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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

We give the first almost-linear time algorithm for computing the maximal k-edge-connected subgraphs of an undirected unweighted graph for any constant k. More specifically, given an n-vertex m-edge graph G = (V,E) and a number k = log^o(1) n, we can deterministically compute in O(m+n^{1+o(1)}) time the unique vertex partition {V_1,… ,V_z} such that, for every i, V_i induces a k-edge-connected subgraph while every superset V'_i ⊃ V_{i} does not. Previous algorithms with linear time work only when k ≤ 2 [Tarjan SICOMP'72], otherwise they all require Ω(m+n√n) time even when k = 3 [Chechik et al. SODA'17; Forster et al. SODA'20].
Our algorithm also extends to the decremental graph setting; we can deterministically maintain the maximal k-edge-connected subgraphs of a graph undergoing edge deletions in m^{1+o(1)} total update time. Our key idea is a reduction to the dynamic algorithm supporting pairwise k-edge-connectivity queries [Jin and Sun FOCS'20].

Thatchaphol Saranurak and Wuwei Yuan. Maximal k-Edge-Connected Subgraphs in Almost-Linear Time for Small k. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 92:1-92:9, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{saranurak_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.92, author = {Saranurak, Thatchaphol and Yuan, Wuwei}, title = {{Maximal k-Edge-Connected Subgraphs in Almost-Linear Time for Small k}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {92:1--92:9}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.92}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187451}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.92}, annote = {Keywords: Graph algorithms, Maximal k-edge-connected subgraphs, Dynamic k-edge connectivity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 244, 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)

Designing dynamic algorithms against an adaptive adversary whose performance match the ones assuming an oblivious adversary is a major research program in the field of dynamic graph algorithms. One of the prominent examples whose oblivious-vs-adaptive gap remains maximally large is the fully dynamic spanner problem; there exist algorithms assuming an oblivious adversary with near-optimal size-stretch trade-off using only polylog(n) update time [Baswana, Khurana, and Sarkar TALG'12; Forster and Goranci STOC'19; Bernstein, Forster, and Henzinger SODA'20], while against an adaptive adversary, even when we allow infinite time and only count recourse (i.e. the number of edge changes per update in the maintained spanner), all previous algorithms with stretch at most log⁵(n) require at least Ω(n) amortized recourse [Ausiello, Franciosa, and Italiano ESA'05].
In this paper, we completely close this gap with respect to recourse by showing algorithms against an adaptive adversary with near-optimal size-stretch trade-off and recourse. More precisely, for any k ≥ 1, our algorithm maintains a (2k-1)-spanner of size O(n^{1+1/k}log n) with O(log n) amortized recourse, which is optimal in all parameters up to a O(log n) factor. As a step toward algorithms with small update time (not just recourse), we show another algorithm that maintains a 3-spanner of size Õ(n^{1.5}) with polylog(n) amortized recourse and simultaneously Õ(√n) worst-case update time.

Sayan Bhattacharya, Thatchaphol Saranurak, and Pattara Sukprasert. Simple Dynamic Spanners with Near-Optimal Recourse Against an Adaptive Adversary. In 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 244, pp. 17:1-17:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{bhattacharya_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2022.17, author = {Bhattacharya, Sayan and Saranurak, Thatchaphol and Sukprasert, Pattara}, title = {{Simple Dynamic Spanners with Near-Optimal Recourse Against an Adaptive Adversary}}, booktitle = {30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)}, pages = {17:1--17:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-247-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {244}, editor = {Chechik, Shiri and Navarro, Gonzalo and Rotenberg, Eva and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.17}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-169555}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.17}, annote = {Keywords: Algorithms, Dynamic Algorithms, Spanners, Recourse} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 244, 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)

Recently, Chalermsook et al. {[}SODA'21{]} introduces a notion of vertex sparsifiers for c-edge connectivity, which has found applications in parameterized algorithms for network design and also led to exciting dynamic algorithms for c-edge st-connectivity {[}Jin and Sun FOCS'22{]}.
We study a natural extension called vertex sparsifiers for c-hyperedge connectivity and construct a sparsifier whose size matches the state-of-the-art for normal graphs. More specifically, we show that, given a hypergraph G = (V,E) with n vertices and m hyperedges with k terminal vertices and a parameter c, there exists a hypergraph H containing only O(kc³) hyperedges that preserves all minimum cuts (up to value c) between all subset of terminals. This matches the best bound of O(kc³) edges for normal graphs by [Liu'20]. Moreover, H can be constructed in almost-linear O(p^{1+o(1)} + n(rclog n)^{O(rc)}log m) time where r = max_{e ∈ E}|e| is the rank of G and p = ∑_{e ∈ E}|e| is the total size of G, or in poly(m, n) time if we slightly relax the size to O(kc³log^{1.5}(kc)) hyperedges.

Han Jiang, Shang-En Huang, Thatchaphol Saranurak, and Tian Zhang. Vertex Sparsifiers for Hyperedge Connectivity. In 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 244, pp. 70:1-70:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{jiang_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2022.70, author = {Jiang, Han and Huang, Shang-En and Saranurak, Thatchaphol and Zhang, Tian}, title = {{Vertex Sparsifiers for Hyperedge Connectivity}}, booktitle = {30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)}, pages = {70:1--70:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-247-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {244}, editor = {Chechik, Shiri and Navarro, Gonzalo and Rotenberg, Eva and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.70}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-170081}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.70}, annote = {Keywords: Vertex sparsifier, hypergraph, connectivity} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)

Designing efficient dynamic graph algorithms against an adaptive adversary is a major goal in the field of dynamic graph algorithms and has witnessed many exciting recent developments in, e.g., dynamic matching (Wajc STOC'20) and decremental shortest paths (Chuzhoy and Khanna STOC'19). Compared to other graph primitives (e.g. spanning trees and matchings), designing such algorithms for graph spanners and (more broadly) graph sparsifiers poses a unique challenge since there is no fast deterministic algorithm known for static computation and the lack of a way to adjust the output slowly (known as "small recourse/replacements").
This paper presents the first non-trivial efficient adaptive algorithms for maintaining many sparsifiers against an adaptive adversary. Specifically, we present algorithms that maintain
1) a polylog(n)-spanner of size Õ(n) in polylog(n) amortized update time,
2) an O(k)-approximate cut sparsifier of size Õ(n) in Õ(n^{1/k}) amortized update time, and
3) a polylog(n)-approximate spectral sparsifier in polylog(n) amortized update time. Our bounds are the first non-trivial ones even when only the recourse is concerned. Our results hold even against a stronger adversary, who can access the random bits previously used by the algorithms and the amortized update time of all algorithms can be made worst-case by paying sub-polynomial factors. Our spanner result resolves an open question by Ahmed et al. (2019) and our results and techniques imply additional improvements over existing results, including (i) answering open questions about decremental single-source shortest paths by Chuzhoy and Khanna (STOC'19) and Gutenberg and Wulff-Nilsen (SODA'20), implying a nearly-quadratic time algorithm for approximating minimum-cost unit-capacity flow and (ii) de-amortizing a result of Abraham et al. (FOCS'16) for dynamic spectral sparsifiers.
Our results are based on two novel techniques. The first technique is a generic black-box reduction that allows us to assume that the graph is initially an expander with almost uniform-degree and, more importantly, stays as an almost uniform-degree expander while undergoing only edge deletions. The second technique is called proactive resampling: here we constantly re-sample parts of the input graph so that, independent of an adversary’s computational power, a desired structure of the underlying graph can be always maintained. Despite its simplicity, the analysis of this sampling scheme is far from trivial, because the adversary can potentially create dependencies between the random choices used by the algorithm. We believe these two techniques could be useful for developing other adaptive algorithms.

Aaron Bernstein, Jan van den Brand, Maximilian Probst Gutenberg, Danupon Nanongkai, Thatchaphol Saranurak, Aaron Sidford, and He Sun. Fully-Dynamic Graph Sparsifiers Against an Adaptive Adversary. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 20:1-20:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{bernstein_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.20, author = {Bernstein, Aaron and van den Brand, Jan and Probst Gutenberg, Maximilian and Nanongkai, Danupon and Saranurak, Thatchaphol and Sidford, Aaron and Sun, He}, title = {{Fully-Dynamic Graph Sparsifiers Against an Adaptive Adversary}}, booktitle = {49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)}, pages = {20:1--20:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-235-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {229}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.20}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163611}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.20}, annote = {Keywords: dynamic graph algorithm, adaptive adversary, spanner, sparsifier} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)

In the k-edge-connected spanning subgraph (kECSS) problem, our goal is to compute a minimum-cost sub-network that is resilient against up to k link failures: Given an n-node m-edge graph with a cost function on the edges, our goal is to compute a minimum-cost k-edge-connected spanning subgraph. This NP-hard problem generalizes the minimum spanning tree problem and is the "uniform case" of a much broader class of survival network design problems (SNDP). A factor of two has remained the best approximation ratio for polynomial-time algorithms for the whole class of SNDP, even for a special case of 2ECSS. The fastest 2-approximation algorithm is however rather slow, taking O(mn k) time [Khuller, Vishkin, STOC'92]. A faster time complexity of O(n²) can be obtained, but with a higher approximation guarantee of (2k-1) [Gabow, Goemans, Williamson, IPCO'93].
Our main contribution is an algorithm that (1+ε)-approximates the optimal fractional solution in Õ(m/ε²) time (independent of k), which can be turned into a (2+ε) approximation algorithm that runs in time Õ(m/(ε²) + {k²n^{1.5}}/ε²) for (integral) kECSS; this improves the running time of the aforementioned results while keeping the approximation ratio arbitrarily close to a factor of two.

Parinya Chalermsook, Chien-Chung Huang, Danupon Nanongkai, Thatchaphol Saranurak, Pattara Sukprasert, and Sorrachai Yingchareonthawornchai. Approximating k-Edge-Connected Spanning Subgraphs via a Near-Linear Time LP Solver. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 37:1-37:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{chalermsook_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.37, author = {Chalermsook, Parinya and Huang, Chien-Chung and Nanongkai, Danupon and Saranurak, Thatchaphol and Sukprasert, Pattara and Yingchareonthawornchai, Sorrachai}, title = {{Approximating k-Edge-Connected Spanning Subgraphs via a Near-Linear Time LP Solver}}, booktitle = {49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)}, pages = {37:1--37:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-235-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {229}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.37}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163785}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.37}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Data Structures} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)

The dynamic optimality conjecture, postulating the existence of an O(1)-competitive online algorithm for binary search trees (BSTs), is among the most fundamental open problems in dynamic data structures. Despite extensive work and some notable progress, including, for example, the Tango Trees (Demaine et al., FOCS 2004), that give the best currently known O(log log n)-competitive algorithm, the conjecture remains widely open. One of the main hurdles towards settling the conjecture is that we currently do not have approximation algorithms achieving better than an O(log log n)-approximation, even in the offline setting. All known non-trivial algorithms for BST’s so far rely on comparing the algorithm’s cost with the so-called Wilber’s first bound (WB-1). Therefore, establishing the worst-case relationship between this bound and the optimal solution cost appears crucial for further progress, and it is an interesting open question in its own right.
Our contribution is two-fold. First, we show that the gap between the WB-1 bound and the optimal solution value can be as large as Ω(log log n/ log log log n); in fact, we show that the gap holds even for several stronger variants of the bound. Second, we provide a simple algorithm, that, given an integer D > 0, obtains an O(D)-approximation in time exp (O (n^{1/2^{Ω(D)}}log n)). In particular, this yields a constant-factor approximation algorithm with sub-exponential running time. Moreover, we obtain a simpler and cleaner efficient O(log log n)-approximation algorithm that can be used in an online setting. Finally, we suggest a new bound, that we call the Guillotine Bound, that is stronger than WB-1, while maintaining its algorithm-friendly nature, that we hope will lead to better algorithms. All our results use the geometric interpretation of the problem, leading to cleaner and simpler analysis.

Parinya Chalermsook, Julia Chuzhoy, and Thatchaphol Saranurak. Pinning down the Strong Wilber 1 Bound for Binary Search Trees. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 33:1-33:21, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{chalermsook_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.33, author = {Chalermsook, Parinya and Chuzhoy, Julia and Saranurak, Thatchaphol}, title = {{Pinning down the Strong Wilber 1 Bound for Binary Search Trees}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)}, pages = {33:1--33:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-164-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {176}, editor = {Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.33}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126368}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.33}, annote = {Keywords: Binary search trees, Dynamic optimality, Wilber bounds} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 123, 29th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2018)

We study multi-finger binary search trees (BSTs), a far-reaching extension of the classical BST model, with connections to the well-studied k-server problem. Finger search is a popular technique for speeding up BST operations when a query sequence has locality of reference. BSTs with multiple fingers can exploit more general regularities in the input. In this paper we consider the cost of serving a sequence of queries in an optimal (offline) BST with k fingers, a powerful benchmark against which other algorithms can be measured.
We show that the k-finger optimum can be matched by a standard dynamic BST (having a single root-finger) with an O(log{k}) factor overhead. This result is tight for all k, improving the O(k) factor implicit in earlier work. Furthermore, we describe new online BSTs that match this bound up to a (log{k})^{O(1)} factor. Previously only the "one-finger" special case was known to hold for an online BST (Iacono, Langerman, 2016; Cole et al., 2000). Splay trees, assuming their conjectured optimality (Sleator and Tarjan, 1983), would have to match our bounds for all k.
Our online algorithms are randomized and combine techniques developed for the k-server problem with a multiplicative-weights scheme for learning tree metrics. To our knowledge, this is the first time when tools developed for the k-server problem are used in BSTs. As an application of our k-finger results, we show that BSTs can efficiently serve queries that are close to some recently accessed item. This is a (restricted) form of the unified property (Iacono, 2001) that was previously not known to hold for any BST algorithm, online or offline.

Parinya Chalermsook, Mayank Goswami, László Kozma, Kurt Mehlhorn, and Thatchaphol Saranurak. Multi-Finger Binary Search Trees. In 29th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 123, pp. 55:1-55:26, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{chalermsook_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2018.55, author = {Chalermsook, Parinya and Goswami, Mayank and Kozma, L\'{a}szl\'{o} and Mehlhorn, Kurt and Saranurak, Thatchaphol}, title = {{Multi-Finger Binary Search Trees}}, booktitle = {29th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2018)}, pages = {55:1--55:26}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-094-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {123}, editor = {Hsu, Wen-Lian and Lee, Der-Tsai and Liao, Chung-Shou}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2018.55}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-100032}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2018.55}, annote = {Keywords: binary search trees, dynamic optimality, finger search, k-server} }

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