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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)

Given a local Hamiltonian, how difficult is it to determine the entanglement structure of its ground state? We show that this problem is computationally intractable even if one is only trying to decide if the ground state is volume-law vs near area-law entangled. We prove this by constructing strong forms of pseudoentanglement in a public-key setting, where the circuits used to prepare the states are public knowledge. In particular, we construct two families of quantum circuits which produce volume-law vs near area-law entangled states, but nonetheless the classical descriptions of the circuits are indistinguishable under the Learning with Errors (LWE) assumption. Indistinguishability of the circuits then allows us to translate our construction to Hamiltonians. Our work opens new directions in Hamiltonian complexity, for example whether it is difficult to learn certain phases of matter.

Adam Bouland, Bill Fefferman, Soumik Ghosh, Tony Metger, Umesh Vazirani, Chenyi Zhang, and Zixin Zhou. Public-Key Pseudoentanglement and the Hardness of Learning Ground State Entanglement Structure. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 21:1-21:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{bouland_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.21, author = {Bouland, Adam and Fefferman, Bill and Ghosh, Soumik and Metger, Tony and Vazirani, Umesh and Zhang, Chenyi and Zhou, Zixin}, title = {{Public-Key Pseudoentanglement and the Hardness of Learning Ground State Entanglement Structure}}, booktitle = {39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)}, pages = {21:1--21:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-331-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {300}, editor = {Santhanam, Rahul}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.21}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204175}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.21}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum computing, Quantum complexity theory, entanglement} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

Quantum mechanical effects have enabled the construction of cryptographic primitives that are impossible classically. For example, quantum copy-protection allows for a program to be encoded in a quantum state in such a way that the program can be evaluated, but not copied. Many of these cryptographic primitives are two-party protocols, where one party, Bob, has full quantum computational capabilities, and the other party, Alice, is only required to send random BB84 states to Bob. In this work, we show how such protocols can generically be converted to ones where Alice is fully classical, assuming that Bob cannot efficiently solve the LWE problem. In particular, this means that all communication between (classical) Alice and (quantum) Bob is classical, yet they can still make use of cryptographic primitives that would be impossible if both parties were classical. We apply this conversion procedure to obtain quantum cryptographic protocols with classical communication for unclonable encryption, copy-protection, computing on encrypted data, and verifiable blind delegated computation.
The key technical ingredient for our result is a protocol for classically-instructed parallel remote state preparation of BB84 states. This is a multi-round protocol between (classical) Alice and (quantum polynomial-time) Bob that allows Alice to certify that Bob must have prepared n uniformly random BB84 states (up to a change of basis on his space). While previous approaches could only certify one- or two-qubit states, our protocol allows for the certification of an n-fold tensor product of BB84 states. Furthermore, Alice knows which specific BB84 states Bob has prepared, while Bob himself does not. Hence, the situation at the end of this protocol is (almost) equivalent to one where Alice sent n random BB84 states to Bob. This allows us to replace the step of preparing and sending BB84 states in existing protocols by our remote-state preparation protocol in a generic and modular way.

Alexandru Gheorghiu, Tony Metger, and Alexander Poremba. Quantum Cryptography with Classical Communication: Parallel Remote State Preparation for Copy-Protection, Verification, and More. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 67:1-67:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{gheorghiu_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.67, author = {Gheorghiu, Alexandru and Metger, Tony and Poremba, Alexander}, title = {{Quantum Cryptography with Classical Communication: Parallel Remote State Preparation for Copy-Protection, Verification, and More}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {67:1--67:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.67}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181197}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.67}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum cryptography, Remote state preparation, Self-testing, Learning with errors, Quantum copy-protection, Unclonable encryption, Quantum verification} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)

We prove concentration bounds for the following classes of quantum states: (i) output states of shallow quantum circuits, answering an open question from [De Palma et al., 2022]; (ii) injective matrix product states; (iii) output states of dense Hamiltonian evolution, i.e. states of the form e^{ιH^{(p)}} ⋯ e^{ιH^{(1)}} |ψ₀⟩ for any n-qubit product state |ψ₀⟩, where each H^{(i)} can be any local commuting Hamiltonian satisfying a norm constraint, including dense Hamiltonians with interactions between any qubits. Our proofs use polynomial approximations to show that these states are close to local operators. This implies that the distribution of the Hamming weight of a computational basis measurement (and of other related observables) concentrates. An example of (iii) are the states produced by the quantum approximate optimisation algorithm (QAOA). Using our concentration results for these states, we show that for a random spin model, the QAOA can only succeed with negligible probability even at super-constant level p = o(log log n), assuming a strengthened version of the so-called overlap gap property. This gives the first limitations on the QAOA on dense instances at super-constant level, improving upon the recent result [Basso et al., 2022].

Anurag Anshu and Tony Metger. Concentration Bounds for Quantum States and Limitations on the QAOA from Polynomial Approximations. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 5:1-5:8, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{anshu_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.5, author = {Anshu, Anurag and Metger, Tony}, title = {{Concentration Bounds for Quantum States and Limitations on the QAOA from Polynomial Approximations}}, booktitle = {14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)}, pages = {5:1--5:8}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-263-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {251}, editor = {Tauman Kalai, Yael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175085}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.5}, annote = {Keywords: quantum computing, polynomial approximation, quantum optimization algorithm, QAOA, overlap gap property} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)

Self-testing is a method to characterise an arbitrary quantum system based only on its classical input-output correlations, and plays an important role in device-independent quantum information processing as well as quantum complexity theory. Prior works on self-testing require the assumption that the system’s state is shared among multiple parties that only perform local measurements and cannot communicate. Here, we replace the setting of multiple non-communicating parties, which is difficult to enforce in practice, by a single computationally bounded party. Specifically, we construct a protocol that allows a classical verifier to robustly certify that a single computationally bounded quantum device must have prepared a Bell pair and performed single-qubit measurements on it, up to a change of basis applied to both the device’s state and measurements. This means that under computational assumptions, the verifier is able to certify the presence of entanglement, a property usually closely associated with two separated subsystems, inside a single quantum device. To achieve this, we build on techniques first introduced by Brakerski et al. (2018) and Mahadev (2018) which allow a classical verifier to constrain the actions of a quantum device assuming the device does not break post-quantum cryptography.

Tony Metger and Thomas Vidick. Self-Testing of a Single Quantum Device Under Computational Assumptions. In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 19:1-19:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{metger_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.19, author = {Metger, Tony and Vidick, Thomas}, title = {{Self-Testing of a Single Quantum Device Under Computational Assumptions}}, booktitle = {12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)}, pages = {19:1--19:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-177-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {185}, editor = {Lee, James R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.19}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135581}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.19}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum computing, quantum cryptography, device-independence, self-testing, post-quantum cryptography} }

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