Found 2 Possible Name Variants:

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 125, 22nd International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2018)

The replicated list object is frequently used to model the core functionality of replicated collaborative text editing systems. Since 1989, the convergence property has been a common specification of a replicated list object. Recently, Attiya et al. proposed the strong/weak list specification and conjectured that the well-known Jupiter protocol satisfies the weak list specification. The major obstacle to proving this conjecture is the mismatch between the global property on all replica states prescribed by the specification and the local view each replica maintains in Jupiter using data structures like 1D buffer or 2D state space. To address this issue, we propose CJupiter (Compact Jupiter) based on a novel data structure called n-ary ordered state space for a replicated client/server system with n clients. At a high level, CJupiter maintains only a single n-ary ordered state space which encompasses exactly all states of each replica. We prove that CJupiter and Jupiter are equivalent and that CJupiter satisfies the weak list specification, thus solving the conjecture above.

Hengfeng Wei, Yu Huang, and Jian Lu. Specification and Implementation of Replicated List: The Jupiter Protocol Revisited. In 22nd International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 125, pp. 12:1-12:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{wei_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.12, author = {Wei, Hengfeng and Huang, Yu and Lu, Jian}, title = {{Specification and Implementation of Replicated List: The Jupiter Protocol Revisited}}, booktitle = {22nd International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2018)}, pages = {12:1--12:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-098-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {125}, editor = {Cao, Jiannong and Ellen, Faith and Rodrigues, Luis and Ferreira, Bernardo}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-100720}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2018.12}, annote = {Keywords: Collaborative text editing systems, Replicated list, Concurrency control, Strong/weak list specification, Operational transformation, Jupiter protocol} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 109, 32nd European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP 2018)

Dynamic software updating (DSU) is a technique to upgrade a running software system on the fly without stopping the system. During updating, the runtime state of the modified components of the system needs to be properly transformed into a new state, so that the modified components can still correctly interact with the rest of the system. However, the transformation is non-trivial to realize due to the gap between the low-level implementations of two versions of a program. This paper presents AOTES, a novel approach to automating object transformations for dynamic updating of Java programs. AOTES bridges the gap by abstracting the old state of an object to a history of method invocations, and re-invoking the new version of all methods in the history to get the desired new state. AOTES requires no instrumentation to record any data and thus has no overhead during normal execution. We propose and implement a novel technique that can synthesize an equivalent history of method invocations based on the current object state only. We evaluated AOTES on software updates taken from Apache Commons Collections, Tomcat, FTP Server and SSHD Server. Experimental results show that AOTES successfully handled 51 of 61 object transformations of 21 updated classes, while two state-of-the-art approaches only handled 11 and 6 of 61, respectively.

Tianxiao Gu, Xiaoxing Ma, Chang Xu, Yanyan Jiang, Chun Cao, and Jian Lu. Automating Object Transformations for Dynamic Software Updating via Online Execution Synthesis. In 32nd European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 109, pp. 19:1-19:28, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{gu_et_al:LIPIcs.ECOOP.2018.19, author = {Gu, Tianxiao and Ma, Xiaoxing and Xu, Chang and Jiang, Yanyan and Cao, Chun and Lu, Jian}, title = {{Automating Object Transformations for Dynamic Software Updating via Online Execution Synthesis}}, booktitle = {32nd European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP 2018)}, pages = {19:1--19:28}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-079-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {109}, editor = {Millstein, Todd}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECOOP.2018.19}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-92243}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ECOOP.2018.19}, annote = {Keywords: Dynamic Software Update, Program Synthesis, Execution Synthesis} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)

A search-to-decision reduction is a procedure that allows one to find a solution to a problem from the mere ability to decide when a solution exists. The existence of a search-to-decision reduction for time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity, i.e., the problem of checking if a string x can be generated by a t-time bounded program of description length s, is a long-standing open problem that dates back to the 1960s.
In this work, we obtain new average-case and worst-case search-to-decision reductions for the complexity measure 𝖪^t and its randomized analogue rK^t:
1) (Conditional Errorless and Error-Prone Reductions for 𝖪^t) Under the assumption that 𝖤 requires exponential size circuits, we design polynomial-time average-case search-to-decision reductions for 𝖪^t in both errorless and error-prone settings. In fact, under the easiness of deciding 𝖪^t under the uniform distribution, we obtain a search algorithm for any given polynomial-time samplable distribution. In the error-prone reduction, the search algorithm works in the more general setting of conditional 𝖪^t complexity, i.e., it finds a minimum length t-time bound program for generating x given a string y.
2) (Unconditional Errorless Reduction for rK^t) We obtain an unconditional polynomial-time average-case search-to-decision reduction for rK^t in the errorless setting. Similarly to the results described above, we obtain a search algorithm for each polynomial-time samplable distribution, assuming the existence of a decision algorithm under the uniform distribution. To our knowledge, this is the first unconditional sub-exponential time search-to-decision reduction among the measures 𝖪^t and rK^t that works with respect to any given polynomial-time samplable distribution.
3) (Worst-Case to Average-Case Reductions) Under the errorless average-case easiness of deciding rK^t, we design a worst-case search algorithm running in time 2^O(n/log n) that produces a minimum length randomized t-time program for every input string x ∈ {0,1}ⁿ, with the caveat that it only succeeds on some explicitly computed sub-exponential time bound t ≤ 2^{n^ε} that depends on x. A similar result holds for 𝖪^t, under the assumption that 𝖤 requires exponential size circuits. In these results, the corresponding search problem is solved exactly, i.e., a successful run of the search algorithm outputs a t-time bounded program for x of minimum length, as opposed to an approximately optimal program of slightly larger description length or running time.

Shuichi Hirahara, Valentine Kabanets, Zhenjian Lu, and Igor C. Oliveira. Exact Search-To-Decision Reductions for Time-Bounded Kolmogorov Complexity. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 29:1-29:56, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{hirahara_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.29, author = {Hirahara, Shuichi and Kabanets, Valentine and Lu, Zhenjian and Oliveira, Igor C.}, title = {{Exact Search-To-Decision Reductions for Time-Bounded Kolmogorov Complexity}}, booktitle = {39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)}, pages = {29:1--29:56}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-331-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {300}, editor = {Santhanam, Rahul}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.29}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204256}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.29}, annote = {Keywords: average-case complexity, Kolmogorov complexity, search-to-decision reductions} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

We develop new characterizations of Impagliazzo’s worlds Algorithmica, Heuristica and Pessiland by the intractability of conditional Kolmogorov complexity 𝖪 and conditional probabilistic time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity pK^t.
In our first set of results, we show that NP ⊆ BPP iff pK^t(x ∣ y) can be computed efficiently in the worst case when t is sublinear in |x| + |y|; DistNP ⊆ HeurBPP iff pK^t(x ∣ y) can be computed efficiently over all polynomial-time samplable distributions when t is sublinear in |x| + |y|; and infinitely-often one-way functions fail to exist iff pK^t(x ∣ y) can be computed efficiently over all polynomial-time samplable distributions for t a sufficiently large polynomial in |x| + |y|. These results characterize Impagliazzo’s worlds Algorithmica, Heuristica and Pessiland purely in terms of the tractability of conditional pK^t. Notably, the results imply that Pessiland fails to exist iff the average-case intractability of conditional pK^t is insensitive to the difference between sublinear and polynomially bounded t. As a corollary, while we prove conditional pK^t to be NP-hard for sublinear t, showing NP-hardness for large enough polynomially bounded t would eliminate Pessiland as a possible world of average-case complexity.
In our second set of results, we characterize Impagliazzo’s worlds Algorithmica, Heuristica and Pessiland by the distributional tractability of a natural problem, i.e., approximating the conditional Kolmogorov complexity, that is provably intractable in the worst case. We show that NP ⊆ BPP iff conditional Kolmogorov complexity can be approximated in the semi-worst case; and DistNP ⊆ HeurBPP iff conditional Kolmogorov complexity can be approximated on average over all independent polynomial-time samplable distributions. It follows from a result by Ilango, Ren, and Santhanam (STOC 2022) that infinitely-often one-way functions fail to exist iff conditional Kolmogorov complexity can be approximated on average over all polynomial-time samplable distributions. Together, these results yield the claimed characterizations. Our techniques, combined with previous work, also yield a characterization of auxiliary-input one-way functions and equivalences between different average-case tractability assumptions for conditional Kolmogorov complexity and its variants. Our results suggest that novel average-case tractability assumptions such as tractability in the semi-worst case and over independent polynomial-time samplable distributions might be worthy of further study.

Zhenjian Lu and Rahul Santhanam. Impagliazzo’s Worlds Through the Lens of Conditional Kolmogorov Complexity. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 110:1-110:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{lu_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.110, author = {Lu, Zhenjian and Santhanam, Rahul}, title = {{Impagliazzo’s Worlds Through the Lens of Conditional Kolmogorov Complexity}}, booktitle = {51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)}, pages = {110:1--110:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-322-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {297}, editor = {Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.110}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202538}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.110}, annote = {Keywords: meta-complexity, Kolmogorov complexity, one-way functions, average-case complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 264, 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)

Relativization is one of the most fundamental concepts in complexity theory, which explains the difficulty of resolving major open problems. In this paper, we propose a weaker notion of relativization called bounded relativization. For a complexity class ℭ, we say that a statement is ℭ-relativizing if the statement holds relative to every oracle 𝒪 ∈ ℭ. It is easy to see that every result that relativizes also ℭ-relativizes for every complexity class ℭ. On the other hand, we observe that many non-relativizing results, such as IP = PSPACE, are in fact PSPACE-relativizing.
First, we use the idea of bounded relativization to obtain new lower bound results, including the following nearly maximum circuit lower bound: for every constant ε > 0, BPE^{MCSP}/2^{εn} ⊈ SIZE[2ⁿ/n].
We prove this by PSPACE-relativizing the recent pseudodeterministic pseudorandom generator by Lu, Oliveira, and Santhanam (STOC 2021).
Next, we study the limitations of PSPACE-relativizing proof techniques, and show that a seemingly minor improvement over the known results using PSPACE-relativizing techniques would imply a breakthrough separation NP ≠ L. For example:
- Impagliazzo and Wigderson (JCSS 2001) proved that if EXP ≠ BPP, then BPP admits infinitely-often subexponential-time heuristic derandomization. We show that their result is PSPACE-relativizing, and that improving it to worst-case derandomization using PSPACE-relativizing techniques implies NP ≠ L.
- Oliveira and Santhanam (STOC 2017) recently proved that every dense subset in P admits an infinitely-often subexponential-time pseudodeterministic construction, which we observe is PSPACE-relativizing. Improving this to almost-everywhere (pseudodeterministic) or (infinitely-often) deterministic constructions by PSPACE-relativizing techniques implies NP ≠ L.
- Santhanam (SICOMP 2009) proved that pr-MA does not have fixed polynomial-size circuits. This lower bound can be shown PSPACE-relativizing, and we show that improving it to an almost-everywhere lower bound using PSPACE-relativizing techniques implies NP ≠ L.
In fact, we show that if we can use PSPACE-relativizing techniques to obtain the above-mentioned improvements, then PSPACE ≠ EXPH. We obtain our barrier results by constructing suitable oracles computable in EXPH relative to which these improvements are impossible.

Shuichi Hirahara, Zhenjian Lu, and Hanlin Ren. Bounded Relativization. In 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 264, pp. 6:1-6:45, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{hirahara_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2023.6, author = {Hirahara, Shuichi and Lu, Zhenjian and Ren, Hanlin}, title = {{Bounded Relativization}}, booktitle = {38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)}, pages = {6:1--6:45}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-282-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {264}, editor = {Ta-Shma, Amnon}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-182764}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.6}, annote = {Keywords: relativization, circuit lower bound, derandomization, explicit construction, pseudodeterministic algorithms, interactive proofs} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 234, 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)

Understanding the relationship between the worst-case and average-case complexities of NP and of other subclasses of PH is a long-standing problem in complexity theory. Over the last few years, much progress has been achieved in this front through the investigation of meta-complexity: the complexity of problems that refer to the complexity of the input string x (e.g., given a string x, estimate its time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity). In particular, [Shuichi Hirahara, 2021] employed techniques from meta-complexity to show that if DistNP ⊆ AvgP then UP ⊆ DTIME[2^{O(n/log n)}]. While this and related results [Shuichi Hirahara and Mikito Nanashima, 2021; Lijie Chen et al., 2022] offer exciting progress after a long gap, they do not survive in the setting of randomized computations: roughly speaking, "randomness" is the opposite of "structure", and upper bounding the amount of structure (time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity) of different objects is crucial in recent applications of meta-complexity. This limitation is significant, since randomized computations are ubiquitous in algorithm design and give rise to a more robust theory of average-case complexity [Russell Impagliazzo and Leonid A. Levin, 1990].
In this work, we develop a probabilistic theory of meta-complexity, by incorporating randomness into the notion of complexity of a string x. This is achieved through a new probabilistic variant of time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity that we call pK^t complexity. Informally, pK^t(x) measures the complexity of x when shared randomness is available to all parties involved in a computation. By porting key results from meta-complexity to the probabilistic domain of pK^t complexity and its variants, we are able to establish new connections between worst-case and average-case complexity in the important setting of probabilistic computations:
- If DistNP ⊆ AvgBPP, then UP ⊆ RTIME[2^O(n/log n)].
- If DistΣ^P_2 ⊆ AvgBPP, then AM ⊆ BPTIME[2^O(n/log n)].
- In the fine-grained setting [Lijie Chen et al., 2022], we get UTIME[2^O(√{nlog n})] ⊆ RTIME[2^O(√{nlog n})] and AMTIME[2^O(√{nlog n})] ⊆ BPTIME[2^O(√{nlog n})] from stronger average-case assumptions.
- If DistPH ⊆ AvgBPP, then PH ⊆ BPTIME[2^O(n/log n)]. Specifically, for any 𝓁 ≥ 0, if DistΣ_{𝓁+2}^P ⊆ AvgBPP then Σ_𝓁^{P} ⊆ BPTIME[2^O(n/log n)].
- Strengthening a result from [Shuichi Hirahara and Mikito Nanashima, 2021], we show that if DistNP ⊆ AvgBPP then polynomial size Boolean circuits can be agnostically PAC learned under any unknown 𝖯/poly-samplable distribution in polynomial time. In some cases, our framework allows us to significantly simplify existing proofs, or to extend results to the more challenging probabilistic setting with little to no extra effort.

Halley Goldberg, Valentine Kabanets, Zhenjian Lu, and Igor C. Oliveira. Probabilistic Kolmogorov Complexity with Applications to Average-Case Complexity. In 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 234, pp. 16:1-16:60, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{goldberg_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2022.16, author = {Goldberg, Halley and Kabanets, Valentine and Lu, Zhenjian and Oliveira, Igor C.}, title = {{Probabilistic Kolmogorov Complexity with Applications to Average-Case Complexity}}, booktitle = {37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)}, pages = {16:1--16:60}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-241-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {234}, editor = {Lovett, Shachar}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.16}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165785}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.16}, annote = {Keywords: average-case complexity, Kolmogorov complexity, meta-complexity, worst-case to average-case reductions, learning} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)

The classical coding theorem in Kolmogorov complexity states that if an n-bit string x is sampled with probability δ by an algorithm with prefix-free domain then 𝖪(x) ≤ log(1/δ) + O(1). In a recent work, Lu and Oliveira [Zhenjian Lu and Igor C. Oliveira, 2021] established an unconditional time-bounded version of this result, by showing that if x can be efficiently sampled with probability δ then rKt(x) = O(log(1/δ)) + O(log n), where rKt denotes the randomized analogue of Levin’s Kt complexity. Unfortunately, this result is often insufficient when transferring applications of the classical coding theorem to the time-bounded setting, as it achieves a O(log(1/δ)) bound instead of the information-theoretic optimal log(1/δ).
Motivated by this discrepancy, we investigate optimal coding theorems in the time-bounded setting. Our main contributions can be summarised as follows.
• Efficient coding theorem for rKt with a factor of 2. Addressing a question from [Zhenjian Lu and Igor C. Oliveira, 2021], we show that if x can be efficiently sampled with probability at least δ then rKt(x) ≤ (2 + o(1)) ⋅ log(1/δ) + O(log n). As in previous work, our coding theorem is efficient in the sense that it provides a polynomial-time probabilistic algorithm that, when given x, the code of the sampler, and δ, it outputs, with probability ≥ 0.99, a probabilistic representation of x that certifies this rKt complexity bound.
• Optimality under a cryptographic assumption. Under a hypothesis about the security of cryptographic pseudorandom generators, we show that no efficient coding theorem can achieve a bound of the form rKt(x) ≤ (2 - o(1)) ⋅ log(1/δ) + poly(log n). Under a weaker assumption, we exhibit a gap between efficient coding theorems and existential coding theorems with near-optimal parameters.
• Optimal coding theorem for pK^t and unconditional Antunes-Fortnow. We consider pK^t complexity [Halley Goldberg et al., 2022], a variant of rKt where the randomness is public and the time bound is fixed. We observe the existence of an optimal coding theorem for pK^t, and employ this result to establish an unconditional version of a theorem of Antunes and Fortnow [Luis Filipe Coelho Antunes and Lance Fortnow, 2009] which characterizes the worst-case running times of languages that are in average polynomial-time over all 𝖯-samplable distributions.

Zhenjian Lu, Igor C. Oliveira, and Marius Zimand. Optimal Coding Theorems in Time-Bounded Kolmogorov Complexity. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 92:1-92:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{lu_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.92, author = {Lu, Zhenjian and Oliveira, Igor C. and Zimand, Marius}, title = {{Optimal Coding Theorems in Time-Bounded Kolmogorov Complexity}}, booktitle = {49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)}, pages = {92:1--92:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-235-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {229}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.92}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-164331}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.92}, annote = {Keywords: computational complexity, randomized algorithms, Kolmogorov complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

Comparator circuits are a natural circuit model for studying bounded fan-out computation whose power sits between nondeterministic branching programs and general circuits. Despite having been studied for nearly three decades, the first superlinear lower bound against comparator circuits was proved only recently by Gál and Robere (ITCS 2020), who established a Ω((n/log n)^{1.5}) lower bound on the size of comparator circuits computing an explicit function of n bits.
In this paper, we initiate the study of average-case complexity and circuit analysis algorithms for comparator circuits. Departing from previous approaches, we exploit the technique of shrinkage under random restrictions to obtain a variety of new results for this model. Among them, we show
- Average-case Lower Bounds. For every k = k(n) with k ≥ log n, there exists a polynomial-time computable function f_k on n bits such that, for every comparator circuit C with at most n^{1.5}/O(k⋅ √{log n}) gates, we have
Pr_{x ∈ {0,1}ⁿ} [C(x) = f_k(x)] ≤ 1/2 + 1/{2^{Ω(k)}}.
This average-case lower bound matches the worst-case lower bound of Gál and Robere by letting k = O(log n).
- #SAT Algorithms. There is an algorithm that counts the number of satisfying assignments of a given comparator circuit with at most n^{1.5}/O (k⋅ √{log n}) gates, in time 2^{n-k} · poly(n), for any k ≤ n/4. The running time is non-trivial (i.e., 2ⁿ/n^{ω(1)}) when k = ω(log n).
- Pseudorandom Generators and MCSP Lower Bounds. There is a pseudorandom generator of seed length s^{2/3+o(1)} that fools comparator circuits with s gates. Also, using this PRG, we obtain an n^{1.5-o(1)} lower bound for MCSP against comparator circuits.

Bruno P. Cavalar and Zhenjian Lu. Algorithms and Lower Bounds for Comparator Circuits from Shrinkage. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 34:1-34:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{cavalar_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.34, author = {Cavalar, Bruno P. and Lu, Zhenjian}, title = {{Algorithms and Lower Bounds for Comparator Circuits from Shrinkage}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {34:1--34:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.34}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156303}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.34}, annote = {Keywords: comparator circuits, average-case complexity, satisfiability algorithms, pseudorandom generators} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

We develop a general framework that characterizes strong average-case lower bounds against circuit classes 𝒞 contained in NC¹, such as AC⁰[⊕] and ACC⁰. We apply this framework to show:
- Generic seed reduction: Pseudorandom generators (PRGs) against 𝒞 of seed length ≤ n -1 and error ε(n) = n^{-ω(1)} can be converted into PRGs of sub-polynomial seed length.
- Hardness under natural distributions: If 𝖤 (deterministic exponential time) is average-case hard against 𝒞 under some distribution, then 𝖤 is average-case hard against 𝒞 under the uniform distribution.
- Equivalence between worst-case and average-case hardness: Worst-case lower bounds against MAJ∘𝒞 for problems in 𝖤 are equivalent to strong average-case lower bounds against 𝒞. This can be seen as a certain converse to the Discriminator Lemma [Hajnal et al., JCSS'93].
These results were not known to hold for circuit classes that do not compute majority. Additionally, we prove that classical and recent approaches to worst-case lower bounds against ACC⁰ via communication lower bounds for NOF multi-party protocols [Håstad and Goldmann, CC'91; Razborov and Wigderson, IPL'93] and Torus polynomials degree lower bounds [Bhrushundi et al., ITCS'19] also imply strong average-case hardness against ACC⁰ under the uniform distribution.
Crucial to these results is the use of non-black-box hardness amplification techniques and the interplay between Majority (MAJ) and Approximate Linear Sum (SUM̃) gates. Roughly speaking, while a MAJ gate outputs 1 when the sum of the m input bits is at least m/2, a SUM̃ gate computes a real-valued bounded weighted sum of the input bits and outputs 1 (resp. 0) if the sum is close to 1 (resp. close to 0), with the promise that one of the two cases always holds. As part of our framework, we explore ideas introduced in [Chen and Ren, STOC'20] to show that, for the purpose of proving lower bounds, a top layer MAJ gate is equivalent to a (weaker) SUM̃ gate. Motivated by this result, we extend the algorithmic method and establish stronger lower bounds against bounded-depth circuits with layers of MAJ and SUM̃ gates. Among them, we prove that:
- Lower bound: NQP does not admit fixed quasi-polynomial size MAJ∘SUM̃∘ACC⁰∘THR circuits.
This is the first explicit lower bound against circuits with distinct layers of MAJ, SUM̃, and THR gates. Consequently, if the aforementioned equivalence between MAJ and SUM̃ as a top gate can be extended to intermediate layers, long sought-after lower bounds against the class THR∘THR of depth-2 polynomial-size threshold circuits would follow.

Lijie Chen, Zhenjian Lu, Xin Lyu, and Igor C. Oliveira. Majority vs. Approximate Linear Sum and Average-Case Complexity Below NC¹. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 51:1-51:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.51, author = {Chen, Lijie and Lu, Zhenjian and Lyu, Xin and Oliveira, Igor C.}, title = {{Majority vs. Approximate Linear Sum and Average-Case Complexity Below NC¹}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {51:1--51:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.51}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141202}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.51}, annote = {Keywords: circuit complexity, average-case hardness, complexity lower bounds} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

A probabilistic representation of a string x ∈ {0,1}ⁿ is given by the code of a randomized algorithm that outputs x with high probability [Igor C. Oliveira, 2019]. We employ probabilistic representations to establish the first unconditional Coding Theorem in time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity. More precisely, we show that if a distribution ensemble 𝒟_m can be uniformly sampled in time T(m) and generates a string x ∈ {0,1}^* with probability at least δ, then x admits a time-bounded probabilistic representation of complexity O(log(1/δ) + log (T) + log(m)). Under mild assumptions, a representation of this form can be computed from x and the code of the sampler in time polynomial in n = |x|.
We derive consequences of this result relevant to the study of data compression, pseudodeterministic algorithms, time hierarchies for sampling distributions, and complexity lower bounds. In particular, we describe an instance-based search-to-decision reduction for Levin’s Kt complexity [Leonid A. Levin, 1984] and its probabilistic analogue rKt [Igor C. Oliveira, 2019]. As a consequence, if a string x admits a succinct time-bounded representation, then a near-optimal representation can be generated from x with high probability in polynomial time. This partially addresses in a time-bounded setting a question from [Leonid A. Levin, 1984] on the efficiency of computing an optimal encoding of a string.

Zhenjian Lu and Igor C. Oliveira. An Efficient Coding Theorem via Probabilistic Representations and Its Applications. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 94:1-94:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{lu_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.94, author = {Lu, Zhenjian and Oliveira, Igor C.}, title = {{An Efficient Coding Theorem via Probabilistic Representations and Its Applications}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {94:1--94:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.94}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141630}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.94}, annote = {Keywords: computational complexity, randomized algorithms, Kolmogorov complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 169, 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)

The class 𝖥𝖮𝖱𝖬𝖴𝖫𝖠[s]∘𝒢 consists of Boolean functions computable by size-s de Morgan formulas whose leaves are any Boolean functions from a class 𝒢. We give lower bounds and (SAT, Learning, and PRG) algorithms for FORMULA[n^{1.99}]∘𝒢, for classes 𝒢 of functions with low communication complexity. Let R^(k)(𝒢) be the maximum k-party number-on-forehead randomized communication complexity of a function in 𝒢. Among other results, we show that:
- The Generalized Inner Product function 𝖦𝖨𝖯^k_n cannot be computed in 𝖥𝖮𝖱𝖬𝖴𝖫𝖠[s]∘𝒢 on more than 1/2+ε fraction of inputs for s = o(n²/{(k⋅4^k⋅R^(k)(𝒢)⋅log (n/ε)⋅log(1/ε))²}). This significantly extends the lower bounds against bipartite formulas obtained by [Avishay Tal, 2017]. As a corollary, we get an average-case lower bound for 𝖦𝖨𝖯^k_n against 𝖥𝖮𝖱𝖬𝖴𝖫𝖠[n^{1.99}]∘𝖯𝖳𝖥^{k-1}, i.e., sub-quadratic-size de Morgan formulas with degree-(k-1) PTF (polynomial threshold function) gates at the bottom.
- There is a PRG of seed length n/2 + O(√s⋅R^(2)(𝒢)⋅log(s/ε)⋅log(1/ε)) that ε-fools FORMULA[s]∘𝒢. For the special case of FORMULA[s]∘𝖫𝖳𝖥, i.e., size-s formulas with LTF (linear threshold function) gates at the bottom, we get the better seed length O(n^{1/2}⋅s^{1/4}⋅log(n)⋅log(n/ε)). In particular, this provides the first non-trivial PRG (with seed length o(n)) for intersections of n half-spaces in the regime where ε ≤ 1/n, complementing a recent result of [Ryan O'Donnell et al., 2019].
- There exists a randomized 2^{n-t}-time #SAT algorithm for 𝖥𝖮𝖱𝖬𝖴𝖫𝖠[s]∘𝒢, where t = Ω(n/{√s⋅log²(s)⋅R^(2)(𝒢)})^{1/2}. In particular, this implies a nontrivial #SAT algorithm for 𝖥𝖮𝖱𝖬𝖴𝖫𝖠[n^1.99]∘𝖫𝖳𝖥.
- The Minimum Circuit Size Problem is not in 𝖥𝖮𝖱𝖬𝖴𝖫𝖠[n^1.99]∘𝖷𝖮𝖱; thereby making progress on hardness magnification, in connection with results from [Igor Carboni Oliveira et al., 2019; Lijie Chen et al., 2019]. On the algorithmic side, we show that the concept class 𝖥𝖮𝖱𝖬𝖴𝖫𝖠[n^1.99]∘𝖷𝖮𝖱 can be PAC-learned in time 2^O(n/log n).

Valentine Kabanets, Sajin Koroth, Zhenjian Lu, Dimitrios Myrisiotis, and Igor C. Oliveira. Algorithms and Lower Bounds for De Morgan Formulas of Low-Communication Leaf Gates. In 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 169, pp. 15:1-15:41, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{kabanets_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2020.15, author = {Kabanets, Valentine and Koroth, Sajin and Lu, Zhenjian and Myrisiotis, Dimitrios and Oliveira, Igor C.}, title = {{Algorithms and Lower Bounds for De Morgan Formulas of Low-Communication Leaf Gates}}, booktitle = {35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)}, pages = {15:1--15:41}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-156-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {169}, editor = {Saraf, Shubhangi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125673}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.15}, annote = {Keywords: de Morgan formulas, circuit lower bounds, satisfiability (SAT), pseudorandom generators (PRGs), learning, communication complexity, polynomial threshold functions (PTFs), parities} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

The Minimum Circuit Size Problem (MCSP) asks if a given truth table of a Boolean function f can be computed by a Boolean circuit of size at most theta, for a given parameter theta. We improve several circuit lower bounds for MCSP, using pseudorandom generators (PRGs) that are local; a PRG is called local if its output bit strings, when viewed as the truth table of a Boolean function, can be computed by a Boolean circuit of small size. We get new and improved lower bounds for MCSP that almost match the best-known lower bounds against several circuit models. Specifically, we show that computing MCSP, on functions with a truth table of length N, requires
- N^{3-o(1)}-size de Morgan formulas, improving the recent N^{2-o(1)} lower bound by Hirahara and Santhanam (CCC, 2017),
- N^{2-o(1)}-size formulas over an arbitrary basis or general branching programs (no non-trivial lower bound was known for MCSP against these models), and
- 2^{Omega (N^{1/(d+2.01)})}-size depth-d AC^0 circuits, improving the superpolynomial lower bound by Allender et al. (SICOMP, 2006).
The AC^0 lower bound stated above matches the best-known AC^0 lower bound (for PARITY) up to a small additive constant in the depth. Also, for the special case of depth-2 circuits (i.e., CNFs or DNFs), we get an almost optimal lower bound of 2^{N^{1-o(1)}} for MCSP.

Mahdi Cheraghchi, Valentine Kabanets, Zhenjian Lu, and Dimitrios Myrisiotis. Circuit Lower Bounds for MCSP from Local Pseudorandom Generators. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 39:1-39:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{cheraghchi_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.39, author = {Cheraghchi, Mahdi and Kabanets, Valentine and Lu, Zhenjian and Myrisiotis, Dimitrios}, title = {{Circuit Lower Bounds for MCSP from Local Pseudorandom Generators}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {39:1--39:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.39}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106156}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.39}, annote = {Keywords: minimum circuit size problem (MCSP), circuit lower bounds, pseudorandom generators (PRGs), local PRGs, de Morgan formulas, branching programs, constant depth circuits} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 116, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018)

A polynomial threshold function (PTF) is defined as the sign of a polynomial p : {0,1}^n ->R. A PTF circuit is a Boolean circuit whose gates are PTFs. We study the problems of exact and (promise) approximate counting for PTF circuits of constant depth.
- Satisfiability (#SAT). We give the first zero-error randomized algorithm faster than exhaustive search that counts the number of satisfying assignments of a given constant-depth circuit with a super-linear number of wires whose gates are s-sparse PTFs, for s almost quadratic in the input size of the circuit; here a PTF is called s-sparse if its underlying polynomial has at most s monomials. More specifically, we show that, for any large enough constant c, given a depth-d circuit with (n^{2-1/c})-sparse PTF gates that has at most n^{1+epsilon_d} wires, where epsilon_d depends only on c and d, the number of satisfying assignments of the circuit can be computed in randomized time 2^{n-n^{epsilon_d}} with zero error. This generalizes the result by Chen, Santhanam and Srinivasan (CCC, 2016) who gave a SAT algorithm for constant-depth circuits of super-linear wire complexity with linear threshold function (LTF) gates only.
- Quantified derandomization. The quantified derandomization problem, introduced by Goldreich and Wigderson (STOC, 2014), asks to compute the majority value of a given Boolean circuit, under the promise that the minority-value inputs to the circuit are very few. We give a quantified derandomization algorithm for constant-depth PTF circuits with a super-linear number of wires that runs in quasi-polynomial time. More specifically, we show that for any sufficiently large constant c, there is an algorithm that, given a degree-Delta PTF circuit C of depth d with n^{1+1/c^d} wires such that C has at most 2^{n^{1-1/c}} minority-value inputs, runs in quasi-polynomial time exp ((log n)^{O (Delta^2)}) and determines the majority value of C. (We obtain a similar quantified derandomization result for PTF circuits with n^{Delta}-sparse PTF gates.) This extends the recent result of Tell (STOC, 2018) for constant-depth LTF circuits of super-linear wire complexity.
- Pseudorandom generators. We show how the classical Nisan-Wigderson (NW) generator (JCSS, 1994) yields a nontrivial pseudorandom generator for PTF circuits (of unrestricted depth) with sub-linearly many gates. As a corollary, we get a PRG for degree-Delta PTFs with the seed length exp (sqrt{Delta * log n})* log^2(1/epsilon).

Valentine Kabanets and Zhenjian Lu. Satisfiability and Derandomization for Small Polynomial Threshold Circuits. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 116, pp. 46:1-46:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{kabanets_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.46, author = {Kabanets, Valentine and Lu, Zhenjian}, title = {{Satisfiability and Derandomization for Small Polynomial Threshold Circuits}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018)}, pages = {46:1--46:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-085-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {116}, editor = {Blais, Eric and Jansen, Klaus and D. P. Rolim, Jos\'{e} and Steurer, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.46}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-94507}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.46}, annote = {Keywords: constant-depth circuits, polynomial threshold functions, circuit analysis algorithms, SAT, derandomization, quantified derandomization, pseudorandom generators.} }