2 Search Results for "Ingram, DeVon"


Document
The Acrobatics of BQP

Authors: Scott Aaronson, DeVon Ingram, and William Kretschmer

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 234, 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)


Abstract
One can fix the randomness used by a randomized algorithm, but there is no analogous notion of fixing the quantumness used by a quantum algorithm. Underscoring this fundamental difference, we show that, in the black-box setting, the behavior of quantum polynomial-time (BQP) can be remarkably decoupled from that of classical complexity classes like NP. Specifically: - There exists an oracle relative to which NP^{BQP} ⊄ BQP^{PH}, resolving a 2005 problem of Fortnow. As a corollary, there exists an oracle relative to which 𝖯 = NP but BQP ≠ QCMA. - Conversely, there exists an oracle relative to which BQP^{NP} ⊄ PH^{BQP}. - Relative to a random oracle, PP is not contained in the "QMA hierarchy" QMA^{QMA^{QMA^{⋯}}}. - Relative to a random oracle, Σ_{k+1}^𝖯 ⊄ BQP^{Σ_k^𝖯} for every k. - There exists an oracle relative to which BQP = P^#P and yet PH is infinite. (By contrast, relative to all oracles, if NP ⊆ BPP, then PH collapses.) - There exists an oracle relative to which 𝖯 = NP ≠ BQP = 𝖯^#P. To achieve these results, we build on the 2018 achievement by Raz and Tal of an oracle relative to which BQP ⊄ PH, and associated results about the Forrelation problem. We also introduce new tools that might be of independent interest. These include a "quantum-aware" version of the random restriction method, a concentration theorem for the block sensitivity of AC⁰ circuits, and a (provable) analogue of the Aaronson-Ambainis Conjecture for sparse oracles.

Cite as

Scott Aaronson, DeVon Ingram, and William Kretschmer. The Acrobatics of BQP. In 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 234, pp. 20:1-20:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{aaronson_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2022.20,
  author =	{Aaronson, Scott and Ingram, DeVon and Kretschmer, William},
  title =	{{The Acrobatics of BQP}},
  booktitle =	{37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)},
  pages =	{20:1--20:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-241-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{234},
  editor =	{Lovett, Shachar},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.20},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165820},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.20},
  annote =	{Keywords: BQP, Forrelation, oracle separations, Polynomial Hierarchy, query complexity}
}
Document
Invited Talk
BQP After 28 Years (Invited Talk)

Authors: Scott Aaronson

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 213, 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)


Abstract
I will discuss the now-ancient question of where BQP, Bounded-Error Quantum Polynomial-Time, fits in among classical complexity classes. After reviewing some basics from the 90s, I will discuss the Forrelation problem that I introduced in 2009 to yield an oracle separation between BQP and PH, and the dramatic completion of that program by Ran Raz and Avishay Tal in 2018. I will then discuss very recent work, with William Kretschmer and DeVon Ingram, which leverages the Raz-Tal theorem, along with a new "quantum-aware" random restriction method, to obtain results that illustrate just how differently BQP can behave from BPP. These include oracles relative to which NP^{BQP} ̸ ⊂ BQP^{PH} - solving a 2005 open problem of Lance Fortnow - and conversely, relative to which BQP^{NP} ̸ ⊂ PH^{BQP}; an oracle relative to which 𝖯 = NP and yet BQP ≠ QCMA; an oracle relative to which NP ⊆ BQP yet PH is infinite; an oracle relative to which 𝖯 = NP≠ BQP = PP; and an oracle relative to which PP = PostBQP ̸ ⊂ QMA^{QMA^{…}}. By popular demand, I will also speculate about the status of BQP in the unrelativized world.

Cite as

Scott Aaronson. BQP After 28 Years (Invited Talk). In 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 213, p. 1:1, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{aaronson:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.1,
  author =	{Aaronson, Scott},
  title =	{{BQP After 28 Years}},
  booktitle =	{41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)},
  pages =	{1:1--1:1},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-215-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{213},
  editor =	{Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Chekuri, Chandra},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-155124},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: quantum computing, complexity theory, oracle separations, circuit lower bounds}
}
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