4 Search Results for "Gheorghiu, Alexandru"


Document
Public-Key Pseudoentanglement and the Hardness of Learning Ground State Entanglement Structure

Authors: Adam Bouland, Bill Fefferman, Soumik Ghosh, Tony Metger, Umesh Vazirani, Chenyi Zhang, and Zixin Zhou

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
Given a local Hamiltonian, how difficult is it to determine the entanglement structure of its ground state? We show that this problem is computationally intractable even if one is only trying to decide if the ground state is volume-law vs near area-law entangled. We prove this by constructing strong forms of pseudoentanglement in a public-key setting, where the circuits used to prepare the states are public knowledge. In particular, we construct two families of quantum circuits which produce volume-law vs near area-law entangled states, but nonetheless the classical descriptions of the circuits are indistinguishable under the Learning with Errors (LWE) assumption. Indistinguishability of the circuits then allows us to translate our construction to Hamiltonians. Our work opens new directions in Hamiltonian complexity, for example whether it is difficult to learn certain phases of matter.

Cite as

Adam Bouland, Bill Fefferman, Soumik Ghosh, Tony Metger, Umesh Vazirani, Chenyi Zhang, and Zixin Zhou. Public-Key Pseudoentanglement and the Hardness of Learning Ground State Entanglement Structure. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 21:1-21:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{bouland_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.21,
  author =	{Bouland, Adam and Fefferman, Bill and Ghosh, Soumik and Metger, Tony and Vazirani, Umesh and Zhang, Chenyi and Zhou, Zixin},
  title =	{{Public-Key Pseudoentanglement and the Hardness of Learning Ground State Entanglement Structure}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{21:1--21:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.21},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204175},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.21},
  annote =	{Keywords: Quantum computing, Quantum complexity theory, entanglement}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Quantum Cryptography with Classical Communication: Parallel Remote State Preparation for Copy-Protection, Verification, and More

Authors: Alexandru Gheorghiu, Tony Metger, and Alexander Poremba

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)


Abstract
Quantum mechanical effects have enabled the construction of cryptographic primitives that are impossible classically. For example, quantum copy-protection allows for a program to be encoded in a quantum state in such a way that the program can be evaluated, but not copied. Many of these cryptographic primitives are two-party protocols, where one party, Bob, has full quantum computational capabilities, and the other party, Alice, is only required to send random BB84 states to Bob. In this work, we show how such protocols can generically be converted to ones where Alice is fully classical, assuming that Bob cannot efficiently solve the LWE problem. In particular, this means that all communication between (classical) Alice and (quantum) Bob is classical, yet they can still make use of cryptographic primitives that would be impossible if both parties were classical. We apply this conversion procedure to obtain quantum cryptographic protocols with classical communication for unclonable encryption, copy-protection, computing on encrypted data, and verifiable blind delegated computation. The key technical ingredient for our result is a protocol for classically-instructed parallel remote state preparation of BB84 states. This is a multi-round protocol between (classical) Alice and (quantum polynomial-time) Bob that allows Alice to certify that Bob must have prepared n uniformly random BB84 states (up to a change of basis on his space). While previous approaches could only certify one- or two-qubit states, our protocol allows for the certification of an n-fold tensor product of BB84 states. Furthermore, Alice knows which specific BB84 states Bob has prepared, while Bob himself does not. Hence, the situation at the end of this protocol is (almost) equivalent to one where Alice sent n random BB84 states to Bob. This allows us to replace the step of preparing and sending BB84 states in existing protocols by our remote-state preparation protocol in a generic and modular way.

Cite as

Alexandru Gheorghiu, Tony Metger, and Alexander Poremba. Quantum Cryptography with Classical Communication: Parallel Remote State Preparation for Copy-Protection, Verification, and More. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 67:1-67:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{gheorghiu_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.67,
  author =	{Gheorghiu, Alexandru and Metger, Tony and Poremba, Alexander},
  title =	{{Quantum Cryptography with Classical Communication: Parallel Remote State Preparation for Copy-Protection, Verification, and More}},
  booktitle =	{50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)},
  pages =	{67:1--67:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-278-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{261},
  editor =	{Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.67},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181197},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.67},
  annote =	{Keywords: Quantum cryptography, Remote state preparation, Self-testing, Learning with errors, Quantum copy-protection, Unclonable encryption, Quantum verification}
}
Document
An Optimal Oracle Separation of Classical and Quantum Hybrid Schemes

Authors: Atsuya Hasegawa and François Le Gall

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 248, 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)


Abstract
Recently, Chia, Chung and Lai (STOC 2020) and Coudron and Menda (STOC 2020) have shown that there exists an oracle 𝒪 such that BQP^𝒪 ≠ (BPP^BQNC)^𝒪 ∪ (BQNC^BPP)^𝒪. In fact, Chia et al. proved a stronger statement: for any depth parameter d, there exists an oracle that separates quantum depth d and 2d+1, when polynomial-time classical computation is allowed. This implies that relative to an oracle, doubling quantum depth gives classical and quantum hybrid schemes more computational power. In this paper, we show that for any depth parameter d, there exists an oracle that separates quantum depth d and d+1, when polynomial-time classical computation is allowed. This gives an optimal oracle separation of classical and quantum hybrid schemes. To prove our result, we consider d-Bijective Shuffling Simon’s Problem (which is a variant of d-Shuffling Simon’s Problem considered by Chia et al.) and an oracle inspired by an "in-place" permutation oracle.

Cite as

Atsuya Hasegawa and François Le Gall. An Optimal Oracle Separation of Classical and Quantum Hybrid Schemes. In 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 248, pp. 6:1-6:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{hasegawa_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.6,
  author =	{Hasegawa, Atsuya and Le Gall, Fran\c{c}ois},
  title =	{{An Optimal Oracle Separation of Classical and Quantum Hybrid Schemes}},
  booktitle =	{33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-258-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{248},
  editor =	{Bae, Sang Won and Park, Heejin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-172918},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: small-depth quantum circuit, hybrid quantum computer, oracle separation}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Complexity-Theoretic Limitations on Blind Delegated Quantum Computation

Authors: Scott Aaronson, Alexandru Cojocaru, Alexandru Gheorghiu, and Elham Kashefi

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)


Abstract
Blind delegation protocols allow a client to delegate a computation to a server so that the server learns nothing about the input to the computation apart from its size. For the specific case of quantum computation we know, from work over the past decade, that blind delegation protocols can achieve information-theoretic security (provided the client and the server exchange some amount of quantum information). In this paper we prove, provided certain complexity-theoretic conjectures are true, that the power of information-theoretically secure blind delegation protocols for quantum computation (ITS-BQC protocols) is in a number of ways constrained. In the first part of our paper we provide some indication that ITS-BQC protocols for delegating polynomial-time quantum computations in which the client and the server interact only classically are unlikely to exist. We first show that having such a protocol in which the client and the server exchange O(n^d) bits of communication, implies that BQP subset MA/O(n^d). We conjecture that this containment is unlikely by proving that there exists an oracle relative to which BQP not subset MA/O(n^d). We then show that if an ITS-BQC protocol exists in which the client and the server interact only classically and which allows the client to delegate quantum sampling problems to the server (such as BosonSampling) then there exist non-uniform circuits of size 2^{n - Omega(n/log(n))}, making polynomially-sized queries to an NP^{NP} oracle, for computing the permanent of an n x n matrix. The second part of our paper concerns ITS-BQC protocols in which the client and the server engage in one round of quantum communication and then exchange polynomially many classical messages. First, we provide a complexity-theoretic upper bound on the types of functions that could be delegated in such a protocol by showing that they must be contained in QCMA/qpoly cap coQCMA/qpoly. Then, we show that having such a protocol for delegating NP-hard functions implies coNP^{NP^{NP}} subseteq NP^{NP^{PromiseQMA}}.

Cite as

Scott Aaronson, Alexandru Cojocaru, Alexandru Gheorghiu, and Elham Kashefi. Complexity-Theoretic Limitations on Blind Delegated Quantum Computation. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 6:1-6:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{aaronson_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.6,
  author =	{Aaronson, Scott and Cojocaru, Alexandru and Gheorghiu, Alexandru and Kashefi, Elham},
  title =	{{Complexity-Theoretic Limitations on Blind Delegated Quantum Computation}},
  booktitle =	{46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-109-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{132},
  editor =	{Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-105826},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: Quantum cryptography, Complexity theory, Delegated quantum computation, Computing on encrypted data}
}
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