23 Search Results for "Nordström, Jakob"


Document
Lower Bounds for Set-Blocked Clauses Proofs

Authors: Emre Yolcu

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 289, 41st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2024)


Abstract
We study propositional proof systems with inference rules that formalize restricted versions of the ability to make assumptions that hold without loss of generality, commonly used informally to shorten proofs. Each system we study is built on resolution. They are called BC⁻, RAT⁻, SBC⁻, and GER⁻, denoting respectively blocked clauses, resolution asymmetric tautologies, set-blocked clauses, and generalized extended resolution - all "without new variables." They may be viewed as weak versions of extended resolution (ER) since they are defined by first generalizing the extension rule and then taking away the ability to introduce new variables. Except for SBC⁻, they are known to be strictly between resolution and extended resolution. Several separations between these systems were proved earlier by exploiting the fact that they effectively simulate ER. We answer the questions left open: We prove exponential lower bounds for SBC⁻ proofs of a binary encoding of the pigeonhole principle, which separates ER from SBC⁻. Using this new separation, we prove that both RAT⁻ and GER⁻ are exponentially separated from SBC⁻. This completes the picture of their relative strengths.

Cite as

Emre Yolcu. Lower Bounds for Set-Blocked Clauses Proofs. In 41st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 289, pp. 59:1-59:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{yolcu:LIPIcs.STACS.2024.59,
  author =	{Yolcu, Emre},
  title =	{{Lower Bounds for Set-Blocked Clauses Proofs}},
  booktitle =	{41st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2024)},
  pages =	{59:1--59:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-311-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{289},
  editor =	{Beyersdorff, Olaf and Kant\'{e}, Mamadou Moustapha and Kupferman, Orna and Lokshtanov, Daniel},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2024.59},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-197698},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2024.59},
  annote =	{Keywords: proof complexity, separations, resolution, extended resolution, blocked clauses}
}
Document
Proof Logging for Smart Extensional Constraints

Authors: Matthew J. McIlree and Ciaran McCreesh

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 280, 29th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2023)


Abstract
Proof logging provides an auditable way of guaranteeing that a solver has produced a correct answer using sound reasoning. This is standard practice for Boolean satisfiability solving, but for constraint programming, a challenge is that every propagator must be able to justify all inferences it performs. Here we demonstrate how to support proof logging for a wide range of previously uncertified global constraints. We do this by showing how to justify every inference that could be performed by the propagation algorithms for two families of generalised extensional constraint: "Smart Table" and "Regular Language Membership".

Cite as

Matthew J. McIlree and Ciaran McCreesh. Proof Logging for Smart Extensional Constraints. In 29th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 280, pp. 26:1-26:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{mcilree_et_al:LIPIcs.CP.2023.26,
  author =	{McIlree, Matthew J. and McCreesh, Ciaran},
  title =	{{Proof Logging for Smart Extensional Constraints}},
  booktitle =	{29th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2023)},
  pages =	{26:1--26:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-300-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{280},
  editor =	{Yap, Roland H. C.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CP.2023.26},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-190633},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CP.2023.26},
  annote =	{Keywords: Constraint programming, proof logging, extensional constraints}
}
Document
Improving Conflict Analysis in MIP Solvers by Pseudo-Boolean Reasoning

Authors: Gioni Mexi, Timo Berthold, Ambros Gleixner, and Jakob Nordström

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 280, 29th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2023)


Abstract
Conflict analysis has been successfully generalized from Boolean satisfiability (SAT) solving to mixed integer programming (MIP) solvers, but although MIP solvers operate with general linear inequalities, the conflict analysis in MIP has been limited to reasoning with the more restricted class of clausal constraint. This is in contrast to how conflict analysis is performed in so-called pseudo-Boolean solving, where solvers can reason directly with 0-1 integer linear inequalities rather than with clausal constraints extracted from such inequalities. In this work, we investigate how pseudo-Boolean conflict analysis can be integrated in MIP solving, focusing on 0-1 integer linear programs (0-1 ILPs). Phrased in MIP terminology, conflict analysis can be understood as a sequence of linear combinations and cuts. We leverage this perspective to design a new conflict analysis algorithm based on mixed integer rounding (MIR) cuts, which theoretically dominates the state-of-the-art division-based method in pseudo-Boolean solving. We also report results from a first proof-of-concept implementation of different pseudo-Boolean conflict analysis methods in the open-source MIP solver SCIP. When evaluated on a large and diverse set of 0-1 ILP instances from MIPLIB2017, our new MIR-based conflict analysis outperforms both previous pseudo-Boolean methods and the clause-based method used in MIP. Our conclusion is that pseudo-Boolean conflict analysis in MIP is a promising research direction that merits further study, and that it might also make sense to investigate the use of such conflict analysis to generate stronger no-goods in constraint programming.

Cite as

Gioni Mexi, Timo Berthold, Ambros Gleixner, and Jakob Nordström. Improving Conflict Analysis in MIP Solvers by Pseudo-Boolean Reasoning. In 29th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 280, pp. 27:1-27:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{mexi_et_al:LIPIcs.CP.2023.27,
  author =	{Mexi, Gioni and Berthold, Timo and Gleixner, Ambros and Nordstr\"{o}m, Jakob},
  title =	{{Improving Conflict Analysis in MIP Solvers by Pseudo-Boolean Reasoning}},
  booktitle =	{29th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2023)},
  pages =	{27:1--27:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-300-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{280},
  editor =	{Yap, Roland H. C.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CP.2023.27},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-190641},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CP.2023.27},
  annote =	{Keywords: Integer programming, pseudo-Boolean solving, conflict analysis, cutting planes proof system, mixed integer rounding, division, saturation}
}
Document
Explaining SAT Solving Using Causal Reasoning

Authors: Jiong Yang, Arijit Shaw, Teodora Baluta, Mate Soos, and Kuldeep S. Meel

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 271, 26th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT 2023)


Abstract
The past three decades have witnessed notable success in designing efficient SAT solvers, with modern solvers capable of solving industrial benchmarks containing millions of variables in just a few seconds. The success of modern SAT solvers owes to the widely-used CDCL algorithm, which lacks comprehensive theoretical investigation. Furthermore, it has been observed that CDCL solvers still struggle to deal with specific classes of benchmarks comprising only hundreds of variables, which contrasts with their widespread use in real-world applications. Consequently, there is an urgent need to uncover the inner workings of these seemingly weak yet powerful black boxes. In this paper, we present a first step towards this goal by introducing an approach called {CausalSAT}, which employs causal reasoning to gain insights into the functioning of modern SAT solvers. {CausalSAT} initially generates observational data from the execution of SAT solvers and learns a structured graph representing the causal relationships between the components of a SAT solver. Subsequently, given a query such as whether a clause with low literals blocks distance (LBD) has a higher clause utility, {CausalSAT} calculates the causal effect of LBD on clause utility and provides an answer to the question. We use {CausalSAT} to quantitatively verify hypotheses previously regarded as "rules of thumb" or empirical findings, such as the query above or the notion that clauses with high LBD experience a rapid drop in utility over time. Moreover, {CausalSAT} can address previously unexplored questions, like which branching heuristic leads to greater clause utility in order to study the relationship between branching and clause management. Experimental evaluations using practical benchmarks demonstrate that {CausalSAT} effectively fits the data, verifies four "rules of thumb", and provides answers to three questions closely related to implementing modern solvers.

Cite as

Jiong Yang, Arijit Shaw, Teodora Baluta, Mate Soos, and Kuldeep S. Meel. Explaining SAT Solving Using Causal Reasoning. In 26th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 271, pp. 28:1-28:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{yang_et_al:LIPIcs.SAT.2023.28,
  author =	{Yang, Jiong and Shaw, Arijit and Baluta, Teodora and Soos, Mate and Meel, Kuldeep S.},
  title =	{{Explaining SAT Solving Using Causal Reasoning}},
  booktitle =	{26th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT 2023)},
  pages =	{28:1--28:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-286-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{271},
  editor =	{Mahajan, Meena and Slivovsky, Friedrich},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SAT.2023.28},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-184909},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SAT.2023.28},
  annote =	{Keywords: Satisfiability, Causality, SAT solver, Clause management}
}
Document
Theory and Practice of SAT and Combinatorial Solving (Dagstuhl Seminar 22411)

Authors: Olaf Beyersdorff, Armin Biere, Vijay Ganesh, Jakob Nordström, and Andy Oertel

Published in: Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 12, Issue 10 (2023)


Abstract
This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 22411 "Theory and Practice of SAT and Combinatorial Solving". The purpose of this workshop was to explore the Boolean satisfiability (SAT) problem, which plays a fascinating dual role in computer science. By the theory of NP-completeness, this problem captures thousands of important applications in different fields, and a rich mathematical theory has been developed showing that all these problems are likely to be infeasible to solve in the worst case. But real-world problems are typically not worst-case, and in recent decades exceedingly efficient algorithms based on so-called conflict-driven clause learning (CDCL) have turned SAT solvers into highly practical tools for solving large-scale real-world problems in a wide range of application areas. Analogous developments have taken place for problems beyond NP such as SAT-based optimization (MaxSAT), pseudo-Boolean optimization, satisfiability modulo theories (SMT) solving, quantified Boolean formula (QBF) solving, constraint programming, and mixed integer programming, where the conflict-driven paradigm has sometimes been added to other powerful techniques. The current state of the art in combinatorial solving presents a host of exciting challenges at the borderline between theory and practice. Can we gain a deeper scientific understanding of the techniques and heuristics used in modern combinatorial solvers and why they are so successful? Can we develop tools for rigorous analysis of the potential and limitations of these algorithms? Can computational complexity theory be extended to shed light on real-world settings that go beyond worst case? Can more powerful methods of reasoning developed in theoretical research be harnessed to yield improvements in practical performance? And can state-of-the-art combinatorial solvers be enhanced to not only solve problems, but also provide verifiable proofs of correctness for the solutions they produce? This workshop gathered leading applied and theoretical researchers working on SAT and combinatorial optimization more broadly in order to stimulate an exchange of ideas and techniques. We see great opportunities for fruitful interplay between theory and practice in these areas, as well as for technology transfer between different paradigms in combinatorial optimization, and our assessment is that this workshop demonstrated very convincingly that a more vigorous interaction has potential for major long-term impact in computer science, as well for applications in industry.

Cite as

Olaf Beyersdorff, Armin Biere, Vijay Ganesh, Jakob Nordström, and Andy Oertel. Theory and Practice of SAT and Combinatorial Solving (Dagstuhl Seminar 22411). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 12, Issue 10, pp. 84-105, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@Article{beyersdorff_et_al:DagRep.12.10.84,
  author =	{Beyersdorff, Olaf and Biere, Armin and Ganesh, Vijay and Nordstr\"{o}m, Jakob and Oertel, Andy},
  title =	{{Theory and Practice of SAT and Combinatorial Solving (Dagstuhl Seminar 22411)}},
  pages =	{84--105},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Reports},
  ISSN =	{2192-5283},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{12},
  number =	{10},
  editor =	{Beyersdorff, Olaf and Biere, Armin and Ganesh, Vijay and Nordstr\"{o}m, Jakob and Oertel, Andy},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.12.10.84},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-178212},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagRep.12.10.84},
  annote =	{Keywords: Boolean satisfiability (SAT), SAT solving, computational complexity, proof complexity, combinatorial solving, combinatorial optimization, constraint programming, mixed integer linear programming}
}
Document
Exponential Separations Using Guarded Extension Variables

Authors: Emre Yolcu and Marijn J. H. Heule

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)


Abstract
We study the complexity of proof systems augmenting resolution with inference rules that allow, given a formula Γ in conjunctive normal form, deriving clauses that are not necessarily logically implied by Γ but whose addition to Γ preserves satisfiability. When the derived clauses are allowed to introduce variables not occurring in Γ, the systems we consider become equivalent to extended resolution. We are concerned with the versions of these systems without new variables. They are called BC⁻, RAT⁻, SBC⁻, and GER⁻, denoting respectively blocked clauses, resolution asymmetric tautologies, set-blocked clauses, and generalized extended resolution. Each of these systems formalizes some restricted version of the ability to make assumptions that hold "without loss of generality," which is commonly used informally to simplify or shorten proofs. Except for SBC⁻, these systems are known to be exponentially weaker than extended resolution. They are, however, all equivalent to it under a relaxed notion of simulation that allows the translation of the formula along with the proof when moving between proof systems. By taking advantage of this fact, we construct formulas that separate RAT⁻ from GER⁻ and vice versa. With the same strategy, we also separate SBC⁻ from RAT⁻. Additionally, we give polynomial-size SBC⁻ proofs of the pigeonhole principle, which separates SBC⁻ from GER⁻ by a previously known lower bound. These results also separate the three systems from BC⁻ since they all simulate it. We thus give an almost complete picture of their relative strengths.

Cite as

Emre Yolcu and Marijn J. H. Heule. Exponential Separations Using Guarded Extension Variables. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 101:1-101:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{yolcu_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.101,
  author =	{Yolcu, Emre and Heule, Marijn J. H.},
  title =	{{Exponential Separations Using Guarded Extension Variables}},
  booktitle =	{14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)},
  pages =	{101:1--101:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-263-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{251},
  editor =	{Tauman Kalai, Yael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.101},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-176043},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.101},
  annote =	{Keywords: proof complexity, separations, resolution, extended resolution, blocked clauses}
}
Document
Certified CNF Translations for Pseudo-Boolean Solving

Authors: Stephan Gocht, Ruben Martins, Jakob Nordström, and Andy Oertel

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 236, 25th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT 2022)


Abstract
The dramatic improvements in Boolean satisfiability (SAT) solving since the turn of the millennium have made it possible to leverage state-of-the-art conflict-driven clause learning (CDCL) solvers for many combinatorial problems in academia and industry, and the use of proof logging has played a crucial role in increasing the confidence that the results these solvers produce are correct. However, the fact that SAT proof logging is performed in conjunctive normal form (CNF) clausal format means that it has not been possible to extend guarantees of correctness to the use of SAT solvers for more expressive combinatorial paradigms, where the first step is an unverified translation of the input to CNF. In this work, we show how cutting-planes-based reasoning can provide proof logging for solvers that translate pseudo-Boolean (a.k.a. 0-1 integer linear) decision problems to CNF and then run CDCL. To support a wide range of encodings, we provide a uniform and easily extensible framework for proof logging of CNF translations. We are hopeful that this is just a first step towards providing a unified proof logging approach that will also extend to maximum satisfiability (MaxSAT) solving and pseudo-Boolean optimization in general.

Cite as

Stephan Gocht, Ruben Martins, Jakob Nordström, and Andy Oertel. Certified CNF Translations for Pseudo-Boolean Solving. In 25th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 236, pp. 16:1-16:25, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{gocht_et_al:LIPIcs.SAT.2022.16,
  author =	{Gocht, Stephan and Martins, Ruben and Nordstr\"{o}m, Jakob and Oertel, Andy},
  title =	{{Certified CNF Translations for Pseudo-Boolean Solving}},
  booktitle =	{25th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT 2022)},
  pages =	{16:1--16:25},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-242-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{236},
  editor =	{Meel, Kuldeep S. and Strichman, Ofer},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SAT.2022.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-166901},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SAT.2022.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: pseudo-Boolean solving, 0-1 integer linear program, proof logging, certifying algorithms, certified translation, CNF encoding, cutting planes}
}
Document
An Auditable Constraint Programming Solver

Authors: Stephan Gocht, Ciaran McCreesh, and Jakob Nordström

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 235, 28th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2022)


Abstract
We describe the design and implementation of a new constraint programming solver that can produce an auditable record of what problem was solved and how the solution was reached. As well as a solution, this solver provides an independently verifiable proof log demonstrating that the solution is correct. This proof log uses the VeriPB proof system, which is based upon cutting planes reasoning with extension variables. We explain how this system can support global constraints, variables with large domains, and reformulation, despite not natively understanding any of these concepts.

Cite as

Stephan Gocht, Ciaran McCreesh, and Jakob Nordström. An Auditable Constraint Programming Solver. In 28th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 235, pp. 25:1-25:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{gocht_et_al:LIPIcs.CP.2022.25,
  author =	{Gocht, Stephan and McCreesh, Ciaran and Nordstr\"{o}m, Jakob},
  title =	{{An Auditable Constraint Programming Solver}},
  booktitle =	{28th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2022)},
  pages =	{25:1--25:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-240-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{235},
  editor =	{Solnon, Christine},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CP.2022.25},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-166548},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CP.2022.25},
  annote =	{Keywords: Constraint programming, proof logging, auditable solving}
}
Document
Proof Complexity of Natural Formulas via Communication Arguments

Authors: Dmitry Itsykson and Artur Riazanov

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 200, 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)


Abstract
A canonical communication problem Search(φ) is defined for every unsatisfiable CNF φ: an assignment to the variables of φ is partitioned among the communicating parties, they are to find a clause of φ falsified by this assignment. Lower bounds on the randomized k-party communication complexity of Search(φ) in the number-on-forehead (NOF) model imply tree-size lower bounds, rank lower bounds, and size-space tradeoffs for the formula φ in the semantic proof system T^{cc}(k,c) that operates with proof lines that can be computed by k-party randomized communication protocol using at most c bits of communication [Göös and Pitassi, 2014]. All known lower bounds on Search(φ) (e.g. [Beame et al., 2007; Göös and Pitassi, 2014; Russell Impagliazzo et al., 1994]) are realized on ad-hoc formulas φ (i.e. they were introduced specifically for these lower bounds). We introduce a new communication complexity approach that allows establishing proof complexity lower bounds for natural formulas. First, we demonstrate our approach for two-party communication and apply it to the proof system Res(⊕) that operates with disjunctions of linear equalities over 𝔽₂ [Dmitry Itsykson and Dmitry Sokolov, 2014]. Let a formula PM_G encode that a graph G has a perfect matching. If G has an odd number of vertices, then PM_G has a tree-like Res(⊕)-refutation of a polynomial-size [Dmitry Itsykson and Dmitry Sokolov, 2014]. It was unknown whether this is the case for graphs with an even number of vertices. Using our approach we resolve this question and show a lower bound 2^{Ω(n)} on size of tree-like Res(⊕)-refutations of PM_{K_{n+2,n}}. Then we apply our approach for k-party communication complexity in the NOF model and obtain a Ω(1/k 2^{n/2k - 3k/2}) lower bound on the randomized k-party communication complexity of Search(BPHP^{M}_{2ⁿ}) w.r.t. to some natural partition of the variables, where BPHP^{M}_{2ⁿ} is the bit pigeonhole principle and M = 2ⁿ+2^{n(1-1/k)}. In particular, our result implies that the bit pigeonhole requires exponential tree-like Th(k) proofs, where Th(k) is the semantic proof system operating with polynomial inequalities of degree at most k and k = 𝒪(log^{1-ε} n) for some ε > 0. We also show that BPHP^{2ⁿ+1}_{2ⁿ} superpolynomially separates tree-like Th(log^{1-ε} m) from tree-like Th(log m), where m is the number of variables in the refuted formula.

Cite as

Dmitry Itsykson and Artur Riazanov. Proof Complexity of Natural Formulas via Communication Arguments. In 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 200, pp. 3:1-3:34, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{itsykson_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2021.3,
  author =	{Itsykson, Dmitry and Riazanov, Artur},
  title =	{{Proof Complexity of Natural Formulas via Communication Arguments}},
  booktitle =	{36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)},
  pages =	{3:1--3:34},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-193-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{200},
  editor =	{Kabanets, Valentine},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.3},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-142773},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.3},
  annote =	{Keywords: bit pigeonhole principle, disjointness, multiparty communication complexity, perfect matching, proof complexity, randomized communication complexity, Resolution over linear equations, tree-like proofs}
}
Document
The Power of Negative Reasoning

Authors: Susanna F. de Rezende, Massimo Lauria, Jakob Nordström, and Dmitry Sokolov

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 200, 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)


Abstract
Semialgebraic proof systems have been studied extensively in proof complexity since the late 1990s to understand the power of Gröbner basis computations, linear and semidefinite programming hierarchies, and other methods. Such proof systems are defined alternately with only the original variables of the problem and with special formal variables for positive and negative literals, but there seems to have been no study how these different definitions affect the power of the proof systems. We show for Nullstellensatz, polynomial calculus, Sherali-Adams, and sums-of-squares that adding formal variables for negative literals makes the proof systems exponentially stronger, with respect to the number of terms in the proofs. These separations are witnessed by CNF formulas that are easy for resolution, which establishes that polynomial calculus, Sherali-Adams, and sums-of-squares cannot efficiently simulate resolution without having access to variables for negative literals.

Cite as

Susanna F. de Rezende, Massimo Lauria, Jakob Nordström, and Dmitry Sokolov. The Power of Negative Reasoning. In 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 200, pp. 40:1-40:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{derezende_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2021.40,
  author =	{de Rezende, Susanna F. and Lauria, Massimo and Nordstr\"{o}m, Jakob and Sokolov, Dmitry},
  title =	{{The Power of Negative Reasoning}},
  booktitle =	{36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)},
  pages =	{40:1--40:24},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-193-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{200},
  editor =	{Kabanets, Valentine},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.40},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-143140},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.40},
  annote =	{Keywords: Proof complexity, Polynomial calculus, Nullstellensatz, Sums-of-squares, Sherali-Adams}
}
Document
Exponential Resolution Lower Bounds for Weak Pigeonhole Principle and Perfect Matching Formulas over Sparse Graphs

Authors: Susanna F. de Rezende, Jakob Nordström, Kilian Risse, and Dmitry Sokolov

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 169, 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)


Abstract
We show exponential lower bounds on resolution proof length for pigeonhole principle (PHP) formulas and perfect matching formulas over highly unbalanced, sparse expander graphs, thus answering the challenge to establish strong lower bounds in the regime between balanced constant-degree expanders as in [Ben-Sasson and Wigderson '01] and highly unbalanced, dense graphs as in [Raz '04] and [Razborov '03, '04]. We obtain our results by revisiting Razborov’s pseudo-width method for PHP formulas over dense graphs and extending it to sparse graphs. This further demonstrates the power of the pseudo-width method, and we believe it could potentially be useful for attacking also other longstanding open problems for resolution and other proof systems.

Cite as

Susanna F. de Rezende, Jakob Nordström, Kilian Risse, and Dmitry Sokolov. Exponential Resolution Lower Bounds for Weak Pigeonhole Principle and Perfect Matching Formulas over Sparse Graphs. In 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 169, pp. 28:1-28:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{derezende_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2020.28,
  author =	{de Rezende, Susanna F. and Nordstr\"{o}m, Jakob and Risse, Kilian and Sokolov, Dmitry},
  title =	{{Exponential Resolution Lower Bounds for Weak Pigeonhole Principle and Perfect Matching Formulas over Sparse Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)},
  pages =	{28:1--28:24},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-156-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{169},
  editor =	{Saraf, Shubhangi},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.28},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125804},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.28},
  annote =	{Keywords: proof complexity, resolution, weak pigeonhole principle, perfect matching, sparse graphs}
}
Document
Trade-Offs Between Size and Degree in Polynomial Calculus

Authors: Guillaume Lagarde, Jakob Nordström, Dmitry Sokolov, and Joseph Swernofsky

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)


Abstract
Building on [Clegg et al. '96], [Impagliazzo et al. '99] established that if an unsatisfiable k-CNF formula over n variables has a refutation of size S in the polynomial calculus resolution proof system, then this formula also has a refutation of degree k + O(√(n log S)). The proof of this works by converting a small-size refutation into a small-degree one, but at the expense of increasing the proof size exponentially. This raises the question of whether it is possible to achieve both small size and small degree in the same refutation, or whether the exponential blow-up is inherent. Using and extending ideas from [Thapen '16], who studied the analogous question for the resolution proof system, we prove that a strong size-degree trade-off is necessary.

Cite as

Guillaume Lagarde, Jakob Nordström, Dmitry Sokolov, and Joseph Swernofsky. Trade-Offs Between Size and Degree in Polynomial Calculus. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 72:1-72:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{lagarde_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.72,
  author =	{Lagarde, Guillaume and Nordstr\"{o}m, Jakob and Sokolov, Dmitry and Swernofsky, Joseph},
  title =	{{Trade-Offs Between Size and Degree in Polynomial Calculus}},
  booktitle =	{11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)},
  pages =	{72:1--72:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-134-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{151},
  editor =	{Vidick, Thomas},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.72},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117573},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.72},
  annote =	{Keywords: proof complexity, polynomial calculus, polynomial calculus resolution, PCR, size-degree trade-off, resolution, colored polynomial local search}
}
Document
Nullstellensatz Size-Degree Trade-offs from Reversible Pebbling

Authors: Susanna F. de Rezende, Jakob Nordström, Or Meir, and Robert Robere

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 137, 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)


Abstract
We establish an exactly tight relation between reversible pebblings of graphs and Nullstellensatz refutations of pebbling formulas, showing that a graph G can be reversibly pebbled in time t and space s if and only if there is a Nullstellensatz refutation of the pebbling formula over G in size t+1 and degree s (independently of the field in which the Nullstellensatz refutation is made). We use this correspondence to prove a number of strong size-degree trade-offs for Nullstellensatz, which to the best of our knowledge are the first such results for this proof system.

Cite as

Susanna F. de Rezende, Jakob Nordström, Or Meir, and Robert Robere. Nullstellensatz Size-Degree Trade-offs from Reversible Pebbling. In 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 137, pp. 18:1-18:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{derezende_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2019.18,
  author =	{de Rezende, Susanna F. and Nordstr\"{o}m, Jakob and Meir, Or and Robere, Robert},
  title =	{{Nullstellensatz Size-Degree Trade-offs from Reversible Pebbling}},
  booktitle =	{34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)},
  pages =	{18:1--18:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-116-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{137},
  editor =	{Shpilka, Amir},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.18},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-108403},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.18},
  annote =	{Keywords: proof complexity, Nullstellensatz, pebble games, trade-offs, size, degree}
}
Document
Size-Degree Trade-Offs for Sums-of-Squares and Positivstellensatz Proofs

Authors: Albert Atserias and Tuomas Hakoniemi

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 137, 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)


Abstract
We show that if a system of degree-k polynomial constraints on n Boolean variables has a Sums-of-Squares (SOS) proof of unsatisfiability with at most s many monomials, then it also has one whose degree is of the order of the square root of n log s plus k. A similar statement holds for the more general Positivstellensatz (PS) proofs. This establishes size-degree trade-offs for SOS and PS that match their analogues for weaker proof systems such as Resolution, Polynomial Calculus, and the proof systems for the LP and SDP hierarchies of Lovász and Schrijver. As a corollary to this, and to the known degree lower bounds, we get optimal integrality gaps for exponential size SOS proofs for sparse random instances of the standard NP-hard constraint optimization problems. We also get exponential size SOS lower bounds for Tseitin and Knapsack formulas. The proof of our main result relies on a zero-gap duality theorem for pre-ordered vector spaces that admit an order unit, whose specialization to PS and SOS may be of independent interest.

Cite as

Albert Atserias and Tuomas Hakoniemi. Size-Degree Trade-Offs for Sums-of-Squares and Positivstellensatz Proofs. In 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 137, pp. 24:1-24:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{atserias_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2019.24,
  author =	{Atserias, Albert and Hakoniemi, Tuomas},
  title =	{{Size-Degree Trade-Offs for Sums-of-Squares and Positivstellensatz Proofs}},
  booktitle =	{34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)},
  pages =	{24:1--24:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-116-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{137},
  editor =	{Shpilka, Amir},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.24},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-108464},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.24},
  annote =	{Keywords: Proof complexity, semialgebraic proof systems, Sums-of-Squares, Positivstellensatz, trade-offs, lower bounds, monomial size, degree}
}
Document
Proof Complexity (Dagstuhl Seminar 18051)

Authors: Albert Atserias, Jakob Nordström, Pavel Pudlák, and Rahul Santhanam

Published in: Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 8, Issue 1 (2018)


Abstract
The study of proof complexity was initiated in [Cook and Reckhow 1979] as a way to attack the P vs.NP problem, and in the ensuing decades many powerful techniques have been discovered for analyzing different proof systems. Proof complexity also gives a way of studying subsystems of Peano Arithmetic where the power of mathematical reasoning is restricted, and to quantify how complex different mathematical theorems are measured in terms of the strength of the methods of reasoning required to establish their validity. Moreover, it allows to analyse the power and limitations of satisfiability algorithms (SAT solvers) used in industrial applications with formulas containing up to millions of variables. During the last 10--15 years the area of proof complexity has seen a revival with many exciting results, and new connections have also been revealed with other areas such as, e.g., cryptography, algebraic complexity theory, communication complexity, and combinatorial optimization. While many longstanding open problems from the 1980s and 1990s still remain unsolved, recent progress gives hope that the area may be ripe for decisive breakthroughs. This workshop, gathering researchers from different strands of the proof complexity community, gave opportunities to take stock of where we stand and discuss the way ahead.

Cite as

Albert Atserias, Jakob Nordström, Pavel Pudlák, and Rahul Santhanam. Proof Complexity (Dagstuhl Seminar 18051). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp. 124-157, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)


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@Article{atserias_et_al:DagRep.8.1.124,
  author =	{Atserias, Albert and Nordstr\"{o}m, Jakob and Pudl\'{a}k, Pavel and Santhanam, Rahul},
  title =	{{Proof Complexity (Dagstuhl Seminar 18051)}},
  pages =	{124--157},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Reports},
  ISSN =	{2192-5283},
  year =	{2018},
  volume =	{8},
  number =	{1},
  editor =	{Atserias, Albert and Nordstr\"{o}m, Jakob and Pudl\'{a}k, Pavel and Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.8.1.124},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-92864},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagRep.8.1.124},
  annote =	{Keywords: bounded arithmetic, computational complexity, logic, proof complexity, satisfiability algorithms}
}
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