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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 284, 43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023)

A tournament is a complete directed graph. It is well known that every tournament contains at least one vertex v such that every other vertex is reachable from v by a path of length at most 2. All such vertices v are called kings of the underlying tournament. Despite active recent research in the area, the best-known upper and lower bounds on the deterministic query complexity (with query access to directions of edges) of finding a king in a tournament on n vertices are from over 20 years ago, and the bounds do not match: the best-known lower bound is Ω(n^{4/3}) and the best-known upper bound is O(n^{3/2}) [Shen, Sheng, Wu, SICOMP'03]. Our contribution is to show tight bounds (up to logarithmic factors) of Θ̃(n) and Θ̃(√n) in the randomized and quantum query models, respectively. We also study the randomized and quantum query complexities of finding a maximum out-degree vertex in a tournament.

Nikhil S. Mande, Manaswi Paraashar, and Nitin Saurabh. Randomized and Quantum Query Complexities of Finding a King in a Tournament. In 43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 284, pp. 30:1-30:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{mande_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.30, author = {Mande, Nikhil S. and Paraashar, Manaswi and Saurabh, Nitin}, title = {{Randomized and Quantum Query Complexities of Finding a King in a Tournament}}, booktitle = {43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023)}, pages = {30:1--30:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-304-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {284}, editor = {Bouyer, Patricia and Srinivasan, Srikanth}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.30}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194039}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.30}, annote = {Keywords: Query complexity, quantum computing, randomized query complexity, tournament solutions, search problems} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 284, 43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023)

We investigate the randomized and quantum communication complexities of the well-studied Equality function with small error probability ε, getting the optimal constant factors in the leading terms in various different models.
The following are our results in the randomized model:
- We give a general technique to convert public-coin protocols to private-coin protocols by incurring a small multiplicative error at a small additive cost. This is an improvement over Newman’s theorem [Inf. Proc. Let.'91] in the dependence on the error parameter.
- As a consequence we obtain a (log(n/ε²) + 4)-cost private-coin communication protocol that computes the n-bit Equality function, to error ε. This improves upon the log(n/ε³) + O(1) upper bound implied by Newman’s theorem, and matches the best known lower bound, which follows from Alon [Comb. Prob. Comput.'09], up to an additive log log(1/ε) + O(1). The following are our results in various quantum models:
- We exhibit a one-way protocol with log(n/ε) + 4 qubits of communication for the n-bit Equality function, to error ε, that uses only pure states. This bound was implicitly already shown by Nayak [PhD thesis'99].
- We give a near-matching lower bound: any ε-error one-way protocol for n-bit Equality that uses only pure states communicates at least log(n/ε) - log log(1/ε) - O(1) qubits.
- We exhibit a one-way protocol with log(√n/ε) + 3 qubits of communication that uses mixed states. This is tight up to additive log log(1/ε) + O(1), which follows from Alon’s result.
- We exhibit a one-way entanglement-assisted protocol achieving error probability ε with ⌈log(1/ε)⌉ + 1 classical bits of communication and ⌈log(√n/ε)⌉ + 4 shared EPR-pairs between Alice and Bob. This matches the communication cost of the classical public coin protocol achieving the same error probability while improving upon the amount of prior entanglement that is needed for this protocol, which is ⌈log(n/ε)⌉ + O(1) shared EPR-pairs. Our upper bounds also yield upper bounds on the approximate rank, approximate nonnegative-rank, and approximate psd-rank of the Identity matrix. As a consequence we also obtain improved upper bounds on these measures for a function that was recently used to refute the randomized and quantum versions of the log-rank conjecture (Chattopadhyay, Mande and Sherif [J. ACM'20], Sinha and de Wolf [FOCS'19], Anshu, Boddu and Touchette [FOCS'19]).

Olivier Lalonde, Nikhil S. Mande, and Ronald de Wolf. Tight Bounds for the Randomized and Quantum Communication Complexities of Equality with Small Error. In 43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 284, pp. 32:1-32:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{lalonde_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.32, author = {Lalonde, Olivier and Mande, Nikhil S. and de Wolf, Ronald}, title = {{Tight Bounds for the Randomized and Quantum Communication Complexities of Equality with Small Error}}, booktitle = {43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023)}, pages = {32:1--32:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-304-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {284}, editor = {Bouyer, Patricia and Srinivasan, Srikanth}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.32}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194055}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.32}, annote = {Keywords: Communication complexity, quantum communication complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

Phase estimation, due to Kitaev [arXiv'95], is one of the most fundamental subroutines in quantum computing, used in Shor’s factoring algorithm, optimization algorithms, quantum chemistry algorithms, and many others. In the basic scenario, one is given black-box access to a unitary U, and an eigenstate |ψ⟩ of U with unknown eigenvalue e^{iθ}, and the task is to estimate the eigenphase θ within ±δ, with high probability. The repeated application of U and U^{-1} is typically the most expensive part of phase estimation, so for us the cost of an algorithm will be that number of applications.
Motivated by the "guided Hamiltonian problem" in quantum chemistry, we tightly characterize the cost of several variants of phase estimation where we are no longer given an arbitrary eigenstate, but are required to estimate the maximum eigenphase of U, aided by advice in the form of states (or a unitary preparing those states) which are promised to have at least a certain overlap γ with the top eigenspace. We give algorithms and matching lower bounds (up to logarithmic factors) for all ranges of parameters. We show a crossover point below which advice is not helpful: o(1/γ²) copies of the advice state (or o(1/γ) applications of an advice-preparing unitary) are not significantly better than having no advice at all. We also show that having knowledge of the eigenbasis of U does not significantly reduce cost. Our upper bounds use the subroutine of generalized maximum-finding of van Apeldoorn, Gilyén, Gribling, and de Wolf [Quantum'20], the state-based Hamiltonian simulation of Lloyd, Mohseni, and Rebentrost [Nature Physics'13], and several other techniques. Our lower bounds follow by reductions from a fractional version of the Boolean OR function with advice, which we lower bound by a simple modification of the adversary method of Ambainis [JCSS'02]. As an immediate consequence we also obtain a lower bound on the complexity of the Unitary recurrence time problem, matching an upper bound of She and Yuen [ITCS'23] and resolving an open question posed by them.
Lastly, we study how efficiently one can reduce the error probability in the basic phase-estimation scenario. We show that an algorithm solving phase estimation to precision δ with error probability at most ε must have cost Ω(1/δ log(1/ε)), matching the obvious way to error-reduce the basic constant-error-probability phase estimation algorithm. This contrasts with some other scenarios in quantum computing (e.g. search) where error-reduction costs only a factor O(√{log(1/ε)}). Our lower bound technique uses a variant of the polynomial method with trigonometric polynomials.

Nikhil S. Mande and Ronald de Wolf. Tight Bounds for Quantum Phase Estimation and Related Problems. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 81:1-81:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{mande_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.81, author = {Mande, Nikhil S. and de Wolf, Ronald}, title = {{Tight Bounds for Quantum Phase Estimation and Related Problems}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {81:1--81:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.81}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187346}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.81}, annote = {Keywords: Phase estimation, quantum computing} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)

We show that the deterministic decision tree complexity of a (partial) function or relation f lifts to the deterministic parity decision tree (PDT) size complexity of the composed function/relation f∘g as long as the gadget g satisfies a property that we call stifling. We observe that several simple gadgets of constant size, like Indexing on 3 input bits, Inner Product on 4 input bits, Majority on 3 input bits and random functions, satisfy this property. It can be shown that existing randomized communication lifting theorems ([Göös, Pitassi, Watson. SICOMP'20], [Chattopadhyay et al. SICOMP'21]) imply PDT-size lifting. However there are two shortcomings of this approach: first they lift randomized decision tree complexity of f, which could be exponentially smaller than its deterministic counterpart when either f is a partial function or even a total search problem. Second, the size of the gadgets in such lifting theorems are as large as logarithmic in the size of the input to f. Reducing the gadget size to a constant is an important open problem at the frontier of current research.
Our result shows that even a random constant-size gadget does enable lifting to PDT size. Further, it also yields the first systematic way of turning lower bounds on the width of tree-like resolution proofs of the unsatisfiability of constant-width CNF formulas to lower bounds on the size of tree-like proofs in the resolution with parity system, i.e., Res(⊕), of the unsatisfiability of closely related constant-width CNF formulas.

Arkadev Chattopadhyay, Nikhil S. Mande, Swagato Sanyal, and Suhail Sherif. Lifting to Parity Decision Trees via Stifling. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 33:1-33:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{chattopadhyay_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.33, author = {Chattopadhyay, Arkadev and Mande, Nikhil S. and Sanyal, Swagato and Sherif, Suhail}, title = {{Lifting to Parity Decision Trees via Stifling}}, booktitle = {14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)}, pages = {33:1--33:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-263-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {251}, editor = {Tauman Kalai, Yael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.33}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175362}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.33}, annote = {Keywords: Decision trees, parity decision trees, lifting theorems} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 250, 42nd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2022)

We consider the following question in query complexity: Given a classical query algorithm in the form of a decision tree, when does there exist a quantum query algorithm with a speed-up (i.e., that makes fewer queries) over the classical one? We provide a general construction based on the structure of the underlying decision tree, and prove that this can give us an up-to-quadratic quantum speed-up in the number of queries. In particular, our results give a bounded-error quantum query algorithm of cost O(√s) to compute a Boolean function (more generally, a relation) that can be computed by a classical (even randomized) decision tree of size s. This recovers an O(√n) algorithm for the Search problem, for example.
Lin and Lin [Theory of Computing'16] and Beigi and Taghavi [Quantum'20] showed results of a similar flavor. Their upper bounds are in terms of a quantity which we call the "guessing complexity" of a decision tree. We identify that the guessing complexity of a decision tree equals its rank, a notion introduced by Ehrenfeucht and Haussler [Information and Computation'89] in the context of learning theory. This answers a question posed by Lin and Lin, who asked whether the guessing complexity of a decision tree is related to any measure studied in classical complexity theory. We also show a polynomial separation between rank and its natural randomized analog for the complete binary AND-OR tree.
Beigi and Taghavi constructed span programs and dual adversary solutions for Boolean functions given classical decision trees computing them and an assignment of non-negative weights to edges of the tree. We explore the effect of changing these weights on the resulting span program complexity and objective value of the dual adversary bound, and capture the best possible weighting scheme by an optimization program. We exhibit a solution to this program and argue its optimality from first principles. We also exhibit decision trees for which our bounds are strictly stronger than those of Lin and Lin, and Beigi and Taghavi. This answers a question of Beigi and Taghavi, who asked whether different weighting schemes in their construction could yield better upper bounds.

Arjan Cornelissen, Nikhil S. Mande, and Subhasree Patro. Improved Quantum Query Upper Bounds Based on Classical Decision Trees. In 42nd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 250, pp. 15:1-15:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{cornelissen_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2022.15, author = {Cornelissen, Arjan and Mande, Nikhil S. and Patro, Subhasree}, title = {{Improved Quantum Query Upper Bounds Based on Classical Decision Trees}}, booktitle = {42nd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2022)}, pages = {15:1--15:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-261-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {250}, editor = {Dawar, Anuj and Guruswami, Venkatesan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2022.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-174071}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2022.15}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum Query Complexity, Decision Trees, Decision Tree Rank} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 219, 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)

Buhrman, Cleve and Wigderson (STOC'98) showed that for every Boolean function f : {-1,1}ⁿ → {-1,1} and G ∈ {AND₂, XOR₂}, the bounded-error quantum communication complexity of the composed function f∘G equals O(𝖰(f) log n), where 𝖰(f) denotes the bounded-error quantum query complexity of f. This is achieved by Alice running the optimal quantum query algorithm for f, using a round of O(log n) qubits of communication to implement each query. This is in contrast with the classical setting, where it is easy to show that 𝖱^{cc}(f∘G) ≤ 2𝖱(f), where 𝖱^{cc} and 𝖱 denote bounded-error communication and query complexity, respectively. Chakraborty et al. (CCC'20) exhibited a total function for which the log n overhead in the BCW simulation is required. This established the somewhat surprising fact that quantum reductions are in some cases inherently more expensive than classical reductions. We improve upon their result in several ways.
- We show that the log n overhead is not required when f is symmetric (i.e., depends only on the Hamming weight of its input), generalizing a result of Aaronson and Ambainis for the Set-Disjointness function (Theory of Computing'05). Our upper bound assumes a shared entangled state, though for most symmetric functions the assumed number of entangled qubits is less than the communication and hence could be part of the communication.
- In order to prove the above, we design an efficient distributed version of noisy amplitude amplification that allows us to prove the result when f is the OR function. This also provides a different, and arguably simpler, proof of Aaronson and Ambainis’s O(√n) communication upper bound for Set-Disjointness.
- In view of our first result above, one may ask whether the log n overhead in the BCW simulation can be avoided even when f is transitive, which is a weaker notion of symmetry. We give a strong negative answer by showing that the log n overhead is still necessary for some transitive functions even when we allow the quantum communication protocol an error probability that can be arbitrarily close to 1/2 (this corresponds to the unbounded-error model of communication).
- We also give, among other things, a general recipe to construct functions for which the log n overhead is required in the BCW simulation in the bounded-error communication model, even if the parties are allowed to share an arbitrary prior entangled state for free.

Sourav Chakraborty, Arkadev Chattopadhyay, Peter Høyer, Nikhil S. Mande, Manaswi Paraashar, and Ronald de Wolf. Symmetry and Quantum Query-To-Communication Simulation. In 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 219, pp. 20:1-20:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2022.20, author = {Chakraborty, Sourav and Chattopadhyay, Arkadev and H{\o}yer, Peter and Mande, Nikhil S. and Paraashar, Manaswi and de Wolf, Ronald}, title = {{Symmetry and Quantum Query-To-Communication Simulation}}, booktitle = {39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)}, pages = {20:1--20:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-222-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {219}, editor = {Berenbrink, Petra and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.20}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-158309}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.20}, annote = {Keywords: Classical and quantum communication complexity, query-to-communication-simulation, quantum computing} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 219, 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)

We study the relationship between various one-way communication complexity measures of a composed function with the analogous decision tree complexity of the outer function. We consider two gadgets: the AND function on 2 inputs, and the Inner Product on a constant number of inputs. More generally, we show the following when the gadget is Inner Product on 2b input bits for all b ≥ 2, denoted IP.
- If f is a total Boolean function that depends on all of its n input bits, then the bounded-error one-way quantum communication complexity of f∘IP equals Ω(n(b-1)).
- If f is a partial Boolean function, then the deterministic one-way communication complexity of f∘IP is at least Ω(b ⋅ 𝖣_{dt}^ → (f)), where 𝖣_{dt}^ → (f) denotes non-adaptive decision tree complexity of f. To prove our quantum lower bound, we first show a lower bound on the VC-dimension of f∘IP. We then appeal to a result of Klauck [STOC'00], which immediately yields our quantum lower bound. Our deterministic lower bound relies on a combinatorial result independently proven by Ahlswede and Khachatrian [Adv. Appl. Math.'98], and Frankl and Tokushige [Comb.'99].
It is known due to a result of Montanaro and Osborne [arXiv'09] that the deterministic one-way communication complexity of f∘XOR equals the non-adaptive parity decision tree complexity of f. In contrast, we show the following when the inner gadget is the AND function on 2 input bits.
- There exists a function for which even the quantum non-adaptive AND decision tree complexity of f is exponentially large in the deterministic one-way communication complexity of f∘AND.
- However, for symmetric functions f, the non-adaptive AND decision tree complexity of f is at most quadratic in the (even two-way) communication complexity of f∘AND. In view of the first bullet, a lower bound on non-adaptive AND decision tree complexity of f does not lift to a lower bound on one-way communication complexity of f∘AND. The proof of the first bullet above uses the well-studied Odd-Max-Bit function. For the second bullet, we first observe a connection between the one-way communication complexity of f and the Möbius sparsity of f, and then give a lower bound on the Möbius sparsity of symmetric functions. An upper bound on the non-adaptive AND decision tree complexity of symmetric functions follows implicitly from prior work on combinatorial group testing; for the sake of completeness, we include a proof of this result.
It is well known that the rank of the communication matrix of a function F is an upper bound on its deterministic one-way communication complexity. This bound is known to be tight for some F. However, in our final result we show that this is not the case when F = f∘AND. More precisely we show that for all f, the deterministic one-way communication complexity of F = f∘AND is at most (rank(M_{F}))(1 - Ω(1)), where M_{F} denotes the communication matrix of F.

Nikhil S. Mande, Swagato Sanyal, and Suhail Sherif. One-Way Communication Complexity and Non-Adaptive Decision Trees. In 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 219, pp. 49:1-49:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{mande_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2022.49, author = {Mande, Nikhil S. and Sanyal, Swagato and Sherif, Suhail}, title = {{One-Way Communication Complexity and Non-Adaptive Decision Trees}}, booktitle = {39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)}, pages = {49:1--49:24}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-222-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {219}, editor = {Berenbrink, Petra and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.49}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-158598}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.49}, annote = {Keywords: Decision trees, communication complexity, composed Boolean functions} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 213, 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)

Chang’s lemma (Duke Mathematical Journal, 2002) is a classical result in mathematics, with applications spanning across additive combinatorics, combinatorial number theory, analysis of Boolean functions, communication complexity and algorithm design. For a Boolean function f that takes values in {-1, 1} let r(f) denote its Fourier rank (i.e., the dimension of the span of its Fourier support). For each positive threshold t, Chang’s lemma provides a lower bound on δ(f) := Pr[f(x) = -1] in terms of the dimension of the span of its characters with Fourier coefficients of magnitude at least 1/t. In this work we examine the tightness of Chang’s lemma with respect to the following three natural settings of the threshold:
- the Fourier sparsity of f, denoted k(f),
- the Fourier max-supp-entropy of f, denoted k'(f), defined to be the maximum value of the reciprocal of the absolute value of a non-zero Fourier coefficient,
- the Fourier max-rank-entropy of f, denoted k''(f), defined to be the minimum t such that characters whose coefficients are at least 1/t in magnitude span a r(f)-dimensional space. In this work we prove new lower bounds on δ(f) in terms of the above measures. One of our lower bounds, δ(f) = Ω(r(f)²/(k(f) log² k(f))), subsumes and refines the previously best known upper bound r(f) = O(√{k(f)}log k(f)) on r(f) in terms of k(f) by Sanyal (Theory of Computing, 2019). We improve upon this bound and show r(f) = O(√{k(f)δ(f)}log k(f)). Another lower bound, δ(f) = Ω(r(f)/(k''(f) log k(f))), is based on our improvement of a bound by Chattopadhyay, Hatami, Lovett and Tal (ITCS, 2019) on the sum of absolute values of level-1 Fourier coefficients in terms of 𝔽₂-degree. We further show that Chang’s lemma for the above-mentioned choices of the threshold is asymptotically outperformed by our bounds for most settings of the parameters involved.
Next, we show that our bounds are tight for a wide range of the parameters involved, by constructing functions witnessing their tightness. All the functions we construct are modifications of the Addressing function, where we replace certain input variables by suitable functions. Our final contribution is to construct Boolean functions f for which our lower bounds asymptotically match δ(f), and for any choice of the threshold t, the lower bound obtained from Chang’s lemma is asymptotically smaller than δ(f).
Our results imply more refined deterministic one-way communication complexity upper bounds for XOR functions. Given the wide-ranging application of Chang’s lemma to areas like additive combinatorics, learning theory and communication complexity, we strongly feel that our refinements of Chang’s lemma will find many more applications.

Sourav Chakraborty, Nikhil S. Mande, Rajat Mittal, Tulasimohan Molli, Manaswi Paraashar, and Swagato Sanyal. Tight Chang’s-Lemma-Type Bounds for Boolean Functions. In 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 213, pp. 10:1-10:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.10, author = {Chakraborty, Sourav and Mande, Nikhil S. and Mittal, Rajat and Molli, Tulasimohan and Paraashar, Manaswi and Sanyal, Swagato}, title = {{Tight Chang’s-Lemma-Type Bounds for Boolean Functions}}, booktitle = {41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)}, pages = {10:1--10:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-215-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {213}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Chekuri, Chandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-155215}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.10}, annote = {Keywords: Analysis of Boolean functions, Chang’s lemma, Parity decision trees, Fourier dimension} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 182, 40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020)

We study parity decision trees for Boolean functions. The motivation of our study is the log-rank conjecture for XOR functions and its connection to Fourier analysis and parity decision tree complexity. Our contributions are as follows. Let f : 𝔽₂ⁿ → {-1, 1} be a Boolean function with Fourier support 𝒮 and Fourier sparsity k.
- We prove via the probabilistic method that there exists a parity decision tree of depth O(√k) that computes f. This matches the best known upper bound on the parity decision tree complexity of Boolean functions (Tsang, Wong, Xie, and Zhang, FOCS 2013). Moreover, while previous constructions (Tsang et al., FOCS 2013, Shpilka, Tal, and Volk, Comput. Complex. 2017) build the trees by carefully choosing the parities to be queried in each step, our proof shows that a naive sampling of the parities suffices.
- We generalize the above result by showing that if the Fourier spectra of Boolean functions satisfy a natural "folding property", then the above proof can be adapted to establish existence of a tree of complexity polynomially smaller than O(√ k). More concretely, the folding property we consider is that for most distinct γ, δ in 𝒮, there are at least a polynomial (in k) number of pairs (α, β) of parities in 𝒮 such that α+β = γ+δ. We make a conjecture in this regard which, if true, implies that the communication complexity of an XOR function is bounded above by the fourth root of the rank of its communication matrix, improving upon the previously known upper bound of square root of rank (Tsang et al., FOCS 2013, Lovett, J. ACM. 2016).
- Motivated by the above, we present some structural results about the Fourier spectra of Boolean functions. It can be shown by elementary techniques that for any Boolean function f and all (α, β) in binom(𝒮,2), there exists another pair (γ, δ) in binom(𝒮,2) such that α + β = γ + δ. One can view this as a "trivial" folding property that all Boolean functions satisfy. Prior to our work, it was conceivable that for all (α, β) ∈ binom(𝒮,2), there exists exactly one other pair (γ, δ) ∈ binom(𝒮,2) with α + β = γ + δ. We show, among other results, that there must exist several γ ∈ 𝔽₂ⁿ such that there are at least three pairs of parities (α₁, α₂) ∈ binom(𝒮,2) with α₁+α₂ = γ. This, in particular, rules out the possibility stated earlier.

Nikhil S. Mande and Swagato Sanyal. On Parity Decision Trees for Fourier-Sparse Boolean Functions. In 40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 182, pp. 29:1-29:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{mande_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.29, author = {Mande, Nikhil S. and Sanyal, Swagato}, title = {{On Parity Decision Trees for Fourier-Sparse Boolean Functions}}, booktitle = {40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020)}, pages = {29:1--29:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-174-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {182}, editor = {Saxena, Nitin and Simon, Sunil}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.29}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-132703}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.29}, annote = {Keywords: Parity decision trees, log-rank conjecture, analysis of Boolean functions, communication complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 169, 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)

Buhrman, Cleve and Wigderson (STOC'98) observed that for every Boolean function f:{-1,1}ⁿ → {-1,1} and •:{-1,1}² → {-1,1} the two-party bounded-error quantum communication complexity of (f ∘ •) is O(Q(f) log n), where Q(f) is the bounded-error quantum query complexity of f. Note that the bounded-error randomized communication complexity of (f ∘ •) is bounded by O(R(f)), where R(f) denotes the bounded-error randomized query complexity of f. Thus, the BCW simulation has an extra O(log n) factor appearing that is absent in classical simulation. A natural question is if this factor can be avoided. Razborov (IZV MATH'03) showed that the bounded-error quantum communication complexity of Set-Disjointness is Ω(√n). The BCW simulation yields an upper bound of O(√n log n). Høyer and de Wolf (STACS'02) showed that this can be reduced to c^(log^* n) for some constant c, and subsequently Aaronson and Ambainis (FOCS'03) showed that this factor can be made a constant. That is, the quantum communication complexity of the Set-Disjointness function (which is NOR_n ∘ ∧) is O(Q(NOR_n)).
Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, we show that when • = ⊕, then the extra log n factor in the BCW simulation is unavoidable. In other words, we exhibit a total function F:{-1,1}ⁿ → {-1,1} such that Q^{cc}(F ∘ ⊕) = Θ(Q(F) log n).
To the best of our knowledge, it was not even known prior to this work whether there existed a total function F and 2-bit function •, such that Q^{cc}(F ∘ •) = ω(Q(F)).

Sourav Chakraborty, Arkadev Chattopadhyay, Nikhil S. Mande, and Manaswi Paraashar. Quantum Query-To-Communication Simulation Needs a Logarithmic Overhead. In 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 169, pp. 32:1-32:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2020.32, author = {Chakraborty, Sourav and Chattopadhyay, Arkadev and Mande, Nikhil S. and Paraashar, Manaswi}, title = {{Quantum Query-To-Communication Simulation Needs a Logarithmic Overhead}}, booktitle = {35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)}, pages = {32:1--32:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-156-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {169}, editor = {Saraf, Shubhangi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.32}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125842}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.32}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum query complexity, quantum communication complexity, approximate degree, approximate spectral norm} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 158, 15th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2020)

An open problem that is widely regarded as one of the most important in quantum query complexity is to resolve the quantum query complexity of the k-distinctness function on inputs of size N. While the case of k=2 (also called Element Distinctness) is well-understood, there is a polynomial gap between the known upper and lower bounds for all constants k>2. Specifically, the best known upper bound is O (N^{(3/4)-1/(2^{k+2}-4)}) (Belovs, FOCS 2012), while the best known lower bound for k≥ 2 is Ω̃(N^{2/3} + N^{(3/4)-1/(2k)}) (Aaronson and Shi, J. ACM 2004; Bun, Kothari, and Thaler, STOC 2018).
For any constant k ≥ 4, we improve the lower bound to Ω̃(N^{(3/4)-1/(4k)}). This yields, for example, the first proof that 4-distinctness is strictly harder than Element Distinctness. Our lower bound applies more generally to approximate degree.
As a secondary result, we give a simple construction of an approximating polynomial of degree Õ(N^{3/4}) that applies whenever k ≤ polylog(N).

Nikhil S. Mande, Justin Thaler, and Shuchen Zhu. Improved Approximate Degree Bounds for k-Distinctness. In 15th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 158, pp. 2:1-2:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{mande_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2020.2, author = {Mande, Nikhil S. and Thaler, Justin and Zhu, Shuchen}, title = {{Improved Approximate Degree Bounds for k-Distinctness}}, booktitle = {15th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2020)}, pages = {2:1--2:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-146-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {158}, editor = {Flammia, Steven T.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2020.2}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-120613}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2020.2}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum Query Complexity, Approximate Degree, Dual Polynomials, k-distinctness} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 145, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)

The epsilon-approximate degree deg~_epsilon(f) of a Boolean function f is the least degree of a real-valued polynomial that approximates f pointwise to within epsilon. A sound and complete certificate for approximate degree being at least k is a pair of probability distributions, also known as a dual polynomial, that are perfectly k-wise indistinguishable, but are distinguishable by f with advantage 1 - epsilon. Our contributions are:
- We give a simple, explicit new construction of a dual polynomial for the AND function on n bits, certifying that its epsilon-approximate degree is Omega (sqrt{n log 1/epsilon}). This construction is the first to extend to the notion of weighted degree, and yields the first explicit certificate that the 1/3-approximate degree of any (possibly unbalanced) read-once DNF is Omega(sqrt{n}). It draws a novel connection between the approximate degree of AND and anti-concentration of the Binomial distribution.
- We show that any pair of symmetric distributions on n-bit strings that are perfectly k-wise indistinguishable are also statistically K-wise indistinguishable with at most K^{3/2} * exp (-Omega (k^2/K)) error for all k < K <= n/64. This bound is essentially tight, and implies that any symmetric function f is a reconstruction function with constant advantage for a ramp secret sharing scheme that is secure against size-K coalitions with statistical error K^{3/2} * exp (-Omega (deg~_{1/3}(f)^2/K)) for all values of K up to n/64 simultaneously. Previous secret sharing schemes required that K be determined in advance, and only worked for f=AND. Our analysis draws another new connection between approximate degree and concentration phenomena.
As a corollary of this result, we show that for any d <= n/64, any degree d polynomial approximating a symmetric function f to error 1/3 must have coefficients of l_1-norm at least K^{-3/2} * exp ({Omega (deg~_{1/3}(f)^2/d)}). We also show this bound is essentially tight for any d > deg~_{1/3}(f). These upper and lower bounds were also previously only known in the case f=AND.

Andrej Bogdanov, Nikhil S. Mande, Justin Thaler, and Christopher Williamson. Approximate Degree, Secret Sharing, and Concentration Phenomena. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 145, pp. 71:1-71:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{bogdanov_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.71, author = {Bogdanov, Andrej and Mande, Nikhil S. and Thaler, Justin and Williamson, Christopher}, title = {{Approximate Degree, Secret Sharing, and Concentration Phenomena}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)}, pages = {71:1--71:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-125-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {145}, editor = {Achlioptas, Dimitris and V\'{e}gh, L\'{a}szl\'{o} A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.71}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112869}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.71}, annote = {Keywords: approximate degree, dual polynomial, pseudorandomness, polynomial approximation, secret sharing} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

The communication class UPP^{cc} is a communication analog of the Turing Machine complexity class PP. It is characterized by a matrix-analytic complexity measure called sign-rank (also called dimension complexity), and is essentially the most powerful communication class against which we know how to prove lower bounds.
For a communication problem f, let f wedge f denote the function that evaluates f on two disjoint inputs and outputs the AND of the results. We exhibit a communication problem f with UPP^{cc}(f)= O(log n), and UPP^{cc}(f wedge f) = Theta(log^2 n). This is the first result showing that UPP communication complexity can increase by more than a constant factor under intersection. We view this as a first step toward showing that UPP^{cc}, the class of problems with polylogarithmic-cost UPP communication protocols, is not closed under intersection.
Our result shows that the function class consisting of intersections of two majorities on n bits has dimension complexity n^{Omega(log n)}. This matches an upper bound of (Klivans, O'Donnell, and Servedio, FOCS 2002), who used it to give a quasipolynomial time algorithm for PAC learning intersections of polylogarithmically many majorities. Hence, fundamentally new techniques will be needed to learn this class of functions in polynomial time.

Mark Bun, Nikhil S. Mande, and Justin Thaler. Sign-Rank Can Increase Under Intersection. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 30:1-30:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{bun_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.30, author = {Bun, Mark and Mande, Nikhil S. and Thaler, Justin}, title = {{Sign-Rank Can Increase Under Intersection}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {30:1--30:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.30}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106067}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.30}, annote = {Keywords: Sign rank, dimension complexity, communication complexity, learning theory} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 93, 37th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2017)

We use a technique of “lifting” functions introduced by Krause and Pudlak [Theor. Comput. Sci., 1997], to amplify
degree-hardness measures of a function to corresponding monomial-hardness properties of the
lifted function. We then show that any symmetric function F projects onto a “lift” of another
suitable symmetric function f . These two key results enable us to prove several results on the
complexity of symmetric functions in various models, as given below:
1. We provide a characterization of the approximate spectral norm of symmetric functions in
terms of the spectrum of the underlying predicate, affirming a conjecture of Ada et al. [APPROX-RANDOM, 2012]
which has several consequences.
2. We characterize symmetric functions computable by quasi-polynomial sized Threshold
of Parity circuits.
3. We show that the approximate spectral norm of a symmetric function f characterizes the
(quantum and classical) bounded error communication complexity of f o XOR.
4. Finally, we characterize the weakly-unbounded error communication complexity of symmetric
XOR functions, resolving a weak form of a conjecture by Shi and Zhang [Quantum Information & Computation, 2009]

Arkadev Chattopadhyay and Nikhil S. Mande. A Lifting Theorem with Applications to Symmetric Functions. In 37th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 93, pp. 23:1-23:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{chattopadhyay_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2017.23, author = {Chattopadhyay, Arkadev and Mande, Nikhil S.}, title = {{A Lifting Theorem with Applications to Symmetric Functions}}, booktitle = {37th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2017)}, pages = {23:1--23:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-055-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {93}, editor = {Lokam, Satya and Ramanujam, R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2017.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-83839}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2017.23}, annote = {Keywords: Symmetric functions, lifting, circuit complexity, communication com- plexity} }