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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

We present a new multi-layer peeling technique to cluster points in a metric space. A well-known non-parametric objective is to embed the metric space into a simpler structured metric space such as a line (i.e., Linear Arrangement) or a binary tree (i.e., Hierarchical Clustering). Points which are close in the metric space should be mapped to close points/leaves in the line/tree; similarly, points which are far in the metric space should be far in the line or on the tree. In particular we consider the Maximum Linear Arrangement problem [Refael Hassin and Shlomi Rubinstein, 2001] and the Maximum Hierarchical Clustering problem [Vincent Cohen-Addad et al., 2018] applied to metrics.
We design approximation schemes (1-ε approximation for any constant ε > 0) for these objectives. In particular this shows that by considering metrics one may significantly improve former approximations (0.5 for Max Linear Arrangement and 0.74 for Max Hierarchical Clustering). Our main technique, which is called multi-layer peeling, consists of recursively peeling off points which are far from the "core" of the metric space. The recursion ends once the core becomes a sufficiently densely weighted metric space (i.e. the average distance is at least a constant times the diameter) or once it becomes negligible with respect to its inner contribution to the objective. Interestingly, the algorithm in the Linear Arrangement case is much more involved than that in the Hierarchical Clustering case, and uses a significantly more delicate peeling.

Yossi Azar and Danny Vainstein. Multi Layer Peeling for Linear Arrangement and Hierarchical Clustering. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 13:1-13:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{azar_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.13, author = {Azar, Yossi and Vainstein, Danny}, title = {{Multi Layer Peeling for Linear Arrangement and Hierarchical Clustering}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {13:1--13:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.13}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180656}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.13}, annote = {Keywords: Hierarchical clustering, Linear arrangements, Metric embeddings} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 248, 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)

We consider the classic online problem of scheduling on multiple machines to minimize total flow time and total stretch where the input consists of estimates on the processing time provided for each job once released. The performance of such algorithms should depend on μ, the error in the estimates of the processing time for that instance (such an algorithm is called a distortion oblivious algorithm). Previously, a distortion oblivious algorithm to minimize flow time was provided only for a single machine. In this paper we extend the work to multiple machines and also consider the total stretch objective. In particular, we design a non-migrative distortion oblivious algorithm to minimize total flow time with a competitive ratio of O(μ log P), where P is the ratio between the maximum to minimum processing time. We show that with immediate-dispatching one cannot achieve a competitive ratio which is a function of μ and P; moreover, a competitive ratio which is sub-polynomial in the number of jobs is also impossible. We also present the first distortion-oblivious algorithm for minimizing the stretch time, both on a single and on multiple machines. The competitive ratio of these algorithms are O(μ²) which is optimal as we also prove a matching Ω(μ²) lower bound.

Yossi Azar, Eldad Peretz, and Noam Touitou. Distortion-Oblivious Algorithms for Scheduling on Multiple Machines. In 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 248, pp. 16:1-16:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{azar_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.16, author = {Azar, Yossi and Peretz, Eldad and Touitou, Noam}, title = {{Distortion-Oblivious Algorithms for Scheduling on Multiple Machines}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)}, pages = {16:1--16:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-258-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {248}, editor = {Bae, Sang Won and Park, Heejin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.16}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-173010}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.16}, annote = {Keywords: Online, Scheduling, Predictions, Stretch, Flow Time} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)

Motivated by placement of jobs in physical machines, we introduce and analyze the problem of online recoloring, or online disengagement. In this problem, we are given a set of n weighted vertices and a k-coloring of the vertices (vertices represent jobs, and colors represent physical machines). Edges, representing conflicts between jobs, are inserted in an online fashion. After every edge insertion, the algorithm must output a proper k-coloring of the vertices. The cost of a recoloring is the sum of weights of vertices whose color changed. Our aim is to minimize the competitive ratio of the algorithm, i.e., the ratio between the cost paid by the online algorithm and the cost paid by an optimal, offline algorithm.
We consider a couple of polynomially-solvable coloring variants. Specifically, for 2-coloring bipartite graphs we present an O(log n)-competitive deterministic algorithm and an Ω(log n) lower bound on the competitive ratio of randomized algorithms. For (Δ+1)-coloring, we present tight bounds of Θ(Δ) and Θ(logΔ) on the competitive ratios of deterministic and randomized algorithms, respectively (where Δ denotes the maximum degree). We also consider a dynamic case which allows edge deletions as well as insertions. All our algorithms are applicable to the case where vertices are weighted and the cost of recoloring a vertex is its weight. All our lower bounds hold even in the unweighted case.

Yossi Azar, Chay Machluf, Boaz Patt-Shamir, and Noam Touitou. Competitive Vertex Recoloring. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 13:1-13:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{azar_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.13, author = {Azar, Yossi and Machluf, Chay and Patt-Shamir, Boaz and Touitou, Noam}, title = {{Competitive Vertex Recoloring}}, booktitle = {49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)}, pages = {13:1--13:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-235-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {229}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.13}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163542}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.13}, annote = {Keywords: coloring with recourse, anti-affinity constraints} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 173, 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)

In most online problems with delay, clairvoyance (i.e. knowing the future delay of a request upon its arrival) is required for polylogarithmic competitiveness. In this paper, we show that this is not the case for set cover with delay (SCD) - specifically, we present the first non-clairvoyant algorithm, which is O(log n log m)-competitive, where n is the number of elements and m is the number of sets. This matches the best known result for the classic online set cover (a special case of non-clairvoyant SCD). Moreover, clairvoyance does not allow for significant improvement - we present lower bounds of Ω(√{log n}) and Ω(√{log m}) for SCD which apply for the clairvoyant case.
In addition, the competitiveness of our algorithm does not depend on the number of requests. Such a guarantee on the size of the universe alone was not previously known even for the clairvoyant case - the only previously-known algorithm (due to Carrasco et al.) is clairvoyant, with competitiveness that grows with the number of requests.
For the special case of vertex cover with delay, we show a simpler, deterministic algorithm which is 3-competitive (and also non-clairvoyant).

Yossi Azar, Ashish Chiplunkar, Shay Kutten, and Noam Touitou. Set Cover with Delay - Clairvoyance Is Not Required. In 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 173, pp. 8:1-8:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{azar_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2020.8, author = {Azar, Yossi and Chiplunkar, Ashish and Kutten, Shay and Touitou, Noam}, title = {{Set Cover with Delay - Clairvoyance Is Not Required}}, booktitle = {28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)}, pages = {8:1--8:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-162-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {173}, editor = {Grandoni, Fabrizio and Herman, Grzegorz and Sanders, Peter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-128749}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.8}, annote = {Keywords: Set Cover, Delay, Clairvoyant} }

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Complete Volume

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 112, 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)

LIPIcs, Volume 112, ESA'18, Complete Volume

26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 112, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@Proceedings{azar_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2018, title = {{LIPIcs, Volume 112, ESA'18, Complete Volume}}, booktitle = {26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-081-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {112}, editor = {Azar, Yossi and Bast, Hannah and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-97239}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018}, annote = {Keywords: Computer systems organization, Single instruction, multiple data, Computing methodologies, Graphics processors, Robotic planning, Hardware} }

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Front Matter

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 112, 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)

Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization

26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 112, pp. 0:i-0:xx, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{azar_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2018.0, author = {Azar, Yossi and Bast, Hannah and Herman, Grzegorz}, title = {{Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization}}, booktitle = {26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)}, pages = {0:i--0:xx}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-081-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {112}, editor = {Azar, Yossi and Bast, Hannah and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.0}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-94631}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.0}, annote = {Keywords: Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 81, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017)

In the min-cost bipartite perfect matching with delays (MBPMD) problem, requests arrive online at points of a finite metric space. Each request is either positive or negative and has to be matched to a request of opposite polarity. As opposed to traditional online matching problems, the algorithm does not have to serve requests as they arrive, and may choose to match them later at a cost. Our objective is to minimize the sum of the distances between matched pairs of requests (the connection cost) and the sum of the waiting times of the requests (the delay cost). This objective exhibits a natural tradeoff between minimizing the distances and the cost of waiting for better matches. This tradeoff appears in many real-life scenarios, notably, ride-sharing platforms. MBPMD is related to its non-bipartite variant, min-cost perfect matching with delays (MPMD), in which each request can be matched to any other request. MPMD was introduced by Emek et al. (STOC'16), who showed an O(log^2(n)+log(Delta))-competitive randomized algorithm on n-point metric spaces with aspect ratio Delta.
Our contribution is threefold. First, we present a new lower bound construction for MPMD and MBPMD. We get a lower bound of Omega(sqrt(log(n)/log(log(n)))) on the competitive ratio of any randomized algorithm for MBPMD. For MPMD, we improve the lower bound from Omega(sqrt(log(n))) (shown by Azar et al., SODA'17) to Omega(log(n)/log(log(n))), thus, almost matching their upper bound of O(log(n)). Second, we adapt the algorithm of Emek et al. to the bipartite case, and provide a simplified analysis that improves the competitive ratio to O(log(n)). The key ingredient of the algorithm is an O(h)-competitive randomized algorithm for MBPMD on weighted trees of height h. Third, we provide an O(h)-competitive deterministic algorithm for MBPMD on weighted trees of height h. This algorithm is obtained by adapting the algorithm for MPMD by Azar et al. to the apparently more complicated bipartite setting.

Itai Ashlagi, Yossi Azar, Moses Charikar, Ashish Chiplunkar, Ofir Geri, Haim Kaplan, Rahul Makhijani, Yuyi Wang, and Roger Wattenhofer. Min-Cost Bipartite Perfect Matching with Delays. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 81, pp. 1:1-1:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{ashlagi_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.1, author = {Ashlagi, Itai and Azar, Yossi and Charikar, Moses and Chiplunkar, Ashish and Geri, Ofir and Kaplan, Haim and Makhijani, Rahul and Wang, Yuyi and Wattenhofer, Roger}, title = {{Min-Cost Bipartite Perfect Matching with Delays}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017)}, pages = {1:1--1:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-044-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {81}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Williamson, David P. and Vempala, Santosh S.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-75509}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.1}, annote = {Keywords: online algorithms with delayed service, bipartite matching, competitive analysis} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 25, 31st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2014)

An instance of the generalized reordering buffer management problem consists of a service station that has k servers, each configured with a color, and a buffer of size b. The station needs to serve an online stream of colored items. Whenever an item arrives, it is stored in the buffer. At any point in time, a currently pending item can be served by switching a server to its color. The objective is to serve all items in a way that minimizes the number of servers color switches. This problem generalizes two well-studied online problems: the paging problem, which is the special case when b=1, and the reordering buffer problem, which is the special case when k=1.
In this paper, we develop a randomized online algorithm that obtains a competitive ratio of O(sqrt(b).ln(k)). Note that this result beats the easy deterministic lower bound of k whenever b < k^(2-e).
We complement our randomized approach by presenting a deterministic algorithm that attains a competitive ratio of O(min{k^2.ln(b),k.b}). We further demonstrate that if our deterministic algorithm can employ k/(1-d) servers where d is in (0,1), then it achieves a competitive ratio of O(min{ln(b/d^2),b/d}) against an optimal offline adversary that employs k servers.

Yossi Azar, Matthias Englert, Iftah Gamzu, and Eytan Kidron. Generalized Reordering Buffer Management. In 31st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2014). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 25, pp. 87-98, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)

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@InProceedings{azar_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2014.87, author = {Azar, Yossi and Englert, Matthias and Gamzu, Iftah and Kidron, Eytan}, title = {{Generalized Reordering Buffer Management}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2014)}, pages = {87--98}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-65-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2014}, volume = {25}, editor = {Mayr, Ernst W. and Portier, Natacha}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2014.87}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-44498}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2014.87}, annote = {Keywords: online algorithms, paging, reordering buffer} }

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**Published in:** Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 10071, Scheduling (2010)

Collection of the open problems presented at the scheduling seminar.

Jim Anderson, Björn Andersson, Yossi Azar, Nikhil Bansal, Enrico Bini, Marek Chrobak, José Correa, Liliana Cucu-Grosjean, Rob Davis, Arvind Easwaran, Jeff Edmonds, Shelby Funk, Sathish Gopalakrishnan, Han Hoogeveen, Claire Mathieu, Nicole Megow, Seffi Naor, Kirk Pruhs, Maurice Queyranne, Adi Rosén, Nicolas Schabanel, Jiří Sgall, René Sitters, Sebastian Stiller, Marc Uetz, Tjark Vredeveld, and Gerhard J. Woeginger. 10071 Open Problems – Scheduling. In Scheduling. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 10071, pp. 1-24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2010)

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@InProceedings{anderson_et_al:DagSemProc.10071.3, author = {Anderson, Jim and Andersson, Bj\"{o}rn and Azar, Yossi and Bansal, Nikhil and Bini, Enrico and Chrobak, Marek and Correa, Jos\'{e} and Cucu-Grosjean, Liliana and Davis, Rob and Easwaran, Arvind and Edmonds, Jeff and Funk, Shelby and Gopalakrishnan, Sathish and Hoogeveen, Han and Mathieu, Claire and Megow, Nicole and Naor, Seffi and Pruhs, Kirk and Queyranne, Maurice and Ros\'{e}n, Adi and Schabanel, Nicolas and Sgall, Ji\v{r}{\'\i} and Sitters, Ren\'{e} and Stiller, Sebastian and Uetz, Marc and Vredeveld, Tjark and Woeginger, Gerhard J.}, title = {{10071 Open Problems – Scheduling}}, booktitle = {Scheduling}, pages = {1--24}, series = {Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)}, ISSN = {1862-4405}, year = {2010}, volume = {10071}, editor = {Susanne Albers and Sanjoy K. Baruah and Rolf H. M\"{o}hring and Kirk Pruhs}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.10071.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-25367}, doi = {10.4230/DagSemProc.10071.3}, annote = {Keywords: Open problems, scheduling} }

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**Published in:** Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 5031, Algorithms for Optimization with Incomplete Information (2005)

The problem of maximizing the weighted throughput in various switching settings has been intensively studied recently through competitive analysis. To date, the most general model that has been investigated is the standard CIOQ (Combined Input and Output Queued) switch architecture with internal fabric speedup $S \geq 1$. CIOQ switches, that comprise the backbone of packet routing networks, are $N \times N$ switches controlled by a switching policy that incorporates two components: Admission control and scheduling. An admission control strategy is essential to determine the packets stored in the FIFO queues in input and output ports, while the scheduling policy conducts the transfer of packets through the internal fabric, from input ports to output ports. The online problem of maximizing the total weighted throughput of CIOQ switches was recently investigated by Kesselman and Ros\'{e}n [SPAA03]. They presented two different online algorithms for the general problem that achieve non-constant competitive ratios (linear in either the speedup or the number of distinct values, or logarithmic in the value range). We introduce the first constant-competitive algorithm for the general case of the problem, with arbitrary speedup and packet values. Specifically, our algorithm is $8$-competitive, and is also simple and easy to implement.

Yossi Azar and Yossi Richter. An improved algorithm for CIOQ switches. In Algorithms for Optimization with Incomplete Information. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 5031, pp. 1-4, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2005)

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@InProceedings{azar_et_al:DagSemProc.05031.4, author = {Azar, Yossi and Richter, Yossi}, title = {{An improved algorithm for CIOQ switches}}, booktitle = {Algorithms for Optimization with Incomplete Information}, pages = {1--4}, series = {Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)}, ISSN = {1862-4405}, year = {2005}, volume = {5031}, editor = {Susanne Albers and Rolf H. M\"{o}hring and Georg Ch. Pflug and R\"{u}diger Schultz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.05031.4}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-670}, doi = {10.4230/DagSemProc.05031.4}, annote = {Keywords: On-line algorithms, Competitive ratio, CIOQ Switch, Packet Switching, Buffer Management, Quality of Service.} }

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