19 Search Results for "Cohen, Gil"


Document
Spectral Expanding Expanders

Authors: Gil Cohen and Itay Cohen

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 264, 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)


Abstract
Dinitz, Schapira, and Valadarsky [Dinitz et al., 2017] introduced the intriguing notion of expanding expanders - a family of expander graphs with the property that every two consecutive graphs in the family differ only on a small number of edges. Such a family allows one to add and remove vertices with only few edge updates, making them useful in dynamic settings such as for datacenter network topologies and for the design of distributed algorithms for self-healing expanders. [Dinitz et al., 2017] constructed explicit expanding-expanders based on the Bilu-Linial construction of spectral expanders [Bilu and Linial, 2006]. The construction of expanding expanders, however, ends up being of edge expanders, thus, an open problem raised by [Dinitz et al., 2017] is to construct spectral expanding expanders (SEE). In this work, we resolve this question by constructing SEE with spectral expansion which, like [Bilu and Linial, 2006], is optimal up to a poly-logarithmic factor, and the number of edge updates is optimal up to a constant. We further give a simple proof for the existence of SEE that are close to Ramanujan up to a small additive term. As in [Dinitz et al., 2017], our construction is based on interpolating between a graph and its lift. However, to establish spectral expansion, we carefully weigh the interpolated graphs, dubbed partial lifts, in a way that enables us to conduct a delicate analysis of their spectrum. In particular, at a crucial point in the analysis, we consider the eigenvectors structure of the partial lifts.

Cite as

Gil Cohen and Itay Cohen. Spectral Expanding Expanders. In 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 264, pp. 8:1-8:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{cohen_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2023.8,
  author =	{Cohen, Gil and Cohen, Itay},
  title =	{{Spectral Expanding Expanders}},
  booktitle =	{38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)},
  pages =	{8:1--8:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-282-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{264},
  editor =	{Ta-Shma, Amnon},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.8},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-182780},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.8},
  annote =	{Keywords: Expanders, Normalized Random Walk, Spectral Analysis}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Expander Random Walks: The General Case and Limitations

Authors: Gil Cohen, Dor Minzer, Shir Peleg, Aaron Potechin, and Amnon Ta-Shma

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)


Abstract
Cohen, Peri and Ta-Shma [Gil Cohen et al., 2021] considered the following question: Assume the vertices of an expander graph are labelled by ± 1. What "test" functions f : {±1}^t → {±1} can or cannot distinguish t independent samples from those obtained by a random walk? [Gil Cohen et al., 2021] considered only balanced labellings, and proved that for all symmetric functions the distinguishability goes down to zero with the spectral gap λ of the expander G. In addition, [Gil Cohen et al., 2021] show that functions computable by AC⁰ circuits are fooled by expanders with vanishing spectral expansion. We continue the study of this question. We generalize the result to all labelling, not merely balanced ones. We also improve the upper bound on the error of symmetric functions. More importantly, we give a matching lower bound and show a symmetric function with distinguishability going down to zero with λ but not with t. Moreover, we prove a lower bound on the error of functions in AC⁰ in particular, we prove that a random walk on expanders with constant spectral gap does not fool AC⁰.

Cite as

Gil Cohen, Dor Minzer, Shir Peleg, Aaron Potechin, and Amnon Ta-Shma. Expander Random Walks: The General Case and Limitations. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 43:1-43:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{cohen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.43,
  author =	{Cohen, Gil and Minzer, Dor and Peleg, Shir and Potechin, Aaron and Ta-Shma, Amnon},
  title =	{{Expander Random Walks: The General Case and Limitations}},
  booktitle =	{49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)},
  pages =	{43:1--43:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-235-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{229},
  editor =	{Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.43},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163849},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.43},
  annote =	{Keywords: Expander Graphs, Random Walks, Lower Bounds}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
LCC and LDC: Tailor-Made Distance Amplification and a Refined Separation

Authors: Gil Cohen and Tal Yankovitz

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)


Abstract
The Alon-Edmonds-Luby distance amplification procedure (FOCS 1995) is an algorithm that transforms a code with vanishing distance to a code with constant distance. AEL was invoked by Kopparty, Meir, Ron-Zewi, and Saraf (J. ACM 2017) for obtaining their state-of-the-art LDC, LCC and LTC. Cohen and Yankovitz (CCC 2021) devised a procedure that can amplify inverse-polynomial distances, exponentially extending the regime of distances that can be amplified by AEL. However, the improved procedure only works for LDC and assuming rate 1-1/(poly log n). In this work we devise a distance amplification procedure for LCC with inverse-polynomial distances even for vanishing rate 1/(poly log log n). For LDC, we obtain a more modest improvement and require rate 1-1/(poly log log n). Thus, the tables have turned and it is now LCC that can be better amplified. Our key idea for accomplishing this, deviating from prior work, is to tailor the distance amplification procedure to the code at hand. Our second result concerns the relation between linear LDC and LCC. We prove the existence of linear LDC that are not LCC, qualitatively extending a separation by Kaufman and Viderman (RANDOM 2010).

Cite as

Gil Cohen and Tal Yankovitz. LCC and LDC: Tailor-Made Distance Amplification and a Refined Separation. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 44:1-44:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{cohen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.44,
  author =	{Cohen, Gil and Yankovitz, Tal},
  title =	{{LCC and LDC: Tailor-Made Distance Amplification and a Refined Separation}},
  booktitle =	{49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)},
  pages =	{44:1--44:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-235-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{229},
  editor =	{Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.44},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163858},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.44},
  annote =	{Keywords: Locally Correctable Codes, Locally Decodable Codes, Distance Amplifications}
}
Document
RANDOM
Candidate Tree Codes via Pascal Determinant Cubes

Authors: Inbar Ben Yaacov, Gil Cohen, and Anand Kumar Narayanan

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 207, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)


Abstract
Tree codes are combinatorial structures introduced by Schulman [Schulman, 1993] as key ingredients in interactive coding schemes. Asymptotically-good tree codes are long known to exist, yet their explicit construction remains a notoriously hard open problem. Even proposing a plausible construction, without the burden of proof, is difficult and the defining tree code property requires structure that remains elusive. To the best of our knowledge, only one candidate appears in the literature, due to Moore and Schulman [Moore and Schulman, 2014]. We put forth a new candidate for an explicit asymptotically-good tree code. Our construction is an extension of the vanishing rate tree code by Cohen-Haeupler-Schulman [Cohen et al., 2018], and its correctness relies on a conjecture that we introduce on certain Pascal determinants indexed by the points of the Boolean hypercube. Furthermore, using the vanishing distance tree code by Gelles et al. [Gelles et al., 2016] enables us to present a construction that relies on an even weaker assumption. We furnish evidence supporting our conjecture through numerical computation, combinatorial arguments from planar path graphs and based on well-studied heuristics from arithmetic geometry.

Cite as

Inbar Ben Yaacov, Gil Cohen, and Anand Kumar Narayanan. Candidate Tree Codes via Pascal Determinant Cubes. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 207, pp. 54:1-54:22, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{benyaacov_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.54,
  author =	{Ben Yaacov, Inbar and Cohen, Gil and Narayanan, Anand Kumar},
  title =	{{Candidate Tree Codes via Pascal Determinant Cubes}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)},
  pages =	{54:1--54:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-207-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{207},
  editor =	{Wootters, Mary and Sanit\`{a}, Laura},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.54},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-147474},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.54},
  annote =	{Keywords: Tree codes, Sparse polynomials, Explicit constructions}
}
Document
Rate Amplification and Query-Efficient Distance Amplification for Linear LCC and LDC

Authors: Gil Cohen and Tal Yankovitz

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 200, 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)


Abstract
The main contribution of this work is a rate amplification procedure for LCC. Our procedure converts any q-query linear LCC, having rate ρ and, say, constant distance to an asymptotically good LCC with q^poly(1/ρ) queries. Our second contribution is a distance amplification procedure for LDC that converts any linear LDC with distance δ and, say, constant rate to an asymptotically good LDC. The query complexity only suffers a multiplicative overhead that is roughly equal to the query complexity of a length 1/δ asymptotically good LDC. This improves upon the poly(1/δ) overhead obtained by the AEL distance amplification procedure [Alon and Luby, 1996; Alon et al., 1995]. Our work establishes that the construction of asymptotically good LDC and LCC is reduced, with a minor overhead in query complexity, to the problem of constructing a vanishing rate linear LCC and a (rapidly) vanishing distance linear LDC, respectively.

Cite as

Gil Cohen and Tal Yankovitz. Rate Amplification and Query-Efficient Distance Amplification for Linear LCC and LDC. In 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 200, pp. 1:1-1:57, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{cohen_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2021.1,
  author =	{Cohen, Gil and Yankovitz, Tal},
  title =	{{Rate Amplification and Query-Efficient Distance Amplification for Linear LCC and LDC}},
  booktitle =	{36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)},
  pages =	{1:1--1:57},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-193-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{200},
  editor =	{Kabanets, Valentine},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-142750},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: Locally decodable codes, Locally correctable codes}
}
Document
Error Reduction for Weighted PRGs Against Read Once Branching Programs

Authors: Gil Cohen, Dean Doron, Oren Renard, Ori Sberlo, and Amnon Ta-Shma

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 200, 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)


Abstract
Weighted pseudorandom generators (WPRGs), introduced by Braverman, Cohen and Garg [Braverman et al., 2020], are a generalization of pseudorandom generators (PRGs) in which arbitrary real weights are considered, rather than a probability mass. Braverman et al. constructed WPRGs against read once branching programs (ROBPs) with near-optimal dependence on the error parameter. Chattopadhyay and Liao [Eshan Chattopadhyay and Jyun-Jie Liao, 2020] somewhat simplified the technically involved BCG construction, also obtaining some improvement in parameters. In this work we devise an error reduction procedure for PRGs against ROBPs. More precisely, our procedure transforms any PRG against length n width w ROBP with error 1/poly(n) having seed length s to a WPRG with seed length s + O(logw/(ε) ⋅ log log1/(ε)). By instantiating our procedure with Nisan’s PRG [Noam Nisan, 1992] we obtain a WPRG with seed length O(log{n} ⋅ log(nw) + logw/(ε) ⋅ log log 1/(ε)). This improves upon [Braverman et al., 2020] and is incomparable with [Eshan Chattopadhyay and Jyun-Jie Liao, 2020]. Our construction is significantly simpler on the technical side and is conceptually cleaner. Another advantage of our construction is its low space complexity O(log{nw})+poly(log log1/(ε)) which is logarithmic in n for interesting values of the error parameter ε. Previous constructions (like [Braverman et al., 2020; Eshan Chattopadhyay and Jyun-Jie Liao, 2020]) specify the seed length but not the space complexity, though it is plausible they can also achieve such (or close) space complexity.

Cite as

Gil Cohen, Dean Doron, Oren Renard, Ori Sberlo, and Amnon Ta-Shma. Error Reduction for Weighted PRGs Against Read Once Branching Programs. In 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 200, pp. 22:1-22:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{cohen_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2021.22,
  author =	{Cohen, Gil and Doron, Dean and Renard, Oren and Sberlo, Ori and Ta-Shma, Amnon},
  title =	{{Error Reduction for Weighted PRGs Against Read Once Branching Programs}},
  booktitle =	{36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)},
  pages =	{22:1--22:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-193-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{200},
  editor =	{Kabanets, Valentine},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.22},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-142963},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.22},
  annote =	{Keywords: Pseudorandom generators, Read once branching programs, Space-bounded computation}
}
Document
Pseudobinomiality of the Sticky Random Walk

Authors: Venkatesan Guruswami and Vinayak M. Kumar

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)


Abstract
Random walks on expanders are a central and versatile tool in pseudorandomness. If an arbitrary half of the vertices of an expander graph are marked, known Chernoff bounds for expander walks imply that the number M of marked vertices visited in a long n-step random walk strongly concentrates around the expected n/2 value. Surprisingly, it was recently shown that the parity of M also has exponentially small bias. Is there a common unification of these results? What other statistics about M resemble the binomial distribution (the Hamming weight of a random n-bit string)? To gain insight into such questions, we analyze a simpler model called the sticky random walk. This model is a natural stepping stone towards understanding expander random walks, and we also show that it is a necessary step. The sticky random walk starts with a random bit and then each subsequent bit independently equals the previous bit with probability (1+λ)/2. Here λ is the proxy for the expander’s (second largest) eigenvalue. Using Krawtchouk expansion of functions, we derive several probabilistic results about the sticky random walk. We show an asymptotically tight Θ(λ) bound on the total variation distance between the (Hamming weight of the) sticky walk and the binomial distribution. We prove that the correlation between the majority and parity bit of the sticky walk is bounded by O(n^{-1/4}). This lends hope to unifying Chernoff bounds and parity concentration, as well as establishing other interesting statistical properties, of expander random walks.

Cite as

Venkatesan Guruswami and Vinayak M. Kumar. Pseudobinomiality of the Sticky Random Walk. In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 48:1-48:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{guruswami_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.48,
  author =	{Guruswami, Venkatesan and Kumar, Vinayak M.},
  title =	{{Pseudobinomiality of the Sticky Random Walk}},
  booktitle =	{12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)},
  pages =	{48:1--48:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-177-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{185},
  editor =	{Lee, James R.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.48},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135870},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.48},
  annote =	{Keywords: Expander Graphs, Fourier analysis, Markov Chains, Pseudorandomness, Random Walks}
}
Document
Palette-Alternating Tree Codes

Authors: Gil Cohen and Shahar Samocha

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 169, 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)


Abstract
A tree code is an edge-coloring of the complete infinite binary tree such that every two nodes of equal depth have a fraction - bounded away from 0 - of mismatched colors between the corresponding paths to their least common ancestor. Tree codes were introduced in a seminal work by Schulman [Schulman, 1993] and serve as a key ingredient in almost all deterministic interactive coding schemes. The number of colors effects the coding scheme’s rate. It is shown that 4 is precisely the least number of colors for which tree codes exist. Thus, tree-code-based coding schemes cannot achieve rate larger than 1/2. To overcome this barrier, a relaxed notion called palette-alternating tree codes is introduced, in which the number of colors can depend on the layer. We prove the existence of such constructs in which most layers use 2 colors - the bare minimum. The distance-rate tradeoff we obtain matches the Gilbert-Varshamov bound. Based on palette-alternating tree codes, we devise a deterministic interactive coding scheme against adversarial errors that approaches capacity. To analyze our protocol, we prove a structural result on the location of failed communication-rounds induced by the error pattern enforced by the adversary. Our coding scheme is efficient given an explicit palette-alternating tree code and serves as an alternative to the scheme obtained by [R. Gelles et al., 2016].

Cite as

Gil Cohen and Shahar Samocha. Palette-Alternating Tree Codes. In 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 169, pp. 11:1-11:29, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{cohen_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2020.11,
  author =	{Cohen, Gil and Samocha, Shahar},
  title =	{{Palette-Alternating Tree Codes}},
  booktitle =	{35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)},
  pages =	{11:1--11:29},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-156-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{169},
  editor =	{Saraf, Shubhangi},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.11},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125632},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.11},
  annote =	{Keywords: Tree Codes, Coding Theory, Interactive Coding Scheme}
}
Document
The Computational Cost of Asynchronous Neural Communication

Authors: Yael Hitron, Merav Parter, and Gur Perri

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)


Abstract
Biological neural computation is inherently asynchronous due to large variations in neuronal spike timing and transmission delays. So-far, most theoretical work on neural networks assumes the synchronous setting where neurons fire simultaneously in discrete rounds. In this work we aim at understanding the barriers of asynchronous neural computation from an algorithmic perspective. We consider an extension of the widely studied model of synchronized spiking neurons [Maass, Neural Networks 97] to the asynchronous setting by taking into account edge and node delays. - Edge Delays: We define an asynchronous model for spiking neurons in which the latency values (i.e., transmission delays) of non self-loop edges vary adversarially over time. This extends the recent work of [Hitron and Parter, ESA'19] in which the latency values are restricted to be fixed over time. Our first contribution is an impossibility result that implies that the assumption that self-loop edges have no delays (as assumed in Hitron and Parter) is indeed necessary. Interestingly, in real biological networks self-loop edges (a.k.a. autapse) are indeed free of delays, and the latter has been noted by neuroscientists to be crucial for network synchronization. To capture the computational challenges in this setting, we first consider the implementation of a single NOT gate. This simple function already captures the fundamental difficulties in the asynchronous setting. Our key technical results are space and time upper and lower bounds for the NOT function, our time bounds are tight. In the spirit of the distributed synchronizers [Awerbuch and Peleg, FOCS'90] and following [Hitron and Parter, ESA'19], we then provide a general synchronizer machinery. Our construction is very modular and it is based on efficient circuit implementation of threshold gates. The complexity of our scheme is measured by the overhead in the number of neurons and the computation time, both are shown to be polynomial in the largest latency value, and the largest incoming degree Δ of the original network. - Node Delays: We introduce the study of asynchronous communication due to variations in the response rates of the neurons in the network. In real brain networks, the round duration varies between different neurons in the network. Our key result is a simulation methodology that allows one to transform the above mentioned synchronized solution under edge delays into a synchronized under node delays while incurring a small overhead w.r.t space and time.

Cite as

Yael Hitron, Merav Parter, and Gur Perri. The Computational Cost of Asynchronous Neural Communication. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 48:1-48:47, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{hitron_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.48,
  author =	{Hitron, Yael and Parter, Merav and Perri, Gur},
  title =	{{The Computational Cost of Asynchronous Neural Communication}},
  booktitle =	{11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)},
  pages =	{48:1--48:47},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-134-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{151},
  editor =	{Vidick, Thomas},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.48},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117330},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.48},
  annote =	{Keywords: asynchronous communication, asynchronous computation, spiking neurons, synchronizers}
}
Document
RANDOM
Two-Source Condensers with Low Error and Small Entropy Gap via Entropy-Resilient Functions

Authors: Avraham Ben-Aroya, Gil Cohen, Dean Doron, and Amnon Ta-Shma

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 145, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)


Abstract
In their seminal work, Chattopadhyay and Zuckerman (STOC'16) constructed a two-source extractor with error epsilon for n-bit sources having min-entropy {polylog}(n/epsilon). Unfortunately, the construction’s running-time is {poly}(n/epsilon), which means that with polynomial-time constructions, only polynomially-small errors are possible. Our main result is a {poly}(n,log(1/epsilon))-time computable two-source condenser. For any k >= {polylog}(n/epsilon), our condenser transforms two independent (n,k)-sources to a distribution over m = k-O(log(1/epsilon)) bits that is epsilon-close to having min-entropy m - o(log(1/epsilon)). Hence, achieving entropy gap of o(log(1/epsilon)). The bottleneck for obtaining low error in recent constructions of two-source extractors lies in the use of resilient functions. Informally, this is a function that receives input bits from r players with the property that the function’s output has small bias even if a bounded number of corrupted players feed adversarial inputs after seeing the inputs of the other players. The drawback of using resilient functions is that the error cannot be smaller than ln r/r. This, in return, forces the running time of the construction to be polynomial in 1/epsilon. A key component in our construction is a variant of resilient functions which we call entropy-resilient functions. This variant can be seen as playing the above game for several rounds, each round outputting one bit. The goal of the corrupted players is to reduce, with as high probability as they can, the min-entropy accumulated throughout the rounds. We show that while the bias decreases only polynomially with the number of players in a one-round game, their success probability decreases exponentially in the entropy gap they are attempting to incur in a repeated game.

Cite as

Avraham Ben-Aroya, Gil Cohen, Dean Doron, and Amnon Ta-Shma. Two-Source Condensers with Low Error and Small Entropy Gap via Entropy-Resilient Functions. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 145, pp. 43:1-43:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{benaroya_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.43,
  author =	{Ben-Aroya, Avraham and Cohen, Gil and Doron, Dean and Ta-Shma, Amnon},
  title =	{{Two-Source Condensers with Low Error and Small Entropy Gap via Entropy-Resilient Functions}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)},
  pages =	{43:1--43:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-125-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{145},
  editor =	{Achlioptas, Dimitris and V\'{e}gh, L\'{a}szl\'{o} A.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.43},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112587},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.43},
  annote =	{Keywords: Condensers, Extractors, Resilient functions, Explicit constructions}
}
Document
Non-Malleable Extractors and Non-Malleable Codes: Partially Optimal Constructions

Authors: Xin Li

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 137, 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)


Abstract
The recent line of study on randomness extractors has been a great success, resulting in exciting new techniques, new connections, and breakthroughs to long standing open problems in several seemingly different topics. These include seeded non-malleable extractors, privacy amplification protocols with an active adversary, independent source extractors (and explicit Ramsey graphs), and non-malleable codes in the split state model. Previously, the best constructions are given in [Xin Li, 2017]: seeded non-malleable extractors with seed length and entropy requirement O(log n+log(1/epsilon)log log (1/epsilon)) for error epsilon; two-round privacy amplification protocols with optimal entropy loss for security parameter up to Omega(k/log k), where k is the entropy of the shared weak source; two-source extractors for entropy O(log n log log n); and non-malleable codes in the 2-split state model with rate Omega(1/log n). However, in all cases there is still a gap to optimum and the motivation to close this gap remains strong. In this paper, we introduce a set of new techniques to further push the frontier in the above questions. Our techniques lead to improvements in all of the above questions, and in several cases partially optimal constructions. This is in contrast to all previous work, which only obtain close to optimal constructions. Specifically, we obtain: 1) A seeded non-malleable extractor with seed length O(log n)+log^{1+o(1)}(1/epsilon) and entropy requirement O(log log n+log(1/epsilon)), where the entropy requirement is asymptotically optimal by a recent result of Gur and Shinkar [Tom Gur and Igor Shinkar, 2018]; 2) A two-round privacy amplification protocol with optimal entropy loss for security parameter up to Omega(k), which solves the privacy amplification problem completely; 3) A two-source extractor for entropy O((log n log log n)/(log log log n)), which also gives an explicit Ramsey graph on N vertices with no clique or independent set of size (log N)^{O((log log log N)/(log log log log N))}; and 4) The first explicit non-malleable code in the 2-split state model with constant rate, which has been a major goal in the study of non-malleable codes for quite some time. One small caveat is that the error of this code is only (an arbitrarily small) constant, but we can also achieve negligible error with rate Omega(log log log n/log log n), which already improves the rate in [Xin Li, 2017] exponentially. We believe our new techniques can help to eventually obtain completely optimal constructions in the above questions, and may have applications in other settings.

Cite as

Xin Li. Non-Malleable Extractors and Non-Malleable Codes: Partially Optimal Constructions. In 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 137, pp. 28:1-28:49, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{li:LIPIcs.CCC.2019.28,
  author =	{Li, Xin},
  title =	{{Non-Malleable Extractors and Non-Malleable Codes: Partially Optimal Constructions}},
  booktitle =	{34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)},
  pages =	{28:1--28:49},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-116-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{137},
  editor =	{Shpilka, Amir},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.28},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-108507},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.28},
  annote =	{Keywords: extractor, non-malleable, privacy, codes}
}
Document
Near-Optimal Pseudorandom Generators for Constant-Depth Read-Once Formulas

Authors: Dean Doron, Pooya Hatami, and William M. Hoza

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 137, 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)


Abstract
We give an explicit pseudorandom generator (PRG) for read-once AC^0, i.e., constant-depth read-once formulas over the basis {wedge, vee, neg} with unbounded fan-in. The seed length of our PRG is O~(log(n/epsilon)). Previously, PRGs with near-optimal seed length were known only for the depth-2 case [Gopalan et al., 2012]. For a constant depth d > 2, the best prior PRG is a recent construction by Forbes and Kelley with seed length O~(log^2 n + log n log(1/epsilon)) for the more general model of constant-width read-once branching programs with arbitrary variable order [Michael A. Forbes and Zander Kelley, 2018]. Looking beyond read-once AC^0, we also show that our PRG fools read-once AC^0[oplus] with seed length O~(t + log(n/epsilon)), where t is the number of parity gates in the formula. Our construction follows Ajtai and Wigderson’s approach of iterated pseudorandom restrictions [Ajtai and Wigderson, 1989]. We assume by recursion that we already have a PRG for depth-d AC^0 formulas. To fool depth-(d + 1) AC^0 formulas, we use the given PRG, combined with a small-bias distribution and almost k-wise independence, to sample a pseudorandom restriction. The analysis of Forbes and Kelley [Michael A. Forbes and Zander Kelley, 2018] shows that our restriction approximately preserves the expectation of the formula. The crux of our work is showing that after poly(log log n) independent applications of our pseudorandom restriction, the formula simplifies in the sense that every gate other than the output has only polylog n remaining children. Finally, as the last step, we use a recent PRG by Meka, Reingold, and Tal [Meka et al., 2019] to fool this simpler formula.

Cite as

Dean Doron, Pooya Hatami, and William M. Hoza. Near-Optimal Pseudorandom Generators for Constant-Depth Read-Once Formulas. In 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 137, pp. 16:1-16:34, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{doron_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2019.16,
  author =	{Doron, Dean and Hatami, Pooya and Hoza, William M.},
  title =	{{Near-Optimal Pseudorandom Generators for Constant-Depth Read-Once Formulas}},
  booktitle =	{34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)},
  pages =	{16:1--16:34},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-116-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{137},
  editor =	{Shpilka, Amir},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-108382},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: Pseudorandom generators, Constant-depth formulas, Explicit constructions}
}
Document
Fourier Bounds and Pseudorandom Generators for Product Tests

Authors: Chin Ho Lee

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 137, 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)


Abstract
We study the Fourier spectrum of functions f : {0,1}^{mk} -> {-1,0,1} which can be written as a product of k Boolean functions f_i on disjoint m-bit inputs. We prove that for every positive integer d, sum_{S subseteq [mk]: |S|=d} |hat{f_S}| = O(min{m, sqrt{m log(2k)}})^d . Our upper bounds are tight up to a constant factor in the O(*). Our proof uses Schur-convexity, and builds on a new "level-d inequality" that bounds above sum_{|S|=d} hat{f_S}^2 for any [0,1]-valued function f in terms of its expectation, which may be of independent interest. As a result, we construct pseudorandom generators for such functions with seed length O~(m + log(k/epsilon)), which is optimal up to polynomial factors in log m, log log k and log log(1/epsilon). Our generator in particular works for the well-studied class of combinatorial rectangles, where in addition we allow the bits to be read in any order. Even for this special case, previous generators have an extra O~(log(1/epsilon)) factor in their seed lengths. We also extend our results to functions f_i whose range is [-1,1].

Cite as

Chin Ho Lee. Fourier Bounds and Pseudorandom Generators for Product Tests. In 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 137, pp. 7:1-7:25, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{lee:LIPIcs.CCC.2019.7,
  author =	{Lee, Chin Ho},
  title =	{{Fourier Bounds and Pseudorandom Generators for Product Tests}},
  booktitle =	{34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:25},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-116-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{137},
  editor =	{Shpilka, Amir},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-108296},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: bounded independence plus noise, Fourier spectrum, product test, pseudorandom generators}
}
Document
Typically-Correct Derandomization for Small Time and Space

Authors: William M. Hoza

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 137, 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)


Abstract
Suppose a language L can be decided by a bounded-error randomized algorithm that runs in space S and time n * poly(S). We give a randomized algorithm for L that still runs in space O(S) and time n * poly(S) that uses only O(S) random bits; our algorithm has a low failure probability on all but a negligible fraction of inputs of each length. As an immediate corollary, there is a deterministic algorithm for L that runs in space O(S) and succeeds on all but a negligible fraction of inputs of each length. We also give several other complexity-theoretic applications of our technique.

Cite as

William M. Hoza. Typically-Correct Derandomization for Small Time and Space. In 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 137, pp. 9:1-9:39, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{hoza:LIPIcs.CCC.2019.9,
  author =	{Hoza, William M.},
  title =	{{Typically-Correct Derandomization for Small Time and Space}},
  booktitle =	{34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)},
  pages =	{9:1--9:39},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-116-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{137},
  editor =	{Shpilka, Amir},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.9},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-108317},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.9},
  annote =	{Keywords: Derandomization, pseudorandomness, space complexity}
}
Document
Circuit Size Lower Bounds and #SAT Upper Bounds Through a General Framework

Authors: Alexander Golovnev, Alexander S. Kulikov, Alexander V. Smal, and Suguru Tamaki

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 58, 41st International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2016)


Abstract
Most of the known lower bounds for binary Boolean circuits with unrestricted depth are proved by the gate elimination method. The most efficient known algorithms for the #SAT problem on binary Boolean circuits use similar case analyses to the ones in gate elimination. Chen and Kabanets recently showed that the known case analyses can also be used to prove average case circuit lower bounds, that is, lower bounds on the size of approximations of an explicit function. In this paper, we provide a general framework for proving worst/average case lower bounds for circuits and upper bounds for #SAT that is built on ideas of Chen and Kabanets. A proof in such a framework goes as follows. One starts by fixing three parameters: a class of circuits, a circuit complexity measure, and a set of allowed substitutions. The main ingredient of a proof goes as follows: by going through a number of cases, one shows that for any circuit from the given class, one can find an allowed substitution such that the given measure of the circuit reduces by a sufficient amount. This case analysis immediately implies an upper bound for #SAT. To~obtain worst/average case circuit complexity lower bounds one needs to present an explicit construction of a function that is a disperser/extractor for the class of sources defined by the set of substitutions under consideration. We show that many known proofs (of circuit size lower bounds and upper bounds for #SAT) fall into this framework. Using this framework, we prove the following new bounds: average case lower bounds of 3.24n and 2.59n for circuits over U_2 and B_2, respectively (though the lower bound for the basis B_2 is given for a quadratic disperser whose explicit construction is not currently known), and faster than 2^n #SAT-algorithms for circuits over U_2 and B_2 of size at most 3.24n and 2.99n, respectively. Here by B_2 we mean the set of all bivariate Boolean functions, and by U_2 the set of all bivariate Boolean functions except for parity and its complement.

Cite as

Alexander Golovnev, Alexander S. Kulikov, Alexander V. Smal, and Suguru Tamaki. Circuit Size Lower Bounds and #SAT Upper Bounds Through a General Framework. In 41st International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 58, pp. 45:1-45:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{golovnev_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2016.45,
  author =	{Golovnev, Alexander and Kulikov, Alexander S. and Smal, Alexander V. and Tamaki, Suguru},
  title =	{{Circuit Size Lower Bounds and #SAT Upper Bounds Through a General Framework}},
  booktitle =	{41st International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2016)},
  pages =	{45:1--45:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-016-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{58},
  editor =	{Faliszewski, Piotr and Muscholl, Anca and Niedermeier, Rolf},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2016.45},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-64588},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2016.45},
  annote =	{Keywords: circuit complexity, lower bounds, exponential time algorithms, satisfiability}
}
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