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Documents authored by Zimmermann, Thomas


Document
Toward Scientific Evidence Standards in Empirical Computer Science (Dagstuhl Seminar 22442)

Authors: Timothy Kluthe, Brett A. Becker, Christopher D. Hundhausen, Ciera Jaspan, Andreas Stefik, and Thomas Zimmermann

Published in: Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 12, Issue 10 (2023)


Abstract
Many scientific fields of study use formally established evidence standards during the peer review and evaluation process, such as Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) in medical research, the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) used in education in the United States, or the APA Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS) in psychology. The basis for these standards is community agreement on what to report in empirical studies. Such standards achieve two key goals. First, they make it easier to compare studies, facilitating replications, through transparent reporting and sharing of data, which can provide confidence that multiple research teams can obtain the same results. Second, they establish community agreement on how to report on and evaluate studies using different methodologies. The discipline of computer science does not have formalized evidence standards, even for major conferences or journals. This Dagstuhl Seminar has three primary objectives: 1) To establish a process for creating or adopting an existing evidence standard for empirical research in computer science. 2) To build a community of scholars that can discuss what a general standard should include. 3) To kickstart the discussion with scholars from software engineering, human-computer interaction, and computer science education. In order to better discuss and understand the implications of such standards across several empirical subfields of computer science and to facilitate adoption, we brought together participants from a range of backgrounds; including academia and industry, software engineering, computer-human interaction and computer science education, as well as representatives from several prominent journals. Funding: This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Numbers NSF HCC: 2106392 and NSF I-TEST: 2048356.

Cite as

Timothy Kluthe, Brett A. Becker, Christopher D. Hundhausen, Ciera Jaspan, Andreas Stefik, and Thomas Zimmermann. Toward Scientific Evidence Standards in Empirical Computer Science (Dagstuhl Seminar 22442). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 12, Issue 10, pp. 225-240, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@Article{kluthe_et_al:DagRep.12.10.225,
  author =	{Kluthe, Timothy and Becker, Brett A. and Hundhausen, Christopher D. and Jaspan, Ciera and Stefik, Andreas and Zimmermann, Thomas},
  title =	{{Toward Scientific Evidence Standards in Empirical Computer Science (Dagstuhl Seminar 22442)}},
  pages =	{225--240},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Reports},
  ISSN =	{2192-5283},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{12},
  number =	{10},
  editor =	{Kluthe, Timothy and Becker, Brett A. and Hundhausen, Christopher D. and Jaspan, Ciera and Stefik, Andreas and Zimmermann, Thomas},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.12.10.225},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-178289},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagRep.12.10.225},
  annote =	{Keywords: Community evidence standards, Human factors}
}
Document
SE4ML - Software Engineering for AI-ML-based Systems (Dagstuhl Seminar 20091)

Authors: Kristian Kersting, Miryung Kim, Guy Van den Broeck, and Thomas Zimmermann

Published in: Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 10, Issue 2 (2020)


Abstract
Multiple research disciplines, from cognitive sciences to biology, finance, physics, and the social sciences, as well as many companies, believe that data-driven and intelligent solutions are necessary. Unfortunately, current artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) technologies are not sufficiently democratized - building complex AI and ML systems requires deep expertise in computer science and extensive programming skills to work with various machine reasoning and learning techniques at a rather low level of abstraction. It also requires extensive trial and error exploration for model selection, data cleaning, feature selection, and parameter tuning. Moreover, there is a lack of theoretical understanding that could be used to abstract away these subtleties. Conventional programming languages and software engineering paradigms have also not been designed to address challenges faced by AI and ML practitioners. In 2016, companies invested $26–39 billion in AI and McKinsey predicts that investments will be growing over the next few years. Any AI/ML-based systems will need to be built, tested, and maintained, yet there is a lack of established engineering practices in industry for such systems because they are fundamentally different from traditional software systems. This Dagstuhl Seminar brought together two rather disjoint communities together, software engineering and programming languages (PL/SE) and artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI-ML) to discuss open problems on how to improve the productivity of data scientists, software engineers, and AI-ML practitioners in industry.

Cite as

Kristian Kersting, Miryung Kim, Guy Van den Broeck, and Thomas Zimmermann. SE4ML - Software Engineering for AI-ML-based Systems (Dagstuhl Seminar 20091). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp. 76-87, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@Article{kersting_et_al:DagRep.10.2.76,
  author =	{Kersting, Kristian and Kim, Miryung and Van den Broeck, Guy and Zimmermann, Thomas},
  title =	{{SE4ML - Software Engineering for AI-ML-based Systems (Dagstuhl Seminar 20091)}},
  pages =	{76--87},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Reports},
  ISSN =	{2192-5283},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{10},
  number =	{2},
  editor =	{Kersting, Kristian and Kim, Miryung and Van den Broeck, Guy and Zimmermann, Thomas},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.10.2.76},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-130603},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagRep.10.2.76},
  annote =	{Keywords: correctness / explainability / traceability / fairness for ml, data scientist productivity, debugging/ testing / verification for ml systems}
}
Document
BOTse: Bots in Software Engineering (Dagstuhl Seminar 19471)

Authors: Margaret-Anne Storey, Alexander Serebrenik, Carolyn Penstein Rosé, Thomas Zimmermann, and James D. Herbsleb

Published in: Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 9, Issue 11 (2020)


Abstract
This report documents the program and the outcomes of the Dagstuhl Seminar 19471 "BOTse: Bots in Software Engineering". This Dagstuhl seminar brought researchers and practitioners together from multiple research communities with disparate views of what bots are and what they can do for software engineering. The goals were to understand how bots are used today, how they could be used in innovative ways in the future, how the use of bots can be compared and synthesized, and to identify and share risks and challenges that may emerge from using bots in practice. The report briefly summarizes the goals and format of the seminar and provides selected insights and results collected during the seminar.

Cite as

Margaret-Anne Storey, Alexander Serebrenik, Carolyn Penstein Rosé, Thomas Zimmermann, and James D. Herbsleb. BOTse: Bots in Software Engineering (Dagstuhl Seminar 19471). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 9, Issue 11, pp. 84-96, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@Article{storey_et_al:DagRep.9.11.84,
  author =	{Storey, Margaret-Anne and Serebrenik, Alexander and Ros\'{e}, Carolyn Penstein and Zimmermann, Thomas and Herbsleb, James D.},
  title =	{{BOTse: Bots in Software Engineering (Dagstuhl Seminar 19471)}},
  pages =	{84--96},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Reports},
  ISSN =	{2192-5283},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{9},
  number =	{11},
  editor =	{Storey, Margaret-Anne and Serebrenik, Alexander and Ros\'{e}, Carolyn Penstein and Zimmermann, Thomas and Herbsleb, James D.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.9.11.84},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-119848},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagRep.9.11.84},
  annote =	{Keywords: automated software development, bots, chatbots, collaborative software development, cscw, devops, nlp, software engineering}
}
Document
Rethinking Productivity in Software Engineering (Dagstuhl Seminar 17102)

Authors: Thomas Fritz, Gloria Mark, Gail C. Murphy, and Thomas Zimmermann

Published in: Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 7, Issue 3 (2017)


Abstract
This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 17102 "Rethinking Productivity in Software Engineering". In the following, we briefly summarize the goals and format of the of the seminar, before we provide insights and an outlook, including a few grand challenges, based on the results and statements collected during the seminar.

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Thomas Fritz, Gloria Mark, Gail C. Murphy, and Thomas Zimmermann. Rethinking Productivity in Software Engineering (Dagstuhl Seminar 17102). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp. 19-26, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@Article{fritz_et_al:DagRep.7.3.19,
  author =	{Fritz, Thomas and Mark, Gloria and Murphy, Gail C. and Zimmermann, Thomas},
  title =	{{Rethinking Productivity in Software Engineering (Dagstuhl Seminar 17102)}},
  pages =	{19--26},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Reports},
  ISSN =	{2192-5283},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{7},
  number =	{3},
  editor =	{Fritz, Thomas and Mark, Gloria and Murphy, Gail C. and Zimmermann, Thomas},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.7.3.19},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-73592},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagRep.7.3.19},
  annote =	{Keywords: productivity, software development, human factors, productivity factors, grand challenges}
}
Document
Software Development Analytics (Dagstuhl Seminar 14261)

Authors: Harald Gall, Tim Menzies, Laurie Williams, and Thomas Zimmermann

Published in: Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 4, Issue 6 (2015)


Abstract
This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 14261 "Software Development Analytics". We briefly summarize the goals and format of the seminar, the results of the break out groups, and a draft of a manifesto for software analytics. The report also includes the abstracts of the talks presented at the seminar.

Cite as

Harald Gall, Tim Menzies, Laurie Williams, and Thomas Zimmermann. Software Development Analytics (Dagstuhl Seminar 14261). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 4, Issue 6, pp. 64-83, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)


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@Article{gall_et_al:DagRep.4.6.64,
  author =	{Gall, Harald and Menzies, Tim and Williams, Laurie and Zimmermann, Thomas},
  title =	{{Software Development Analytics (Dagstuhl Seminar 14261)}},
  pages =	{64--83},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Reports},
  ISSN =	{2192-5283},
  year =	{2014},
  volume =	{4},
  number =	{6},
  editor =	{Gall, Harald and Menzies, Tim and Williams, Laurie and Zimmermann, Thomas},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.4.6.64},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-47638},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagRep.4.6.64},
  annote =	{Keywords: software development, data-driven decision making, analytics, empirical software engineering, mining software repositories, business intelligence, pre}
}
Document
HAM: Cross-cutting Concerns in Eclipse

Authors: Silvia Breu, Thomas Zimmermann, and Christian Lindig

Published in: Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 6302, Aspects For Legacy Applications (2007)


Abstract
As programs evolve, newly added functionality sometimes does no longer align with the original design, ending up scattered across the software system. Aspect mining tries to identify such cross-cutting concerns in a program to support maintenance, or as a first step towards an aspect-oriented program. Previous approaches to aspect mining applied static or dynamic program analysis techniques to a single version of a system.We leverage all versions from a system's CVS history to mine aspect candidates with our Eclipse plug-in HAM: when a single CVS commit adds calls to the same (small) set of methods in many unrelated locations, these method calls are likely to be cross-cutting. HAM employs formal concept analysis to identify aspect candidates. Analysing one commit at a time makes the approach scale to industrial-sized programs. In an evaluation we mined cross-cutting concerns from Eclipse 3.2M3 and found that up to 90% of the top-10 aspect candidates are truly cross-cutting concerns.

Cite as

Silvia Breu, Thomas Zimmermann, and Christian Lindig. HAM: Cross-cutting Concerns in Eclipse. In Aspects For Legacy Applications. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 6302, pp. 1-4, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{breu_et_al:DagSemProc.06302.5,
  author =	{Breu, Silvia and Zimmermann, Thomas and Lindig, Christian},
  title =	{{HAM: Cross-cutting Concerns in Eclipse}},
  booktitle =	{Aspects For Legacy Applications},
  pages =	{1--4},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{6302},
  editor =	{Siobh\'{a}n Clarke and Leon Moonen and Ganesan Ramalingam},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.06302.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-8847},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.06302.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: Aspect Mining, Aspect-Oriented Programming, CVS, Eclipse, Formal Concept Analysis, Java, Mining Version Archives}
}
Document
Mining Additions of Method Calls in ArgoUML

Authors: Silvia Breu, Thomas Zimmermann, Christian Lindig, and Benjamin Livshits

Published in: Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 6302, Aspects For Legacy Applications (2007)


Abstract
In this paper we refine the classical co-change to the addition of method calls. We use this concept to find usage patterns and to identify cross-cutting concerns for ArgoUML.

Cite as

Silvia Breu, Thomas Zimmermann, Christian Lindig, and Benjamin Livshits. Mining Additions of Method Calls in ArgoUML. In Aspects For Legacy Applications. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 6302, p. 1, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{breu_et_al:DagSemProc.06302.6,
  author =	{Breu, Silvia and Zimmermann, Thomas and Lindig, Christian and Livshits, Benjamin},
  title =	{{Mining Additions of Method Calls in ArgoUML}},
  booktitle =	{Aspects For Legacy Applications},
  pages =	{1--1},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{6302},
  editor =	{Siobh\'{a}n Clarke and Leon Moonen and Ganesan Ramalingam},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.06302.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-8865},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.06302.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: Management, Measurement}
}
Document
Mining Aspects from Version History

Authors: Silvia Breu and Thomas Zimmermann

Published in: Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 6302, Aspects For Legacy Applications (2007)


Abstract
As software evolves, new functionality sometimes no longer aligns with the original design, ending up scattered across a program. Aspect mining identifies such cross-cutting concerns in order to then help migrating a system to a better design, maybe even to an aspect-oriented design. We address this task by applying formal concept analysis to a program's history: method calls added across many locations are likely to be cross-cutting. By taking this historical perspective, we introduce a new dimension to aspect mining. As we only analyse changes from one version to the next, the technique is independent of a system's total size and scales up to industrial-sized projects such as Eclipse.

Cite as

Silvia Breu and Thomas Zimmermann. Mining Aspects from Version History. In Aspects For Legacy Applications. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 6302, pp. 1-10, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{breu_et_al:DagSemProc.06302.7,
  author =	{Breu, Silvia and Zimmermann, Thomas},
  title =	{{Mining Aspects from Version History}},
  booktitle =	{Aspects For Legacy Applications},
  pages =	{1--10},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{6302},
  editor =	{Siobh\'{a}n Clarke and Leon Moonen and Ganesan Ramalingam},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.06302.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-8807},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.06302.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: Aspect mining, formal concept analysis, mining software repositories}
}
Document
Mining Eclipse for CrossCutting

Authors: Silvia Breu, Thomas Zimmermann, and Christian Lindig

Published in: Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 6302, Aspects For Legacy Applications (2007)


Abstract
Software may contain functionality that does not align with its architecture. Such cross-cutting concerns do not exist from the beginning but emerge over time. By analysing where developers add code to a program, our history-based mining identifies cross-cutting concerns in a two-step process. First, we mine CVS archives for sets of methods where a call to a specific single method was added. In a second step, simple cross-cutting concerns are combined to complex cross-cutting concerns. To compute these efficiently, we apply formal concept analysis – an algebraic theory. Unlike approaches based on static or dynamic analysis, history-based mining for cross-cutting concerns scales to industrial-sized projects: For example, we identified a locking concern that cross-cuts 1284 methods in the open-source project Eclipse.

Cite as

Silvia Breu, Thomas Zimmermann, and Christian Lindig. Mining Eclipse for CrossCutting. In Aspects For Legacy Applications. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 6302, pp. 1-4, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{breu_et_al:DagSemProc.06302.8,
  author =	{Breu, Silvia and Zimmermann, Thomas and Lindig, Christian},
  title =	{{Mining Eclipse for CrossCutting}},
  booktitle =	{Aspects For Legacy Applications},
  pages =	{1--4},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{6302},
  editor =	{Siobh\'{a}n Clarke and Leon Moonen and Ganesan Ramalingam},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.06302.8},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-8853},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.06302.8},
  annote =	{Keywords: }
}
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