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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 293, 40th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2024)

Map matching is a common task when analysing GPS tracks, such as vehicle trajectories. The goal is to match a recorded noisy polygonal curve to a path on the map, usually represented as a geometric graph. The Fréchet distance is a commonly used metric for curves, making it a natural fit. The map-matching problem is well-studied, yet until recently no-one tackled the data structure question: preprocess a given graph so that one can query the minimum Fréchet distance between all graph paths and a polygonal curve. Recently, Gudmundsson, Seybold, and Wong [Gudmundsson et al., 2023] studied this problem for arbitrary query polygonal curves and c-packed graphs. In this paper, we instead require the graphs to be λ-low-density t-spanners, which is significantly more representative of real-world networks. We also show how to report a path that minimises the distance efficiently rather than only returning the minimal distance, which was stated as an open problem in their paper.

Kevin Buchin, Maike Buchin, Joachim Gudmundsson, Aleksandr Popov, and Sampson Wong. Map-Matching Queries Under Fréchet Distance on Low-Density Spanners. In 40th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 293, pp. 27:1-27:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{buchin_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2024.27, author = {Buchin, Kevin and Buchin, Maike and Gudmundsson, Joachim and Popov, Aleksandr and Wong, Sampson}, title = {{Map-Matching Queries Under Fr\'{e}chet Distance on Low-Density Spanners}}, booktitle = {40th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2024)}, pages = {27:1--27:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-316-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {293}, editor = {Mulzer, Wolfgang and Phillips, Jeff M.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2024.27}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-199723}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2024.27}, annote = {Keywords: Map Matching, Fr\'{e}chet Distance, Data Structures} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 293, 40th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2024)

Given a set of n sites from ℝ^d, each having some positive weight factor, the Multiplicatively Weighted Voronoi Diagram is a subdivision of space that associates each cell to the site whose weighted Euclidean distance is minimal for all points in the cell.
We give novel approximation algorithms that output a cube-based subdivision such that the weighted distance of a point with respect to the associated site is at most (1+ε) times the minimum weighted distance, for any fixed parameter ε ∈ (0,1). The diagram size is O_d(n log(1/ε)/ε^{d-1}) and the construction time is within an O_D(log(n)/ε^{(d+5)/2})-factor of the size bound. We also prove a matching lower bound for the size, showing that the proposed method is the first to achieve optimal size, up to Θ(1)^d-factors. In particular, the obscure log(1/ε) factor is unavoidable. As a by-product, we obtain a factor d^{O(d)} improvement in size for the unweighted case and O(d log(n) + d² log(1/ε)) point-location time in the subdivision, improving the known query bound by one d-factor.
The key ingredients of our approximation algorithms are the study of convex regions that we call cores, an adaptive refinement algorithm to obtain optimal size, and a novel notion of bisector coresets, which may be of independent interest. In particular, we show that coresets with O_d(1/ε^{(d+3)/2}) worst-case size can be computed in near-linear time.

Joachim Gudmundsson, Martin P. Seybold, and Sampson Wong. Approximating Multiplicatively Weighted Voronoi Diagrams: Efficient Construction with Linear Size. In 40th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 293, pp. 62:1-62:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{gudmundsson_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2024.62, author = {Gudmundsson, Joachim and Seybold, Martin P. and Wong, Sampson}, title = {{Approximating Multiplicatively Weighted Voronoi Diagrams: Efficient Construction with Linear Size}}, booktitle = {40th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2024)}, pages = {62:1--62:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-316-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {293}, editor = {Mulzer, Wolfgang and Phillips, Jeff M.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2024.62}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-200078}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2024.62}, annote = {Keywords: Multiplicatively Weighted Voronoi Diagram, Compressed QuadTree, Adaptive Refinement, Bisector Coresets, Semi-Separated Pair Decomposition, Lower Bound} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 294, 19th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2024)

A key goal of clustering is data reduction. In center-based clustering of complex objects therefore not only the number of clusters but also the complexity of the centers plays a crucial role. We propose L-Budget Clustering as unifying perspective on this task, optimizing the clustering under the constraint that the summed complexity of all centers is at most L. We present algorithms for clustering planar curves under the Fréchet distance, but note that our algorithms more generally apply to objects in metric spaces if a notion of simplification of objects is applicable. A scenario in which data reduction is of particular importance is when the space is limited. Our main result is an efficient (8 + ε)-approximation algorithm with a (1 + ε)-resource augmentation that maintains an L-budget clustering under insertion of curves using only O(Lε^{-1}) space and O^*(L³log(L) + L²log(r^*/r₀)) time where O^* hides factors of ε^{-1}.

Kevin Buchin, Maike Buchin, Joachim Gudmundsson, Lukas Plätz, Lea Thiel, and Sampson Wong. Dynamic L-Budget Clustering of Curves. In 19th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 294, pp. 18:1-18:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{buchin_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2024.18, author = {Buchin, Kevin and Buchin, Maike and Gudmundsson, Joachim and Pl\"{a}tz, Lukas and Thiel, Lea and Wong, Sampson}, title = {{Dynamic L-Budget Clustering of Curves}}, booktitle = {19th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2024)}, pages = {18:1--18:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-318-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {294}, editor = {Bodlaender, Hans L.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2024.18}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-200588}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2024.18}, annote = {Keywords: clustering, streaming algorithm, polygonal curves, Fr\'{e}chet distance, storage efficiency, simplification, approximation algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 283, 34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023)

We present a near-linear time approximation algorithm for the subtrajectory cluster problem of c-packed trajectories. Given a trajectory T of complexity n, an approximation factor ε, and a desired distance d, the problem involves finding m subtrajectories of T such that their pair-wise Fréchet distance is at most (1 + ε)d. At least one subtrajectory must be of length l or longer. A trajectory T is c-packed if the intersection of T and any ball B with radius r is at most c⋅r in length.
Previous results by Gudmundsson and Wong [Gudmundsson and Wong, 2022] established an Ω(n³) lower bound unless the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis fails, and they presented an O(n³ log² n) time algorithm. We circumvent this conditional lower bound by studying subtrajectory cluster on c-packed trajectories, resulting in an algorithm with an O((c² n/ε²)log(c/ε)log(n/ε)) time complexity.

Joachim Gudmundsson, Zijin Huang, André van Renssen, and Sampson Wong. Computing a Subtrajectory Cluster from c-Packed Trajectories. In 34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 283, pp. 34:1-34:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{gudmundsson_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.34, author = {Gudmundsson, Joachim and Huang, Zijin and van Renssen, Andr\'{e} and Wong, Sampson}, title = {{Computing a Subtrajectory Cluster from c-Packed Trajectories}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023)}, pages = {34:1--34:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-289-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {283}, editor = {Iwata, Satoru and Kakimura, Naonori}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.34}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-193364}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.34}, annote = {Keywords: Subtrajectory cluster, c-packed trajectories, Computational geometry} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

Given a point set P in the Euclidean plane and a parameter t, we define an oriented t-spanner as an oriented subgraph of the complete bi-directed graph such that for every pair of points, the shortest cycle in G through those points is at most a factor t longer than the shortest oriented cycle in the complete bi-directed graph. We investigate the problem of computing sparse graphs with small oriented dilation.
As we can show that minimising oriented dilation for a given number of edges is NP-hard in the plane, we first consider one-dimensional point sets. While obtaining a 1-spanner in this setting is straightforward, already for five points such a spanner has no plane embedding with the leftmost and rightmost point on the outer face. This leads to restricting to oriented graphs with a one-page book embedding on the one-dimensional point set. For this case we present a dynamic program to compute the graph of minimum oriented dilation that runs in 𝒪(n⁸) time for n points, and a greedy algorithm that computes a 5-spanner in 𝒪(nlog n) time.
Expanding these results finally gives us a result for two-dimensional point sets: we prove that for convex point sets the greedy triangulation results in an oriented 𝒪(1)-spanner.

Kevin Buchin, Joachim Gudmundsson, Antonia Kalb, Aleksandr Popov, Carolin Rehs, André van Renssen, and Sampson Wong. Oriented Spanners. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 26:1-26:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{buchin_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.26, author = {Buchin, Kevin and Gudmundsson, Joachim and Kalb, Antonia and Popov, Aleksandr and Rehs, Carolin and van Renssen, Andr\'{e} and Wong, Sampson}, title = {{Oriented Spanners}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {26:1--26:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186796}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.26}, annote = {Keywords: computational geometry, spanner, oriented graph, greedy triangulation} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

Spanner construction is a well-studied problem and Delaunay triangulations are among the most popular spanners. Tight bounds are known if the Delaunay triangulation is constructed using an equilateral triangle, a square, or a regular hexagon. However, all other shapes have remained elusive. In this paper we extend the restricted class of spanners for which tight bounds are known. We prove that Delaunay triangulations constructed using rectangles with aspect ratio A have spanning ratio at most √2 √{1+A² + A √{A²+1}}, which matches the known lower bound.

André van Renssen, Yuan Sha, Yucheng Sun, and Sampson Wong. The Tight Spanning Ratio of the Rectangle Delaunay Triangulation. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 99:1-99:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{vanrenssen_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.99, author = {van Renssen, Andr\'{e} and Sha, Yuan and Sun, Yucheng and Wong, Sampson}, title = {{The Tight Spanning Ratio of the Rectangle Delaunay Triangulation}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {99:1--99:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.99}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187523}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.99}, annote = {Keywords: Spanners, Delaunay Triangulation, Spanning Ratio} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 224, 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)

Dynamic Time Warping is arguably the most popular similarity measure for time series, where we define a time series to be a one-dimensional polygonal curve. The drawback of Dynamic Time Warping is that it is sensitive to the sampling rate of the time series. The Fréchet distance is an alternative that has gained popularity, however, its drawback is that it is sensitive to outliers.
Continuous Dynamic Time Warping (CDTW) is a recently proposed alternative that does not exhibit the aforementioned drawbacks. CDTW combines the continuous nature of the Fréchet distance with the summation of Dynamic Time Warping, resulting in a similarity measure that is robust to sampling rate and to outliers. In a recent experimental work of Brankovic et al., it was demonstrated that clustering under CDTW avoids the unwanted artifacts that appear when clustering under Dynamic Time Warping and under the Fréchet distance. Despite its advantages, the major shortcoming of CDTW is that there is no exact algorithm for computing CDTW, in polynomial time or otherwise.
In this work, we present the first exact algorithm for computing CDTW of one-dimensional curves. Our algorithm runs in time 𝒪(n⁵) for a pair of one-dimensional curves, each with complexity at most n. In our algorithm, we propagate continuous functions in the dynamic program for CDTW, where the main difficulty lies in bounding the complexity of the functions. We believe that our result is an important first step towards CDTW becoming a practical similarity measure between curves.

Kevin Buchin, André Nusser, and Sampson Wong. Computing Continuous Dynamic Time Warping of Time Series in Polynomial Time. In 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 224, pp. 22:1-22:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{buchin_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.22, author = {Buchin, Kevin and Nusser, Andr\'{e} and Wong, Sampson}, title = {{Computing Continuous Dynamic Time Warping of Time Series in Polynomial Time}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)}, pages = {22:1--22:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-227-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {224}, editor = {Goaoc, Xavier and Kerber, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.22}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-160307}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.22}, annote = {Keywords: Computational Geometry, Curve Similarity, Fr\'{e}chet distance, Dynamic Time Warping, Continuous Dynamic Time Warping} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 181, 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)

In 2012 Driemel et al. [Anne Driemel et al., 2012] introduced the concept of c-packed curves as a realistic input model. In the case when c is a constant they gave a near linear time (1+ε)-approximation algorithm for computing the Fréchet distance between two c-packed polygonal curves. Since then a number of papers have used the model.
In this paper we consider the problem of computing the smallest c for which a given polygonal curve in ℝ^d is c-packed. We present two approximation algorithms. The first algorithm is a 2-approximation algorithm and runs in O(dn² log n) time. In the case d = 2 we develop a faster algorithm that returns a (6+ε)-approximation and runs in O((n/ε³)^{4/3} polylog (n/ε))) time.
We also implemented the first algorithm and computed the approximate packedness-value for 16 sets of real-world trajectories. The experiments indicate that the notion of c-packedness is a useful realistic input model for many curves and trajectories.

Joachim Gudmundsson, Yuan Sha, and Sampson Wong. Approximating the Packedness of Polygonal Curves. In 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 181, pp. 9:1-9:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{gudmundsson_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.9, author = {Gudmundsson, Joachim and Sha, Yuan and Wong, Sampson}, title = {{Approximating the Packedness of Polygonal Curves}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)}, pages = {9:1--9:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-173-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {181}, editor = {Cao, Yixin and Cheng, Siu-Wing and Li, Minming}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.9}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-133530}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.9}, annote = {Keywords: Computational geometry, trajectories, realistic input models} }

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