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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 317, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024)

The Gilbert-Varshamov (GV) bound is a classical existential result in coding theory. It implies that a random linear binary code of rate ε² has relative distance at least 1/2 - O(ε) with high probability. However, it is a major challenge to construct explicit codes with similar parameters.
One hope to derandomize the Gilbert-Varshamov construction is with code concatenation: We begin with a (hopefully explicit) outer code 𝒞_out over a large alphabet, and concatenate that with a small binary random linear code 𝒞_in. It is known that when we use independent small codes for each coordinate, then the result lies on the GV bound with high probability, but this still uses a lot of randomness. In this paper, we consider the question of whether code concatenation with a single random linear inner code 𝒞_in can lie on the GV bound; and if so what conditions on 𝒞_out are sufficient for this.
We show that first, there do exist linear outer codes 𝒞_out that are "good" for concatenation in this sense (in fact, most linear codes codes are good). We also provide two sufficient conditions for 𝒞_out, so that if 𝒞_out satisfies these, 𝒞_out∘𝒞_in will likely lie on the GV bound. We hope that these conditions may inspire future work towards constructing explicit codes 𝒞_out.

Dean Doron, Jonathan Mosheiff, and Mary Wootters. When Do Low-Rate Concatenated Codes Approach The Gilbert-Varshamov Bound?. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 317, pp. 53:1-53:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{doron_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.53, author = {Doron, Dean and Mosheiff, Jonathan and Wootters, Mary}, title = {{When Do Low-Rate Concatenated Codes Approach The Gilbert-Varshamov Bound?}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024)}, pages = {53:1--53:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-348-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {317}, editor = {Kumar, Amit and Ron-Zewi, Noga}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.53}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-210467}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.53}, annote = {Keywords: Error-correcting codes, Concatenated codes, Derandomization, Gilbert-Varshamov bound} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 264, 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)

Existing proofs that deduce BPL = 𝐋 from circuit lower bounds convert randomized algorithms into deterministic algorithms with large constant overhead in space. We study space-bounded derandomization with minimal footprint, and ask what is the minimal possible space overhead for derandomization. We show that BPSPACE[S] ⊆ DSPACE[c ⋅ S] for c ≈ 2, assuming space-efficient cryptographic PRGs, and, either: (1) lower bounds against bounded-space algorithms with advice, or: (2) lower bounds against certain uniform compression algorithms. Under additional assumptions regarding the power of catalytic computation, in a new setting of parameters that was not studied before, we are even able to get c ≈ 1.
Our results are constructive: Given a candidate hard function (and a candidate cryptographic PRG) we show how to transform the randomized algorithm into an efficient deterministic one. This follows from new PRGs and targeted PRGs for space-bounded algorithms, which we combine with novel space-efficient evaluation methods. A central ingredient in all our constructions is hardness amplification reductions in logspace-uniform TC⁰, that were not known before.

Dean Doron and Roei Tell. Derandomization with Minimal Memory Footprint. In 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 264, pp. 11:1-11:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{doron_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2023.11, author = {Doron, Dean and Tell, Roei}, title = {{Derandomization with Minimal Memory Footprint}}, booktitle = {38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)}, pages = {11:1--11:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-282-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {264}, editor = {Ta-Shma, Amnon}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-182816}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.11}, annote = {Keywords: derandomization, space-bounded computation, catalytic space} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 234, 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)

We construct a family of binary codes of relative distance 1/2-ε and rate ε² ⋅ 2^(-log^α (1/ε)) for α ≈ 1/2 that are decodable, probabilistically, in near-linear time. This improves upon the rate of the state-of-the-art near-linear time decoding near the GV bound due to Jeronimo, Srivastava, and Tulsiani, who gave a randomized decoding of Ta-Shma codes with α ≈ 5/6 [Ta-Shma, 2017; Jeronimo et al., 2021]. Each code in our family can be constructed in probabilistic polynomial time, or deterministic polynomial time given sufficiently good explicit 3-uniform hypergraphs.
Our construction is based on a new graph-based bias amplification method. While previous works start with some base code of relative distance 1/2-ε₀ for ε₀ ≫ ε and amplify the distance to 1/2-ε by walking on an expander, or on a carefully tailored product of expanders, we walk over very sparse, highly mixing, hypergraphs. Study of such hypergraphs further offers an avenue toward achieving rate Ω̃(ε²). For our unique- and list-decoding algorithms, we employ the framework developed in [Jeronimo et al., 2021].

Guy Blanc and Dean Doron. New Near-Linear Time Decodable Codes Closer to the GV Bound. In 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 234, pp. 10:1-10:40, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{blanc_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2022.10, author = {Blanc, Guy and Doron, Dean}, title = {{New Near-Linear Time Decodable Codes Closer to the GV Bound}}, booktitle = {37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)}, pages = {10:1--10:40}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-241-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {234}, editor = {Lovett, Shachar}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165726}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.10}, annote = {Keywords: Unique decoding, list decoding, the Gilbert-Varshamov bound, small-bias sample spaces, hypergraphs, expander walks} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)

An error correcting code 𝒞 : Σ^k → Σⁿ is efficiently list-recoverable from input list size 𝓁 if for any sets ℒ₁, …, ℒ_n ⊆ Σ of size at most 𝓁, one can efficiently recover the list ℒ = {x ∈ Σ^k : ∀ j ∈ [n], 𝒞(x)_j ∈ ℒ_j}. While list-recovery has been well-studied in error correcting codes, all known constructions with "efficient" algorithms are not efficient in the parameter 𝓁. In this work, motivated by applications in algorithm design and pseudorandomness, we study list-recovery with the goal of obtaining a good dependence on 𝓁. We make a step towards this goal by obtaining it in the weaker case where we allow a randomized encoding map and a small failure probability, and where the input lists are derived from unions of codewords. As an application of our construction, we give a data structure for the heavy hitters problem in the strict turnstile model that, for some parameter regimes, obtains stronger guarantees than known constructions.

Dean Doron and Mary Wootters. High-Probability List-Recovery, and Applications to Heavy Hitters. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 55:1-55:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{doron_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.55, author = {Doron, Dean and Wootters, Mary}, title = {{High-Probability List-Recovery, and Applications to Heavy Hitters}}, booktitle = {49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)}, pages = {55:1--55:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-235-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {229}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.55}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163961}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.55}, annote = {Keywords: List recoverable codes, Heavy Hitters, high-dimensional expanders} }

Document

RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 207, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)

Motivated by the derandomization of space-bounded computation, there has been a long line of work on constructing pseudorandom generators (PRGs) against various forms of read-once branching programs (ROBPs), with a goal of improving the O(log² n) seed length of Nisan’s classic construction [Noam Nisan, 1992] to the optimal O(log n).
In this work, we construct an explicit PRG with seed length Õ(log n) for constant-width ROBPs that are monotone, meaning that the states at each time step can be ordered so that edges with the same labels never cross each other. Equivalently, for each fixed input, the transition functions are a monotone function of the state. This result is complementary to a line of work that gave PRGs with seed length O(log n) for (ordered) permutation ROBPs of constant width [Braverman et al., 2014; Koucký et al., 2011; De, 2011; Thomas Steinke, 2012], since the monotonicity constraint can be seen as the "opposite" of the permutation constraint.
Our PRG also works for monotone ROBPs that can read the input bits in any order, which are strictly more powerful than read-once AC⁰. Our PRG achieves better parameters (in terms of the dependence on the depth of the circuit) than the best previous pseudorandom generator for read-once AC⁰, due to Doron, Hatami, and Hoza [Doron et al., 2019].
Our pseudorandom generator construction follows Ajtai and Wigderson’s approach of iterated pseudorandom restrictions [Ajtai and Wigderson, 1989; Gopalan et al., 2012]. We give a randomness-efficient width-reduction process which proves that the branching program simplifies to an O(log n)-junta after only O(log log n) independent applications of the Forbes-Kelley pseudorandom restrictions [Michael A. Forbes and Zander Kelley, 2018].

Dean Doron, Raghu Meka, Omer Reingold, Avishay Tal, and Salil Vadhan. Pseudorandom Generators for Read-Once Monotone Branching Programs. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 207, pp. 58:1-58:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{doron_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.58, author = {Doron, Dean and Meka, Raghu and Reingold, Omer and Tal, Avishay and Vadhan, Salil}, title = {{Pseudorandom Generators for Read-Once Monotone Branching Programs}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)}, pages = {58:1--58:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-207-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {207}, editor = {Wootters, Mary and Sanit\`{a}, Laura}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.58}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-147513}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.58}, annote = {Keywords: Branching programs, pseudorandom generators, constant depth circuits} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 200, 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)

Weighted pseudorandom generators (WPRGs), introduced by Braverman, Cohen and Garg [Braverman et al., 2020], are a generalization of pseudorandom generators (PRGs) in which arbitrary real weights are considered, rather than a probability mass. Braverman et al. constructed WPRGs against read once branching programs (ROBPs) with near-optimal dependence on the error parameter. Chattopadhyay and Liao [Eshan Chattopadhyay and Jyun-Jie Liao, 2020] somewhat simplified the technically involved BCG construction, also obtaining some improvement in parameters.
In this work we devise an error reduction procedure for PRGs against ROBPs. More precisely, our procedure transforms any PRG against length n width w ROBP with error 1/poly(n) having seed length s to a WPRG with seed length s + O(logw/(ε) ⋅ log log1/(ε)). By instantiating our procedure with Nisan’s PRG [Noam Nisan, 1992] we obtain a WPRG with seed length O(log{n} ⋅ log(nw) + logw/(ε) ⋅ log log 1/(ε)). This improves upon [Braverman et al., 2020] and is incomparable with [Eshan Chattopadhyay and Jyun-Jie Liao, 2020].
Our construction is significantly simpler on the technical side and is conceptually cleaner. Another advantage of our construction is its low space complexity O(log{nw})+poly(log log1/(ε)) which is logarithmic in n for interesting values of the error parameter ε. Previous constructions (like [Braverman et al., 2020; Eshan Chattopadhyay and Jyun-Jie Liao, 2020]) specify the seed length but not the space complexity, though it is plausible they can also achieve such (or close) space complexity.

Gil Cohen, Dean Doron, Oren Renard, Ori Sberlo, and Amnon Ta-Shma. Error Reduction for Weighted PRGs Against Read Once Branching Programs. In 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 200, pp. 22:1-22:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{cohen_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2021.22, author = {Cohen, Gil and Doron, Dean and Renard, Oren and Sberlo, Ori and Ta-Shma, Amnon}, title = {{Error Reduction for Weighted PRGs Against Read Once Branching Programs}}, booktitle = {36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)}, pages = {22:1--22:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-193-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {200}, editor = {Kabanets, Valentine}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.22}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-142963}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.22}, annote = {Keywords: Pseudorandom generators, Read once branching programs, Space-bounded computation} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)

The problem of constructing hitting-set generators for polynomials of low degree is fundamental in complexity theory and has numerous well-known applications. We study the following question, which is a relaxation of this problem: Is it easier to construct a hitting-set generator for polynomials p: 𝔽ⁿ → 𝔽 of degree d if we are guaranteed that the polynomial vanishes on at most an ε > 0 fraction of its inputs? We will specifically be interested in tiny values of ε≪ d/|𝔽|. This question was first considered by Goldreich and Wigderson (STOC 2014), who studied a specific setting geared for a particular application, and another specific setting was later studied by the third author (CCC 2017).
In this work our main interest is a systematic study of the relaxed problem, in its general form, and we prove results that significantly improve and extend the two previously-known results. Our contributions are of two types:
- Over fields of size 2 ≤ |𝔽| ≤ poly(n), we show that the seed length of any hitting-set generator for polynomials of degree d ≤ n^{.49} that vanish on at most ε = |𝔽|^{-t} of their inputs is at least Ω((d/t)⋅log(n)).
- Over 𝔽₂, we show that there exists a (non-explicit) hitting-set generator for polynomials of degree d ≤ n^{.99} that vanish on at most ε = |𝔽|^{-t} of their inputs with seed length O((d-t)⋅log(n)). We also show a polynomial-time computable hitting-set generator with seed length O((d-t)⋅(2^{d-t}+log(n))).
In addition, we prove that the problem we study is closely related to the following question: "Does there exist a small set S ⊆ 𝔽ⁿ whose degree-d closure is very large?", where the degree-d closure of S is the variety induced by the set of degree-d polynomials that vanish on S.

Dean Doron, Amnon Ta-Shma, and Roei Tell. On Hitting-Set Generators for Polynomials That Vanish Rarely. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 7:1-7:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{doron_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.7, author = {Doron, Dean and Ta-Shma, Amnon and Tell, Roei}, title = {{On Hitting-Set Generators for Polynomials That Vanish Rarely}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)}, pages = {7:1--7:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-164-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {176}, editor = {Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126109}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.7}, annote = {Keywords: Hitting-set generators, Polynomials over finite fields, Quantified derandomization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 169, 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)

A code 𝒞 ⊆ {0,1}^n̅ is (s,L) erasure list-decodable if for every word w, after erasing any s symbols of w, the remaining n̅-s symbols have at most L possible completions into a codeword of 𝒞. Non-explicitly, there exist binary ((1-τ)n̅,L) erasure list-decodable codes with rate approaching τ and tiny list-size L = O(log 1/(τ)). Achieving either of these parameters explicitly is a natural open problem (see, e.g., [Guruswami and Indyk, 2002; Guruswami, 2003; Guruswami, 2004]). While partial progress on the problem has been achieved, no prior nontrivial explicit construction achieved rate better than Ω(τ²) or list-size smaller than Ω(1/τ). Furthermore, Guruswami showed no linear code can have list-size smaller than Ω(1/τ) [Guruswami, 2003]. We construct an explicit binary ((1-τ)n̅,L) erasure list-decodable code having rate τ^(1+γ) (for any constant γ > 0 and small τ) and list-size poly(log 1/τ), answering simultaneously both questions, and exhibiting an explicit non-linear code that provably beats the best possible linear code.
The binary erasure list-decoding problem is equivalent to the construction of explicit, low-error, strong dispersers outputting one bit with minimal entropy-loss and seed-length. For error ε, no prior explicit construction achieved seed-length better than 2log(1/ε) or entropy-loss smaller than 2log(1/ε), which are the best possible parameters for extractors. We explicitly construct an ε-error one-bit strong disperser with near-optimal seed-length (1+γ)log(1/ε) and entropy-loss O(log log1/ε).
The main ingredient in our construction is a new (and almost-optimal) unbalanced two-source extractor. The extractor extracts one bit with constant error from two independent sources, where one source has length n and tiny min-entropy O(log log n) and the other source has length O(log n) and arbitrarily small constant min-entropy rate. When instantiated as a balanced two-source extractor, it improves upon Raz’s extractor [Raz, 2005] in the constant error regime. The construction incorporates recent components and ideas from extractor theory with a delicate and novel analysis needed in order to solve dependency and error issues that prevented previous papers (such as [Li, 2015; Chattopadhyay and Zuckerman, 2019; Cohen, 2016]) from achieving the above results.

Avraham Ben-Aroya, Dean Doron, and Amnon Ta-Shma. Near-Optimal Erasure List-Decodable Codes. In 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 169, pp. 1:1-1:27, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{benaroya_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2020.1, author = {Ben-Aroya, Avraham and Doron, Dean and Ta-Shma, Amnon}, title = {{Near-Optimal Erasure List-Decodable Codes}}, booktitle = {35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)}, pages = {1:1--1:27}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-156-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {169}, editor = {Saraf, Shubhangi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125531}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.1}, annote = {Keywords: Dispersers, Erasure codes, List decoding, Ramsey graphs, Two-source extractors} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 169, 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)

There are only a few known general approaches for constructing explicit pseudorandom generators (PRGs). The "iterated restrictions" approach, pioneered by Ajtai and Wigderson [Ajtai and Wigderson, 1989], has provided PRGs with seed length polylog n or even Õ(log n) for several restricted models of computation. Can this approach ever achieve the optimal seed length of O(log n)?
In this work, we answer this question in the affirmative. Using the iterated restrictions approach, we construct an explicit PRG for read-once depth-2 AC⁰[⊕] formulas with seed length O(log n) + Õ(log(1/ε)). In particular, we achieve optimal seed length O(log n) with near-optimal error ε = exp(-Ω̃(log n)). Even for constant error, the best prior PRG for this model (which includes read-once CNFs and read-once 𝔽₂-polynomials) has seed length Θ(log n ⋅ (log log n)²) [Chin Ho Lee, 2019].
A key step in the analysis of our PRG is a tail bound for subset-wise symmetric polynomials, a generalization of elementary symmetric polynomials. Like elementary symmetric polynomials, subset-wise symmetric polynomials provide a way to organize the expansion of ∏_{i=1}^m (1 + y_i). Elementary symmetric polynomials simply organize the terms by degree, i.e., they keep track of the number of variables participating in each monomial. Subset-wise symmetric polynomials keep track of more data: for a fixed partition of [m], they keep track of the number of variables from each subset participating in each monomial. Our tail bound extends prior work by Gopalan and Yehudayoff [Gopalan and Yehudayoff, 2014] on elementary symmetric polynomials.

Dean Doron, Pooya Hatami, and William M. Hoza. Log-Seed Pseudorandom Generators via Iterated Restrictions. In 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 169, pp. 6:1-6:36, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{doron_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2020.6, author = {Doron, Dean and Hatami, Pooya and Hoza, William M.}, title = {{Log-Seed Pseudorandom Generators via Iterated Restrictions}}, booktitle = {35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)}, pages = {6:1--6:36}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-156-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {169}, editor = {Saraf, Shubhangi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125586}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.6}, annote = {Keywords: Pseudorandom generators, Pseudorandom restrictions, Read-once depth-2 formulas, Parity gates} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

We give a deterministic, nearly logarithmic-space algorithm for mild spectral sparsification of undirected graphs. Given a weighted, undirected graph G on n vertices described by a binary string of length N, an integer k ≤ log n and an error parameter ε > 0, our algorithm runs in space Õ(k log(N w_max/w_min)) where w_max and w_min are the maximum and minimum edge weights in G, and produces a weighted graph H with Õ(n^(1+2/k)/ε²) edges that spectrally approximates G, in the sense of Spielmen and Teng [Spielman and Teng, 2004], up to an error of ε.
Our algorithm is based on a new bounded-independence analysis of Spielman and Srivastava’s effective resistance based edge sampling algorithm [Spielman and Srivastava, 2011] and uses results from recent work on space-bounded Laplacian solvers [Jack Murtagh et al., 2017]. In particular, we demonstrate an inherent tradeoff (via upper and lower bounds) between the amount of (bounded) independence used in the edge sampling algorithm, denoted by k above, and the resulting sparsity that can be achieved.

Dean Doron, Jack Murtagh, Salil Vadhan, and David Zuckerman. Spectral Sparsification via Bounded-Independence Sampling. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 39:1-39:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{doron_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.39, author = {Doron, Dean and Murtagh, Jack and Vadhan, Salil and Zuckerman, David}, title = {{Spectral Sparsification via Bounded-Independence Sampling}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {39:1--39:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.39}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124462}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.39}, annote = {Keywords: Spectral sparsification, Derandomization, Space complexity} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 145, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)

In their seminal work, Chattopadhyay and Zuckerman (STOC'16) constructed a two-source extractor with error epsilon for n-bit sources having min-entropy {polylog}(n/epsilon). Unfortunately, the construction’s running-time is {poly}(n/epsilon), which means that with polynomial-time constructions, only polynomially-small errors are possible. Our main result is a {poly}(n,log(1/epsilon))-time computable two-source condenser. For any k >= {polylog}(n/epsilon), our condenser transforms two independent (n,k)-sources to a distribution over m = k-O(log(1/epsilon)) bits that is epsilon-close to having min-entropy m - o(log(1/epsilon)). Hence, achieving entropy gap of o(log(1/epsilon)).
The bottleneck for obtaining low error in recent constructions of two-source extractors lies in the use of resilient functions. Informally, this is a function that receives input bits from r players with the property that the function’s output has small bias even if a bounded number of corrupted players feed adversarial inputs after seeing the inputs of the other players. The drawback of using resilient functions is that the error cannot be smaller than ln r/r. This, in return, forces the running time of the construction to be polynomial in 1/epsilon.
A key component in our construction is a variant of resilient functions which we call entropy-resilient functions. This variant can be seen as playing the above game for several rounds, each round outputting one bit. The goal of the corrupted players is to reduce, with as high probability as they can, the min-entropy accumulated throughout the rounds. We show that while the bias decreases only polynomially with the number of players in a one-round game, their success probability decreases exponentially in the entropy gap they are attempting to incur in a repeated game.

Avraham Ben-Aroya, Gil Cohen, Dean Doron, and Amnon Ta-Shma. Two-Source Condensers with Low Error and Small Entropy Gap via Entropy-Resilient Functions. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 145, pp. 43:1-43:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{benaroya_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.43, author = {Ben-Aroya, Avraham and Cohen, Gil and Doron, Dean and Ta-Shma, Amnon}, title = {{Two-Source Condensers with Low Error and Small Entropy Gap via Entropy-Resilient Functions}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)}, pages = {43:1--43:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-125-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {145}, editor = {Achlioptas, Dimitris and V\'{e}gh, L\'{a}szl\'{o} A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.43}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112587}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.43}, annote = {Keywords: Condensers, Extractors, Resilient functions, Explicit constructions} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 137, 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)

We give an explicit pseudorandom generator (PRG) for read-once AC^0, i.e., constant-depth read-once formulas over the basis {wedge, vee, neg} with unbounded fan-in. The seed length of our PRG is O~(log(n/epsilon)). Previously, PRGs with near-optimal seed length were known only for the depth-2 case [Gopalan et al., 2012]. For a constant depth d > 2, the best prior PRG is a recent construction by Forbes and Kelley with seed length O~(log^2 n + log n log(1/epsilon)) for the more general model of constant-width read-once branching programs with arbitrary variable order [Michael A. Forbes and Zander Kelley, 2018]. Looking beyond read-once AC^0, we also show that our PRG fools read-once AC^0[oplus] with seed length O~(t + log(n/epsilon)), where t is the number of parity gates in the formula.
Our construction follows Ajtai and Wigderson’s approach of iterated pseudorandom restrictions [Ajtai and Wigderson, 1989]. We assume by recursion that we already have a PRG for depth-d AC^0 formulas. To fool depth-(d + 1) AC^0 formulas, we use the given PRG, combined with a small-bias distribution and almost k-wise independence, to sample a pseudorandom restriction. The analysis of Forbes and Kelley [Michael A. Forbes and Zander Kelley, 2018] shows that our restriction approximately preserves the expectation of the formula. The crux of our work is showing that after poly(log log n) independent applications of our pseudorandom restriction, the formula simplifies in the sense that every gate other than the output has only polylog n remaining children. Finally, as the last step, we use a recent PRG by Meka, Reingold, and Tal [Meka et al., 2019] to fool this simpler formula.

Dean Doron, Pooya Hatami, and William M. Hoza. Near-Optimal Pseudorandom Generators for Constant-Depth Read-Once Formulas. In 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 137, pp. 16:1-16:34, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{doron_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2019.16, author = {Doron, Dean and Hatami, Pooya and Hoza, William M.}, title = {{Near-Optimal Pseudorandom Generators for Constant-Depth Read-Once Formulas}}, booktitle = {34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)}, pages = {16:1--16:34}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-116-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {137}, editor = {Shpilka, Amir}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.16}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-108382}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.16}, annote = {Keywords: Pseudorandom generators, Constant-depth formulas, Explicit constructions} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 102, 33rd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2018)

Our main contribution in this paper is a new reduction from explicit two-source extractors for polynomially-small entropy rate and negligible error to explicit t-non-malleable extractors with seed-length that has a good dependence on t. Our reduction is based on the Chattopadhyay and Zuckerman framework (STOC 2016), and surprisingly we dispense with the use of resilient functions which appeared to be a major ingredient there and in follow-up works. The use of resilient functions posed a fundamental barrier towards achieving negligible error, and our new reduction circumvents this bottleneck.
The parameters we require from t-non-malleable extractors for our reduction to work hold in a non-explicit construction, but currently it is not known how to explicitly construct such extractors. As a result we do not give an unconditional construction of an explicit low-error two-source extractor. Nonetheless, we believe our work gives a viable approach for solving the important problem of low-error two-source extractors. Furthermore, our work highlights an existing barrier in constructing low-error two-source extractors, and draws attention to the dependence of the parameter t in the seed-length of the non-malleable extractor. We hope this work would lead to further developments in explicit constructions of both non-malleable and two-source extractors.

Avraham Ben-Aroya, Eshan Chattopadhyay, Dean Doron, Xin Li, and Amnon Ta-Shma. A New Approach for Constructing Low-Error, Two-Source Extractors. In 33rd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 102, pp. 3:1-3:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{benaroya_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2018.3, author = {Ben-Aroya, Avraham and Chattopadhyay, Eshan and Doron, Dean and Li, Xin and Ta-Shma, Amnon}, title = {{A New Approach for Constructing Low-Error, Two-Source Extractors}}, booktitle = {33rd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2018)}, pages = {3:1--3:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-069-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {102}, editor = {Servedio, Rocco A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2018.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-88877}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2018.3}, annote = {Keywords: Two-Source Extractors, Non-Malleable Extractors, Pseudorandomness, Explicit Constructions} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 81, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017)

A recent series of breakthroughs initiated by Spielman and Teng culminated in the construction of nearly linear time Laplacian solvers, approximating the solution of a linear system Lx=b, where L is the normalized Laplacian of an undirected graph. In this paper we study the space complexity of the problem. Surprisingly we are able to show a probabilistic, logspace algorithm solving the problem. We further extend the algorithm to other families of graphs like Eulerian graphs (and directed regular graphs) and graphs that mix in polynomial time.
Our approach is to pseudo-invert the Laplacian, by first "peeling-off" the problematic kernel of the operator, and then to approximate the inverse of the remaining part by using a Taylor series. We approximate the Taylor series using a previous work and the special structure of the problem. For directed graphs we exploit in the analysis the Jordan normal form and results from matrix functions.

Dean Doron, François Le Gall, and Amnon Ta-Shma. Probabilistic Logarithmic-Space Algorithms for Laplacian Solvers. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 81, pp. 41:1-41:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{doron_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.41, author = {Doron, Dean and Le Gall, Fran\c{c}ois and Ta-Shma, Amnon}, title = {{Probabilistic Logarithmic-Space Algorithms for Laplacian Solvers}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017)}, pages = {41:1--41:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-044-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {81}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Williamson, David P. and Vempala, Santosh S.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.41}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-75908}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.41}, annote = {Keywords: Laplacian solvers, Randomized logspace, Bounded-space complexity classes, Random walks, Matrix computation} }

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