernstein et al., Math. Prog., 2022], which capture a wide range of maximization problems. We introduce a continuization technique and identify an optimal incremental algorithm that provides strong evidence that φ + 1 is the best-possible competitive ratio. Using this continuization, we obtain an improved lower bound of 2.246 by studying a particular recurrence relation whose characteristic polynomial has complex roots exactly beyond the lower bound. Based on the optimal continuous algorithm combined with a scaling approach, we also provide a 1.772-competitive randomized algorithm. We complement this by a randomized lower bound of 1.447 via Yao’s principle.

Yann Disser, Max Klimm, Kevin Schewior, and David Weckbecker. Incremental Maximization via Continuization. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 47:1-47:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{disser_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.47, author = {Disser, Yann and Klimm, Max and Schewior, Kevin and Weckbecker, David}, title = {{Incremental Maximization via Continuization}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {47:1--47:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.47}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180992}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.47}, annote = {Keywords: incremental optimization, competitive analysis, robust matching, submodular function} }

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Extended Abstract

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)

A prophet inequality states, for some α ∈ [0,1], that the expected value achievable by a gambler who sequentially observes random variables X_1,… ,X_n and selects one of them is at least an α fraction of the maximum value in the sequence. We obtain three distinct improvements for a setting that was first studied by Correa et al. (EC, 2019) and is particularly relevant to modern applications in algorithmic pricing. In this setting, the random variables are i.i.d. from an unknown distribution and the gambler has access to an additional β n samples for some β ≥ 0. We first give improved lower bounds on α for a wide range of values of β; specifically, α ≥ (1+β)/e when β ≤ 1/(e-1), which is tight, and α ≥ 0.648 when β = 1, which improves on a bound of around 0.635 due to Correa et al. (SODA, 2020). Adding to their practical appeal, specifically in the context of algorithmic pricing, we then show that the new bounds can be obtained even in a streaming model of computation and thus in situations where the use of relevant data is complicated by the sheer amount of data available. We finally establish that the upper bound of 1/e for the case without samples is robust to additional information about the distribution, and applies also to sequences of i.i.d. random variables whose distribution is itself drawn, according to a known distribution, from a finite set of known candidate distributions. This implies a tight prophet inequality for exchangeable sequences of random variables, answering a question of Hill and Kertz (Contemporary Mathematics, 1992), but leaves open the possibility of better guarantees when the number of candidate distributions is small, a setting we believe is of strong interest to applications.

José Correa, Paul Dütting, Felix Fischer, Kevin Schewior, and Bruno Ziliotto. Unknown I.I.D. Prophets: Better Bounds, Streaming Algorithms, and a New Impossibility (Extended Abstract). In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, p. 86:1, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{correa_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.86, author = {Correa, Jos\'{e} and D\"{u}tting, Paul and Fischer, Felix and Schewior, Kevin and Ziliotto, Bruno}, title = {{Unknown I.I.D. Prophets: Better Bounds, Streaming Algorithms, and a New Impossibility}}, booktitle = {12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)}, pages = {86:1--86:1}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-177-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {185}, editor = {Lee, James R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.86}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136255}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.86}, annote = {Keywords: Prophet Inequalities, Stopping Theory, Unknown Distributions} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 173, 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)

We consider a fundamental online scheduling problem in which jobs with processing times and deadlines arrive online over time at their release dates. The task is to determine a feasible preemptive schedule on m machines that maximizes the number of jobs that complete before their deadline. Due to strong impossibility results for competitive analysis, it is commonly required that jobs contain some slack ε > 0, which means that the feasible time window for scheduling a job is at least 1+ε times its processing time. In this paper, we answer the question on how to handle commitment requirements which enforce that a scheduler has to guarantee at a certain point in time the completion of admitted jobs. This is very relevant, e.g., in providing cloud-computing services and disallows last-minute rejections of critical tasks. We present the first online algorithm for handling commitment on parallel machines for arbitrary slack ε. When the scheduler must commit upon starting a job, the algorithm is Θ(1/ε)-competitive. Somewhat surprisingly, this is the same optimal performance bound (up to constants) as for scheduling without commitment on a single machine. If commitment decisions must be made before a job’s slack becomes less than a δ-fraction of its size, we prove a competitive ratio of 𝒪(1/(ε - δ)) for 0 < δ < ε. This result nicely interpolates between commitment upon starting a job and commitment upon arrival. For the latter commitment model, it is known that no (randomized) online algorithms admits any bounded competitive ratio.

Franziska Eberle, Nicole Megow, and Kevin Schewior. Optimally Handling Commitment Issues in Online Throughput Maximization. In 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 173, pp. 41:1-41:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{eberle_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2020.41, author = {Eberle, Franziska and Megow, Nicole and Schewior, Kevin}, title = {{Optimally Handling Commitment Issues in Online Throughput Maximization}}, booktitle = {28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)}, pages = {41:1--41:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-162-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {173}, editor = {Grandoni, Fabrizio and Herman, Grzegorz and Sanders, Peter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.41}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-129076}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.41}, annote = {Keywords: Deadline scheduling, throughput, online algorithms, competitive analysis} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 145, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)

We consider the open, non-preemptive online Dial-a-Ride problem on the real line, where transportation requests appear over time and need to be served by a single server. We give a lower bound of 2.0585 on the competitive ratio, which is the first bound that strictly separates online Dial-a-Ride on the line from online TSP on the line in terms of competitive analysis, and is the best currently known lower bound even for general metric spaces. On the other hand, we present an algorithm that improves the best known upper bound from 2.9377 to 2.6662. The analysis of our algorithm is tight.

Alexander Birx, Yann Disser, and Kevin Schewior. Improved Bounds for Open Online Dial-a-Ride on the Line. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 145, pp. 21:1-21:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{birx_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.21, author = {Birx, Alexander and Disser, Yann and Schewior, Kevin}, title = {{Improved Bounds for Open Online Dial-a-Ride on the Line}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)}, pages = {21:1--21:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-125-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {145}, editor = {Achlioptas, Dimitris and V\'{e}gh, L\'{a}szl\'{o} A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.21}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112367}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.21}, annote = {Keywords: dial-a-ride on the line, elevator problem, online algorithms, competitive analysis, smartstart, competitive ratio} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 144, 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)

Numerous combinatorial optimization problems (knapsack, maximum-weight matching, etc.) can be expressed as subset maximization problems: One is given a ground set N={1,...,n}, a collection F subseteq 2^N of subsets thereof such that the empty set is in F, and an objective (profit) function p: F -> R_+. The task is to choose a set S in F that maximizes p(S). We consider the multistage version (Eisenstat et al., Gupta et al., both ICALP 2014) of such problems: The profit function p_t (and possibly the set of feasible solutions F_t) may change over time. Since in many applications changing the solution is costly, the task becomes to find a sequence of solutions that optimizes the trade-off between good per-time solutions and stable solutions taking into account an additional similarity bonus. As similarity measure for two consecutive solutions, we consider either the size of the intersection of the two solutions or the difference of n and the Hamming distance between the two characteristic vectors.
We study multistage subset maximization problems in the online setting, that is, p_t (along with possibly F_t) only arrive one by one and, upon such an arrival, the online algorithm has to output the corresponding solution without knowledge of the future.
We develop general techniques for online multistage subset maximization and thereby characterize those models (given by the type of data evolution and the type of similarity measure) that admit a constant-competitive online algorithm. When no constant competitive ratio is possible, we employ lookahead to circumvent this issue. When a constant competitive ratio is possible, we provide almost matching lower and upper bounds on the best achievable one.

Evripidis Bampis, Bruno Escoffier, Kevin Schewior, and Alexandre Teiller. Online Multistage Subset Maximization Problems. In 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 144, pp. 11:1-11:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{bampis_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2019.11, author = {Bampis, Evripidis and Escoffier, Bruno and Schewior, Kevin and Teiller, Alexandre}, title = {{Online Multistage Subset Maximization Problems}}, booktitle = {27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)}, pages = {11:1--11:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-124-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {144}, editor = {Bender, Michael A. and Svensson, Ola and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111320}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.11}, annote = {Keywords: Multistage optimization, Online algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 100, 9th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2018)

We consider Superset, a lesser-known yet interesting variant of the famous card game Set. Here, players look for Supersets instead of Sets, that is, the symmetric difference of two Sets that intersect in exactly one card. In this paper, we pose questions that have been previously posed for Set and provide answers to them; we also show relations between Set and Superset.
For the regular Set deck, which can be identified with F^3_4, we give a proof for the fact that the maximum number of cards that can be on the table without having a Superset is 9. This solves an open question posed by McMahon et al. in 2016. For the deck corresponding to F^3_d, we show that this number is Omega(1.442^d) and O(1.733^d). We also compute probabilities of the presence of a superset in a collection of cards drawn uniformly at random. Finally, we consider the computational complexity of deciding whether a multi-value version of Set or Superset is contained in a given set of cards, and show an FPT-reduction from the problem for Set to that for Superset, implying W[1]-hardness of the problem for Superset.

Fábio Botler, Andrés Cristi, Ruben Hoeksma, Kevin Schewior, and Andreas Tönnis. SUPERSET: A (Super)Natural Variant of the Card Game SET. In 9th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 100, pp. 12:1-12:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{botler_et_al:LIPIcs.FUN.2018.12, author = {Botler, F\'{a}bio and Cristi, Andr\'{e}s and Hoeksma, Ruben and Schewior, Kevin and T\"{o}nnis, Andreas}, title = {{SUPERSET: A (Super)Natural Variant of the Card Game SET}}, booktitle = {9th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2018)}, pages = {12:1--12:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-067-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {100}, editor = {Ito, Hiro and Leonardi, Stefano and Pagli, Linda and Prencipe, Giuseppe}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2018.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-88035}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2018.12}, annote = {Keywords: SET, SUPERSET, card game, cap set, affine geometry, computational complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 40, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015)

We consider a natural online optimization problem set on the real line. The state of the online algorithm at each integer time is a location on the real line. At each integer time, a convex function arrives online. In response, the online algorithm picks a new location. The cost paid by the online algorithm for this response is the distance moved plus the value of the function at the final destination. The objective is then to minimize the aggregate cost over all time. The motivating application is rightsizing power-proportional data centers. We give a 2-competitive algorithm for this problem. We also give a 3-competitive memoryless algorithm, and show that this is the best competitive ratio achievable by a deterministic memoryless algorithm. Finally we show that this online problem is strictly harder than the standard ski rental problem.

Nikhil Bansal, Anupam Gupta, Ravishankar Krishnaswamy, Kirk Pruhs, Kevin Schewior, and Cliff Stein. A 2-Competitive Algorithm For Online Convex Optimization With Switching Costs. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 40, pp. 96-109, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{bansal_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.96, author = {Bansal, Nikhil and Gupta, Anupam and Krishnaswamy, Ravishankar and Pruhs, Kirk and Schewior, Kevin and Stein, Cliff}, title = {{A 2-Competitive Algorithm For Online Convex Optimization With Switching Costs}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015)}, pages = {96--109}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-89-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {40}, editor = {Garg, Naveen and Jansen, Klaus and Rao, Anup and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.96}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-52970}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.96}, annote = {Keywords: Stochastic, Scheduling} }