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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 258, 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)

For a drawing of a labeled graph, the rotation of a vertex or crossing is the cyclic order of its incident edges, represented by the labels of their other endpoints. The extended rotation system (ERS) of the drawing is the collection of the rotations of all vertices and crossings. A drawing is simple if each pair of edges has at most one common point. Gioan’s Theorem states that for any two simple drawings of the complete graph K_n with the same crossing edge pairs, one drawing can be transformed into the other by a sequence of triangle flips (a.k.a. Reidemeister moves of Type 3). This operation refers to the act of moving one edge of a triangular cell formed by three pairwise crossing edges over the opposite crossing of the cell, via a local transformation.
We investigate to what extent Gioan-type theorems can be obtained for wider classes of graphs. A necessary (but in general not sufficient) condition for two drawings of a graph to be transformable into each other by a sequence of triangle flips is that they have the same ERS. As our main result, we show that for the large class of complete multipartite graphs, this necessary condition is in fact also sufficient. We present two different proofs of this result, one of which is shorter, while the other one yields a polynomial time algorithm for which the number of needed triangle flips for graphs on n vertices is bounded by O(n^{16}). The latter proof uses a Carathéodory-type theorem for simple drawings of complete multipartite graphs, which we believe to be of independent interest.
Moreover, we show that our Gioan-type theorem for complete multipartite graphs is essentially tight in the following sense: For the complete bipartite graph K_{m,n} minus two edges and K_{m,n} plus one edge for any m,n ≥ 4, as well as K_n minus a 4-cycle for any n ≥ 5, there exist two simple drawings with the same ERS that cannot be transformed into each other using triangle flips. So having the same ERS does not remain sufficient when removing or adding very few edges.

Oswin Aichholzer, Man-Kwun Chiu, Hung P. Hoang, Michael Hoffmann, Jan Kynčl, Yannic Maus, Birgit Vogtenhuber, and Alexandra Weinberger. Drawings of Complete Multipartite Graphs up to Triangle Flips. In 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 258, pp. 6:1-6:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{aichholzer_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.6, author = {Aichholzer, Oswin and Chiu, Man-Kwun and Hoang, Hung P. and Hoffmann, Michael and Kyn\v{c}l, Jan and Maus, Yannic and Vogtenhuber, Birgit and Weinberger, Alexandra}, title = {{Drawings of Complete Multipartite Graphs up to Triangle Flips}}, booktitle = {39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)}, pages = {6:1--6:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-273-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {258}, editor = {Chambers, Erin W. and Gudmundsson, Joachim}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-178563}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.6}, annote = {Keywords: Simple drawings, simple topological graphs, complete graphs, multipartite graphs, k-partite graphs, bipartite graphs, Gioan’s Theorem, triangle flips, Reidemeister moves} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 258, 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)

A graph is 2-planar if it has local crossing number two, that is, it can be drawn in the plane such that every edge has at most two crossings. A graph is maximal 2-planar if no edge can be added such that the resulting graph remains 2-planar. A 2-planar graph on n vertices has at most 5n-10 edges, and some (maximal) 2-planar graphs - referred to as optimal 2-planar - achieve this bound. However, in strong contrast to maximal planar graphs, a maximal 2-planar graph may have fewer than the maximum possible number of edges. In this paper, we determine the minimum edge density of maximal 2-planar graphs by proving that every maximal 2-planar graph on n ≥ 5 vertices has at least 2n edges. We also show that this bound is tight, up to an additive constant. The lower bound is based on an analysis of the degree distribution in specific classes of drawings of the graph. The upper bound construction is verified by carefully exploring the space of admissible drawings using computer support.

Michael Hoffmann and Meghana M. Reddy. The Number of Edges in Maximal 2-Planar Graphs. In 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 258, pp. 39:1-39:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{hoffmann_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.39, author = {Hoffmann, Michael and M. Reddy, Meghana}, title = {{The Number of Edges in Maximal 2-Planar Graphs}}, booktitle = {39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)}, pages = {39:1--39:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-273-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {258}, editor = {Chambers, Erin W. and Gudmundsson, Joachim}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.39}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-178894}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.39}, annote = {Keywords: k-planar graphs, local crossing number, saturated graphs, beyond-planar graphs} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 244, 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)

An obstacle representation of a graph G consists of a set of pairwise disjoint simply-connected closed regions and a one-to-one mapping of the vertices of G to points such that two vertices are adjacent in G if and only if the line segment connecting the two corresponding points does not intersect any obstacle. The obstacle number of a graph is the smallest number of obstacles in an obstacle representation of the graph in the plane such that all obstacles are simple polygons.
It is known that the obstacle number of each n-vertex graph is O(n log n) [Balko, Cibulka, and Valtr, 2018] and that there are n-vertex graphs whose obstacle number is Ω(n/(log log n)²) [Dujmović and Morin, 2015]. We improve this lower bound to Ω(n/log log n) for simple polygons and to Ω(n) for convex polygons. To obtain these stronger bounds, we improve known estimates on the number of n-vertex graphs with bounded obstacle number, solving a conjecture by Dujmović and Morin. We also show that if the drawing of some n-vertex graph is given as part of the input, then for some drawings Ω(n²) obstacles are required to turn them into an obstacle representation of the graph. Our bounds are asymptotically tight in several instances.
We complement these combinatorial bounds by two complexity results. First, we show that computing the obstacle number of a graph G is fixed-parameter tractable in the vertex cover number of G. Second, we show that, given a graph G and a simple polygon P, it is NP-hard to decide whether G admits an obstacle representation using P as the only obstacle.

Martin Balko, Steven Chaplick, Robert Ganian, Siddharth Gupta, Michael Hoffmann, Pavel Valtr, and Alexander Wolff. Bounding and Computing Obstacle Numbers of Graphs. In 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 244, pp. 11:1-11:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{balko_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2022.11, author = {Balko, Martin and Chaplick, Steven and Ganian, Robert and Gupta, Siddharth and Hoffmann, Michael and Valtr, Pavel and Wolff, Alexander}, title = {{Bounding and Computing Obstacle Numbers of Graphs}}, booktitle = {30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)}, pages = {11:1--11:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-247-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {244}, editor = {Chechik, Shiri and Navarro, Gonzalo and Rotenberg, Eva and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-169495}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.11}, annote = {Keywords: Obstacle representation, Obstacle number, Visibility, NP-hardness, FPT} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 224, 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)

In the longest plane spanning tree problem, we are given a finite planar point set 𝒫, and our task is to find a plane (i.e., noncrossing) spanning tree T_OPT for 𝒫 with maximum total Euclidean edge length |T_OPT|. Despite more than two decades of research, it remains open if this problem is NP-hard. Thus, previous efforts have focused on polynomial-time algorithms that produce plane trees whose total edge length approximates |T_OPT|. The approximate trees in these algorithms all have small unweighted diameter, typically three or four. It is natural to ask whether this is a common feature of longest plane spanning trees, or an artifact of the specific approximation algorithms.
We provide three results to elucidate the interplay between the approximation guarantee and the unweighted diameter of the approximate trees. First, we describe a polynomial-time algorithm to construct a plane tree T_ALG with diameter at most four and |T_ALG| ≥ 0.546 ⋅ |T_OPT|. This constitutes a substantial improvement over the state of the art. Second, we show that a longest plane tree among those with diameter at most three can be found in polynomial time. Third, for any candidate diameter d ≥ 3, we provide upper bounds on the approximation factor that can be achieved by a longest plane tree with diameter at most d (compared to a longest plane tree without constraints).

Sergio Cabello, Michael Hoffmann, Katharina Klost, Wolfgang Mulzer, and Josef Tkadlec. Long Plane Trees. In 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 224, pp. 23:1-23:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{cabello_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.23, author = {Cabello, Sergio and Hoffmann, Michael and Klost, Katharina and Mulzer, Wolfgang and Tkadlec, Josef}, title = {{Long Plane Trees}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)}, pages = {23:1--23:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-227-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {224}, editor = {Goaoc, Xavier and Kerber, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-160311}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.23}, annote = {Keywords: geometric network design, spanning trees, plane straight-line graphs, approximation algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 187, 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)

The area of computing with uncertainty considers problems where some information about the input elements is uncertain, but can be obtained using queries. For example, instead of the weight of an element, we may be given an interval that is guaranteed to contain the weight, and a query can be performed to reveal the weight. While previous work has considered models where queries are asked either sequentially (adaptive model) or all at once (non-adaptive model), and the goal is to minimize the number of queries that are needed to solve the given problem, we propose and study a new model where k queries can be made in parallel in each round, and the goal is to minimize the number of query rounds. We use competitive analysis and present upper and lower bounds on the number of query rounds required by any algorithm in comparison with the optimal number of query rounds. Given a set of uncertain elements and a family of m subsets of that set, we present an algorithm for determining the value of the minimum of each of the subsets that requires at most (2+ε) ⋅ opt_k+O(1/(ε) ⋅ lg m) rounds for every 0 < ε < 1, where opt_k is the optimal number of rounds, as well as nearly matching lower bounds. For the problem of determining the i-th smallest value and identifying all elements with that value in a set of uncertain elements, we give a 2-round-competitive algorithm. We also show that the problem of sorting a family of sets of uncertain elements admits a 2-round-competitive algorithm and this is the best possible.

Thomas Erlebach, Michael Hoffmann, and Murilo Santos de Lima. Round-Competitive Algorithms for Uncertainty Problems with Parallel Queries. In 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 187, pp. 27:1-27:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{erlebach_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2021.27, author = {Erlebach, Thomas and Hoffmann, Michael and de Lima, Murilo Santos}, title = {{Round-Competitive Algorithms for Uncertainty Problems with Parallel Queries}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)}, pages = {27:1--27:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-180-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {187}, editor = {Bl\"{a}ser, Markus and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.27}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136728}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.27}, annote = {Keywords: online algorithms, competitive analysis, explorable uncertainty, parallel algorithms, minimum problem, selection problem} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 144, 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)

We show that every triconnected planar graph of maximum degree five is subhamiltonian planar. A graph is subhamiltonian planar if it is a subgraph of a Hamiltonian planar graph or, equivalently, if it admits a 2-page book embedding. In fact, our result is stronger because we only require vertices of a separating triangle to have degree at most five, all other vertices may have arbitrary degree. This degree bound is tight: We describe a family of triconnected planar graphs that are not subhamiltonian planar and where every vertex of a separating triangle has degree at most six. Our results improve earlier work by Heath and by Bauernöppel and, independently, Bekos, Gronemann, and Raftopoulou, who showed that planar graphs of maximum degree three and four, respectively, are subhamiltonian planar. The proof is constructive and yields a quadratic time algorithm to obtain a subhamiltonian plane cycle for a given graph.
As one of our main tools, which might be of independent interest, we devise an algorithm that, in a given 3-connected plane graph satisfying the above degree bounds, collapses each maximal separating triangle into a single edge such that the resulting graph is biconnected, contains no separating triangle, and no separation pair whose vertices are adjacent.

Michael Hoffmann and Boris Klemz. Triconnected Planar Graphs of Maximum Degree Five are Subhamiltonian. In 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 144, pp. 58:1-58:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{hoffmann_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2019.58, author = {Hoffmann, Michael and Klemz, Boris}, title = {{Triconnected Planar Graphs of Maximum Degree Five are Subhamiltonian}}, booktitle = {27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)}, pages = {58:1--58:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-124-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {144}, editor = {Bender, Michael A. and Svensson, Ola and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.58}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111797}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.58}, annote = {Keywords: Graph drawing, book embedding, Hamiltonian graph, planar graph, bounded degree graph, graph augmentation, computational geometry, SPQR decomposition} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 101, 16th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2018)

We study generalizations of convex hulls to polygonal domains with holes. Convexity in Euclidean space is based on the notion of shortest paths, which are straight-line segments. In a polygonal domain, shortest paths are polygonal paths called geodesics. One possible generalization of convex hulls is based on the "rubber band" conception of the convex hull boundary as a shortest curve that encloses a given set of sites. However, it is NP-hard to compute such a curve in a general polygonal domain. Hence, we focus on a different, more direct generalization of convexity, where a set X is geodesically convex if it contains all geodesics between every pair of points x,y in X. The corresponding geodesic convex hull presents a few surprises, and turns out to behave quite differently compared to the classic Euclidean setting or to the geodesic hull inside a simple polygon. We describe a class of geometric objects that suffice to represent geodesic convex hulls of sets of sites, and characterize which such domains are geodesically convex. Using such a representation we present an algorithm to construct the geodesic convex hull of a set of O(n) sites in a polygonal domain with a total of n vertices and h holes in O(n^3h^{3+epsilon}) time, for any constant epsilon > 0.

Luis Barba, Michael Hoffmann, Matias Korman, and Alexander Pilz. Convex Hulls in Polygonal Domains. In 16th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 101, pp. 8:1-8:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{barba_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2018.8, author = {Barba, Luis and Hoffmann, Michael and Korman, Matias and Pilz, Alexander}, title = {{Convex Hulls in Polygonal Domains}}, booktitle = {16th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2018)}, pages = {8:1--8:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-068-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {101}, editor = {Eppstein, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2018.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-88343}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2018.8}, annote = {Keywords: geometric graph, polygonal domain, geodesic hull, shortest path} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 83, 42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2017)

It is shown that every 2-planar graph is quasiplanar, that is, if a simple graph admits a drawing in the plane such that every edge is crossed at most twice, then it also admits a drawing in which no three edges pairwise cross. We further show that quasiplanarity is witnessed by a simple topological drawing, that is, any two edges cross at most once and adjacent edges do not cross.

Michael Hoffmann and Csaba D. Tóth. Two-Planar Graphs Are Quasiplanar. In 42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 83, pp. 47:1-47:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{hoffmann_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.47, author = {Hoffmann, Michael and T\'{o}th, Csaba D.}, title = {{Two-Planar Graphs Are Quasiplanar}}, booktitle = {42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2017)}, pages = {47:1--47:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-046-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {83}, editor = {Larsen, Kim G. and Bodlaender, Hans L. and Raskin, Jean-Francois}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.47}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-80811}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.47}, annote = {Keywords: graph drawing, near-planar graph, simple topological plane graph} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 51, 32nd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2016)

Packing graphs is a combinatorial problem where several given graphs are being mapped into a common host graph such that every edge is used at most once. In the planar tree packing problem we are given two trees T1 and T2 on n vertices and have to find a planar graph on n vertices that is the edge-disjoint union of T1 and T2. A clear exception that must be made is the star which cannot be packed together with any other tree. But according to a conjecture of Garcia et al. from 1997 this is the only exception, and all other pairs of trees admit a planar packing. Previous results addressed various special cases, such as a tree and a spider tree, a tree and a caterpillar, two trees of diameter four, two isomorphic trees, and trees of maximum degree three. Here we settle the conjecture in the affirmative and prove its general form, thus making it the planar tree packing theorem. The proof is constructive and provides a polynomial time algorithm to obtain a packing for two given nonstar trees.

Markus Geyer, Michael Hoffmann, Michael Kaufmann, Vincent Kusters, and Csaba Tóth. The Planar Tree Packing Theorem. In 32nd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 51, pp. 41:1-41:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{geyer_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2016.41, author = {Geyer, Markus and Hoffmann, Michael and Kaufmann, Michael and Kusters, Vincent and T\'{o}th, Csaba}, title = {{The Planar Tree Packing Theorem}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2016)}, pages = {41:1--41:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-009-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {51}, editor = {Fekete, S\'{a}ndor and Lubiw, Anna}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2016.41}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-59337}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2016.41}, annote = {Keywords: graph drawing, simultaneous embedding, planar graph, graph packin} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 30, 32nd International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2015)

We show that every triangulation (maximal planar graph) on n\ge 6 vertices can be flipped into a Hamiltonian triangulation using a sequence of less than n/2 combinatorial edge flips. The previously best upper bound uses 4-connectivity as a means to establish Hamiltonicity. But in general about 3n/5 flips are necessary to reach a 4-connected triangulation. Our result improves the upper bound on the diameter of the flip graph of combinatorial triangulations on n vertices from 5.2n-33.6 to 5n-23. We also show that for every triangulation on n vertices there is a simultaneous flip of less than 2n/3 edges to a 4-connected triangulation. The bound on the number of edges is tight, up to an additive constant. As another application we show that every planar graph on n vertices admits an arc diagram with less than n/2 biarcs, that is, after subdividing less than n/2 (of potentially 3n-6) edges the resulting graph admits a 2-page book embedding.

Jean Cardinal, Michael Hoffmann, Vincent Kusters, Csaba D. Tóth, and Manuel Wettstein. Arc Diagrams, Flip Distances, and Hamiltonian Triangulations. In 32nd International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 30, pp. 197-210, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{cardinal_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2015.197, author = {Cardinal, Jean and Hoffmann, Michael and Kusters, Vincent and T\'{o}th, Csaba D. and Wettstein, Manuel}, title = {{Arc Diagrams, Flip Distances, and Hamiltonian Triangulations}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2015)}, pages = {197--210}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-78-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {30}, editor = {Mayr, Ernst W. and Ollinger, Nicolas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2015.197}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-49141}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2015.197}, annote = {Keywords: graph embeddings, edge flips, flip graph, separating triangles} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 1, 25th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (2008)

We consider the minimum spanning tree problem in a setting where
information about the edge weights of the given graph is uncertain.
Initially, for each edge $e$ of the graph only a set $A_e$, called
an uncertainty area, that contains the actual edge weight
$w_e$ is known. The algorithm can `update' $e$ to obtain the edge
weight $w_e in A_e$. The task is to output the edge set of a
minimum spanning tree after a minimum number of updates. An
algorithm is $k$-update competitive if it makes at most $k$ times
as many updates as the optimum. We present a $2$-update
competitive algorithm if all areas $A_e$ are open or trivial, which
is the best possible among deterministic algorithms. The condition
on the areas $A_e$ is to exclude degenerate inputs for which no
constant update competitive algorithm can exist.
Next, we consider a setting where the vertices of the graph
correspond to points in Euclidean space and the weight of an edge
is equal to the distance of its endpoints. The location of each
point is initially given as an uncertainty area, and an update
reveals the exact location of the point. We give a general
relation between the edge uncertainty and the vertex uncertainty
versions of a problem and use it to derive a $4$-update competitive
algorithm for the minimum spanning tree problem in the vertex
uncertainty model. Again, we show that this is best possible among
deterministic algorithms.

Michael Hoffmann, Thomas Erlebach, Danny Krizanc, Matús Mihal'ák, and Rajeev Raman. Computing Minimum Spanning Trees with Uncertainty. In 25th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science. Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 1, pp. 277-288, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2008)

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@InProceedings{hoffmann_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2008.1358, author = {Hoffmann, Michael and Erlebach, Thomas and Krizanc, Danny and Mihal'\'{a}k, Mat\'{u}s and Raman, Rajeev}, title = {{Computing Minimum Spanning Trees with Uncertainty}}, booktitle = {25th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science}, pages = {277--288}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-06-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2008}, volume = {1}, editor = {Albers, Susanne and Weil, Pascal}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2008.1358}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-13581}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2008.1358}, annote = {Keywords: Algorithms and data structures; Current challenges: mobile and net computing} }

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**Published in:** Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 5031, Algorithms for Optimization with Incomplete Information (2005)

Consider the problem of discovering (or verifying) the edges and non-edges of a network, modelled as a connected undirected graph, using a minimum number of queries. A query at a vertex v discovers (or verifies) all edges and non-edges whose endpoints have different distance from v. In the network discovery problem, the edges and non-edges are initially unknown, and the algorithm must select the next query based only on the results of previous queries. We study the problem using competitive analysis and give a randomized on-line algorithm with competitive ratio O(sqrt(n*log n)) for graphs with n vertices. We also show that no deterministic algorithm can have competitive ratio better than 3. In the network verification problem, the graph is known in advance and the goal is to compute a minimum number of queries that verify all edges and non-edges. This problem has previously been studied as the problem of placing landmarks in graphs or determining the metric dimension of a graph. We show that there is no approximation algorithm for this problem with ratio o(log n) unless P=NP. Furthermore, we prove that the optimal number of queries for d-dimensional hypercubes is Theta(d/log d).

Zuzana Beerliova, Felix Eberhard, Thomas Erlebach, Alexander Hall, Michael Hoffmann, Matus Mihalak, and L. Shankar Ram. Network Discovery and Verification. In Algorithms for Optimization with Incomplete Information. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 5031, pp. 1-4, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2005)

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@InProceedings{beerliova_et_al:DagSemProc.05031.17, author = {Beerliova, Zuzana and Eberhard, Felix and Erlebach, Thomas and Hall, Alexander and Hoffmann, Michael and Mihalak, Matus and Ram, L. Shankar}, title = {{Network Discovery and Verification}}, booktitle = {Algorithms for Optimization with Incomplete Information}, pages = {1--4}, series = {Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)}, ISSN = {1862-4405}, year = {2005}, volume = {5031}, editor = {Susanne Albers and Rolf H. M\"{o}hring and Georg Ch. Pflug and R\"{u}diger Schultz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.05031.17}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-594}, doi = {10.4230/DagSemProc.05031.17}, annote = {Keywords: on-line algorithms , set cover , landmarks , metric dimension} }

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