3 Search Results for "Schuster, Simon"


Document
Artifact
FusionClock: WCEC-Optimal Clock-Tree Reconfigurations (Artifact)

Authors: Eva Dengler, Phillip Raffeck, Simon Schuster, and Peter Wägemann

Published in: DARTS, Volume 9, Issue 1, Special Issue of the 35th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2023)


Abstract
Numerous embedded real-time systems have, besides their worst-case execution time (WCET) requirements, strict worst-case energy consumption (WCEC) constraints that must be satisfied. The core hardware component of modern system-on-chip (SoC) platforms to configure the tradeoff between time and energy is the system’s clock tree, which provides the necessary clock source for each connected device (i.e., memory, sensors, transceivers). Existing energy-aware scheduling approaches have limitations with regard to these modern, feature-rich clock trees: These shortcomings concern the (re-)configuration of the clock tree with the associated penalties, which are a non-negligible part of dynamic frequency/voltage scaling or power-gating devices in addition to the influence of available sleep modes. This artifact evaluation covers the work on FusionClock, an approach that exploits a fine-grained model of the system’s temporal and energetic behavior. By means of our developed clock-tree model, FusionClock processes time-triggered schedules and finally generates optimized code for a system where offline-determined and online-applied reconfigurations lead to the worst-case-optimal energy demand while still meeting given timing-related deadlines. For statically determining these energy-optimal reconfigurations on task level, FusionClock builds a mathematical optimization problem based on the tasks' specifications and the system’s resource-consumption model. Specific components like transceivers of SoCs usually have strict requirements regarding the used clock source (e.g., phase-locked loop, RC network, oscillator). FusionClock accounts for these clock-tree requirements with its ability to exploit application-specific knowledge within an optimization problem. With our resource-consumption model for a modern SoC platform and our open-source prototype of FusionClock, we are able to achieve significant energy savings while still providing guarantees for timeliness, as our evaluations on a real hardware platform (i.e., ESP32-C3) show.

Cite as

Eva Dengler, Phillip Raffeck, Simon Schuster, and Peter Wägemann. FusionClock: WCEC-Optimal Clock-Tree Reconfigurations (Artifact). In Special Issue of the 35th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2023). Dagstuhl Artifacts Series (DARTS), Volume 9, Issue 1, pp. 2:1-2:3, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@Article{dengler_et_al:DARTS.9.1.2,
  author =	{Dengler, Eva and Raffeck, Phillip and Schuster, Simon and W\"{a}gemann, Peter},
  title =	{{FusionClock: WCEC-Optimal Clock-Tree Reconfigurations (Artifact)}},
  pages =	{2:1--2:3},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Artifacts Series},
  ISSN =	{2509-8195},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{9},
  number =	{1},
  editor =	{Dengler, Eva and Raffeck, Phillip and Schuster, Simon and W\"{a}gemann, Peter},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DARTS.9.1.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180238},
  doi =		{10.4230/DARTS.9.1.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: energy-constrained real-time systems, worst-case execution time (WCET), worst-case energy consumption (WCEC), energy-aware real-time scheduling, static whole-system analysis, time/energy tradeoff, clock tree, system on chip}
}
Document
FusionClock: Energy-Optimal Clock-Tree Reconfigurations for Energy-Constrained Real-Time Systems

Authors: Eva Dengler, Phillip Raffeck, Simon Schuster, and Peter Wägemann

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 262, 35th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2023)


Abstract
Numerous embedded real-time systems have, besides their timing requirements, strict energy constraints that must be satisfied. Examples of this class of real-time systems are implantable medical devices, where knowledge of the worst-case execution time (WCET) has the same importance as of the worst-case energy consumption (WCEC) in order to provide runtime guarantees. The core hardware component of modern system-on-chip (SoC) platforms to configure the tradeoff between time and energy is the system’s clock tree, which provides the necessary clock source to all connected devices (i.e., memory, sensors, transceivers). Existing energy-aware scheduling approaches have shortcomings with regard to these modern, feature-rich clock trees: First, with their reactive, dynamic (re-)configuration of the clock tree, they are not able to provide static guarantees of the system’s resource consumption (i.e., energy and time). Second, they only account for dynamic voltage/frequency scaling of the CPU and thereby miss the reconfiguration of clock sources and clock speed for the other connected devices on such SoCs. Third, they neglect the reconfiguration penalties of frequency scaling and clock/power gating in the presence of the CPU’s sleep modes. In this paper, we present FusionClock, an approach that exploits a fine-grained model of the system’s temporal and energetic behavior. By means of our developed clock-tree model, FusionClock processes time-triggered schedules and finally generates optimized code for a system where offline-determined and online-applied reconfigurations lead to the worst-case-optimal energy demand while still meeting given timing-related deadlines. For statically determining these energy-optimal reconfigurations on task level, FusionClock builds a mathematical optimization problem based on the tasks' specifications and the system’s resource-consumption model. Specific components like transceivers of SoCs usually have strict requirements regarding the used clock source (e.g., phase-locked loop, RC network, oscillator). FusionClock accounts for these clock-tree requirements with its ability to exploit application-specific knowledge within an optimization problem. With our resource-consumption model for a modern SoC platform and our open-source prototype of FusionClock, we are able to achieve significant energy savings while still providing guarantees for timeliness, as our evaluations on a real hardware platform (i.e., ESP32-C3) show.

Cite as

Eva Dengler, Phillip Raffeck, Simon Schuster, and Peter Wägemann. FusionClock: Energy-Optimal Clock-Tree Reconfigurations for Energy-Constrained Real-Time Systems. In 35th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 262, pp. 6:1-6:23, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{dengler_et_al:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2023.6,
  author =	{Dengler, Eva and Raffeck, Phillip and Schuster, Simon and W\"{a}gemann, Peter},
  title =	{{FusionClock: Energy-Optimal Clock-Tree Reconfigurations for Energy-Constrained Real-Time Systems}},
  booktitle =	{35th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2023)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-280-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{262},
  editor =	{Papadopoulos, Alessandro V.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2023.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180354},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2023.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: energy-aware scheduling, device-aware whole-system analysis, clock tree}
}
Document
Worst-Case Energy-Consumption Analysis by Microarchitecture-Aware Timing Analysis for Device-Driven Cyber-Physical Systems

Authors: Phillip Raffeck, Christian Eichler, Peter Wägemann, and Wolfgang Schröder-Preikschat

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 72, 19th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2019)


Abstract
Many energy-constrained cyber-physical systems require both timeliness and the execution of tasks within given energy budgets. That is, besides knowledge on worst-case execution time (WCET), the worst-case energy consumption (WCEC) of operations is essential. Unfortunately, WCET analysis approaches are not directly applicable for deriving WCEC bounds in device-driven cyber-physical systems: For example, a single memory operation can lead to a significant power-consumption increase when thereby switching on a device (e.g. transceiver, actuator) in the embedded system. However, as we demonstrate in this paper, existing approaches from microarchitecture-aware timing analysis (i.e. considering cache and pipeline effects) are beneficial for determining WCEC bounds: We extended our framework on whole-system analysis with microarchitecture-aware timing modeling to precisely account for the execution time that devices are kept (in)active. Our evaluations based on a benchmark generator, which is able to output benchmarks with known baselines (i.e. actual WCET and actual WCEC), and an ARM Cortex-M4 platform validate that the approach significantly reduces analysis pessimism in whole-system WCEC analyses.

Cite as

Phillip Raffeck, Christian Eichler, Peter Wägemann, and Wolfgang Schröder-Preikschat. Worst-Case Energy-Consumption Analysis by Microarchitecture-Aware Timing Analysis for Device-Driven Cyber-Physical Systems. In 19th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2019). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 72, pp. 4:1-4:12, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{raffeck_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2019.4,
  author =	{Raffeck, Phillip and Eichler, Christian and W\"{a}gemann, Peter and Schr\"{o}der-Preikschat, Wolfgang},
  title =	{{Worst-Case Energy-Consumption Analysis by Microarchitecture-Aware Timing Analysis for Device-Driven Cyber-Physical Systems}},
  booktitle =	{19th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2019)},
  pages =	{4:1--4:12},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-118-4},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{72},
  editor =	{Altmeyer, Sebastian},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2019.4},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-107699},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2019.4},
  annote =	{Keywords: WCEC, WCRE, WCET, michroarchitecture analysis, whole-system analysis}
}
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