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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 258, 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)

For a drawing of a labeled graph, the rotation of a vertex or crossing is the cyclic order of its incident edges, represented by the labels of their other endpoints. The extended rotation system (ERS) of the drawing is the collection of the rotations of all vertices and crossings. A drawing is simple if each pair of edges has at most one common point. Gioan’s Theorem states that for any two simple drawings of the complete graph K_n with the same crossing edge pairs, one drawing can be transformed into the other by a sequence of triangle flips (a.k.a. Reidemeister moves of Type 3). This operation refers to the act of moving one edge of a triangular cell formed by three pairwise crossing edges over the opposite crossing of the cell, via a local transformation.
We investigate to what extent Gioan-type theorems can be obtained for wider classes of graphs. A necessary (but in general not sufficient) condition for two drawings of a graph to be transformable into each other by a sequence of triangle flips is that they have the same ERS. As our main result, we show that for the large class of complete multipartite graphs, this necessary condition is in fact also sufficient. We present two different proofs of this result, one of which is shorter, while the other one yields a polynomial time algorithm for which the number of needed triangle flips for graphs on n vertices is bounded by O(n^{16}). The latter proof uses a Carathéodory-type theorem for simple drawings of complete multipartite graphs, which we believe to be of independent interest.
Moreover, we show that our Gioan-type theorem for complete multipartite graphs is essentially tight in the following sense: For the complete bipartite graph K_{m,n} minus two edges and K_{m,n} plus one edge for any m,n ≥ 4, as well as K_n minus a 4-cycle for any n ≥ 5, there exist two simple drawings with the same ERS that cannot be transformed into each other using triangle flips. So having the same ERS does not remain sufficient when removing or adding very few edges.

Oswin Aichholzer, Man-Kwun Chiu, Hung P. Hoang, Michael Hoffmann, Jan Kynčl, Yannic Maus, Birgit Vogtenhuber, and Alexandra Weinberger. Drawings of Complete Multipartite Graphs up to Triangle Flips. In 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 258, pp. 6:1-6:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{aichholzer_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.6, author = {Aichholzer, Oswin and Chiu, Man-Kwun and Hoang, Hung P. and Hoffmann, Michael and Kyn\v{c}l, Jan and Maus, Yannic and Vogtenhuber, Birgit and Weinberger, Alexandra}, title = {{Drawings of Complete Multipartite Graphs up to Triangle Flips}}, booktitle = {39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)}, pages = {6:1--6:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-273-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {258}, editor = {Chambers, Erin W. and Gudmundsson, Joachim}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-178563}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.6}, annote = {Keywords: Simple drawings, simple topological graphs, complete graphs, multipartite graphs, k-partite graphs, bipartite graphs, Gioan’s Theorem, triangle flips, Reidemeister moves} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 244, 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)

Given a graph where every vertex has exactly one labeled token, how can we most quickly execute a given permutation on the tokens? In (sequential) token swapping, the goal is to use the shortest possible sequence of swaps, each of which exchanges the tokens at the two endpoints of an edge of the graph. In parallel token swapping, the goal is to use the fewest rounds, each of which consists of one or more swaps on the edges of a matching. We prove that both of these problems remain NP-hard when the graph is restricted to be a tree.
These token swapping problems have been studied by disparate groups of researchers in discrete mathematics, theoretical computer science, robot motion planning, game theory, and engineering. Previous work establishes NP-completeness on general graphs (for both problems), constant-factor approximation algorithms, and some poly-time exact algorithms for simple graph classes such as cliques, stars, paths, and cycles. Sequential and parallel token swapping on trees were first studied over thirty years ago (as "sorting with a transposition tree") and over twenty-five years ago (as "routing permutations via matchings"), yet their complexities were previously unknown.
We also show limitations on approximation of sequential token swapping on trees: we identify a broad class of algorithms that encompass all three known polynomial-time algorithms that achieve the best known approximation factor (which is 2) and show that no such algorithm can achieve an approximation factor less than 2.

Oswin Aichholzer, Erik D. Demaine, Matias Korman, Anna Lubiw, Jayson Lynch, Zuzana Masárová, Mikhail Rudoy, Virginia Vassilevska Williams, and Nicole Wein. Hardness of Token Swapping on Trees. In 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 244, pp. 3:1-3:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{aichholzer_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2022.3, author = {Aichholzer, Oswin and Demaine, Erik D. and Korman, Matias and Lubiw, Anna and Lynch, Jayson and Mas\'{a}rov\'{a}, Zuzana and Rudoy, Mikhail and Vassilevska Williams, Virginia and Wein, Nicole}, title = {{Hardness of Token Swapping on Trees}}, booktitle = {30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)}, pages = {3:1--3:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-247-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {244}, editor = {Chechik, Shiri and Navarro, Gonzalo and Rotenberg, Eva and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-169413}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.3}, annote = {Keywords: Sorting, Token swapping, Trees, NP-hard, Approximation} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 224, 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)

Simple drawings are drawings of graphs in which the edges are Jordan arcs and each pair of edges share at most one point (a proper crossing or a common endpoint). We introduce a special kind of simple drawings that we call generalized twisted drawings. A simple drawing is generalized twisted if there is a point O such that every ray emanating from O crosses every edge of the drawing at most once and there is a ray emanating from O which crosses every edge exactly once.
Via this new class of simple drawings, we show that every simple drawing of the complete graph with n vertices contains Ω(n^{1/2}) pairwise disjoint edges and a plane path of length Ω((log n)/(log log n)). Both results improve over previously known best lower bounds. On the way we show several structural results about and properties of generalized twisted drawings. We further present different characterizations of generalized twisted drawings, which might be of independent interest.

Oswin Aichholzer, Alfredo García, Javier Tejel, Birgit Vogtenhuber, and Alexandra Weinberger. Twisted Ways to Find Plane Structures in Simple Drawings of Complete Graphs. In 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 224, pp. 5:1-5:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{aichholzer_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.5, author = {Aichholzer, Oswin and Garc{\'\i}a, Alfredo and Tejel, Javier and Vogtenhuber, Birgit and Weinberger, Alexandra}, title = {{Twisted Ways to Find Plane Structures in Simple Drawings of Complete Graphs}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)}, pages = {5:1--5:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-227-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {224}, editor = {Goaoc, Xavier and Kerber, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-160136}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.5}, annote = {Keywords: Simple drawings, simple topological graphs, disjoint edges, plane matching, plane path} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 224, 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)

In this paper, we disprove the long-standing conjecture that any complete geometric graph on 2n vertices can be partitioned into n plane spanning trees. Our construction is based on so-called bumpy wheel sets. We fully characterize which bumpy wheels can and in particular which cannot be partitioned into plane spanning trees (or even into arbitrary plane subgraphs).
Furthermore, we show a sufficient condition for generalized wheels to not admit a partition into plane spanning trees, and give a complete characterization when they admit a partition into plane spanning double stars.
Finally, we initiate the study of partitions into beyond planar subgraphs, namely into k-planar and k-quasi-planar subgraphs and obtain first bounds on the number of subgraphs required in this setting.

Oswin Aichholzer, Johannes Obenaus, Joachim Orthaber, Rosna Paul, Patrick Schnider, Raphael Steiner, Tim Taubner, and Birgit Vogtenhuber. Edge Partitions of Complete Geometric Graphs. In 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 224, pp. 6:1-6:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{aichholzer_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.6, author = {Aichholzer, Oswin and Obenaus, Johannes and Orthaber, Joachim and Paul, Rosna and Schnider, Patrick and Steiner, Raphael and Taubner, Tim and Vogtenhuber, Birgit}, title = {{Edge Partitions of Complete Geometric Graphs}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)}, pages = {6:1--6:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-227-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {224}, editor = {Goaoc, Xavier and Kerber, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-160141}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.6}, annote = {Keywords: edge partition, complete geometric graph, plane spanning tree, wheel set} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 77, 33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017)

Let P be a finite set of points in the plane in general position, that is, no three points of P are on a common line. We say that a set H of five points from P is a 5-hole in P if H is the vertex set of a convex 5-gon containing no other points of P. For a positive integer n, let h_5(n) be the minimum number of 5-holes among all sets of n points in the plane in general position.
Despite many efforts in the last 30 years, the best known asymptotic lower and upper bounds for h_5(n) have been of order Omega(n) and O(n^2), respectively. We show that h_5(n) = Omega(n(log n)^(4/5)), obtaining the first superlinear lower bound on h_5(n).
The following structural result, which might be of independent interest, is a crucial step in the proof of this lower bound. If a finite set P of points in the plane in general position is partitioned by a line l into two subsets, each of size at least 5 and not in convex position, then l intersects the convex hull of some 5-hole in P. The proof of this result is computer-assisted.

Oswin Aichholzer, Martin Balko, Thomas Hackl, Jan Kyncl, Irene Parada, Manfred Scheucher, Pavel Valtr, and Birgit Vogtenhuber. A Superlinear Lower Bound on the Number of 5-Holes. In 33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 77, pp. 8:1-8:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{aichholzer_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.8, author = {Aichholzer, Oswin and Balko, Martin and Hackl, Thomas and Kyncl, Jan and Parada, Irene and Scheucher, Manfred and Valtr, Pavel and Vogtenhuber, Birgit}, title = {{A Superlinear Lower Bound on the Number of 5-Holes}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017)}, pages = {8:1--8:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-038-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {77}, editor = {Aronov, Boris and Katz, Matthew J.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-72008}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.8}, annote = {Keywords: Erd\"{o}s-Szekeres type problem, k-hole, empty k-gon, empty pentagon, planar point set} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 64, 27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016)

Given a set of points in the plane, we want to establish a connection network between these points that consists of several disjoint layers. Motivated by sensor networks, we want that each layer is spanning and plane, and that no edge is very long (when compared to the minimum length needed to obtain a spanning graph). We consider two different approaches: first we show an almost optimal centralized approach to extract two trees. Then we show a constant factor approximation for a distributed model in which each point can compute its adjacencies using only local information. This second approach may create cycles, but maintains planarity.

Oswin Aichholzer, Thomas Hackl, Matias Korman, Alexander Pilz, Günter Rote, André van Renssen, Marcel Roeloffzen, and Birgit Vogtenhuber. Packing Short Plane Spanning Trees in Complete Geometric Graphs. In 27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 64, pp. 9:1-9:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{aichholzer_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.9, author = {Aichholzer, Oswin and Hackl, Thomas and Korman, Matias and Pilz, Alexander and Rote, G\"{u}nter and van Renssen, Andr\'{e} and Roeloffzen, Marcel and Vogtenhuber, Birgit}, title = {{Packing Short Plane Spanning Trees in Complete Geometric Graphs}}, booktitle = {27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016)}, pages = {9:1--9:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-026-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {64}, editor = {Hong, Seok-Hee}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.9}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-67823}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.9}, annote = {Keywords: Geometric Graphs, Graph Packing, Plane Graphs, Minimum Spanning Tree, Bottleneck Edge} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 51, 32nd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2016)

Upper and lower bounds for the number of geometric graphs of specific types on a given set of points in the plane have been intensively studied in recent years. For most classes of geometric graphs it is now known that point sets in convex position minimize their number. However, it is still unclear which point sets minimize the number of geometric triangulations; the so-called double circles are conjectured to be the minimizing sets. In this paper we prove that any set of n points in general position in the plane has at least Omega(2.631^n) geometric triangulations. Our result improves the previously best general lower bound of Omega(2.43^n) and also covers the previously best lower bound of Omega(2.63^n) for a fixed number of extreme points. We achieve our bound by showing and combining several new results, which are of independent interest:
(1) Adding a point on the second convex layer of a given point set (of 7 or more points) at least doubles the number of triangulations.
(2) Generalized configurations of points that minimize the number of triangulations have at most n/2 points on their convex hull.
(3) We provide tight lower bounds for the number of triangulations of point sets with up to 15 points. These bounds further support the double circle conjecture.

Oswin Aichholzer, Victor Alvarez, Thomas Hackl, Alexander Pilz, Bettina Speckmann, and Birgit Vogtenhuber. An Improved Lower Bound on the Minimum Number of Triangulations. In 32nd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 51, pp. 7:1-7:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{aichholzer_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2016.7, author = {Aichholzer, Oswin and Alvarez, Victor and Hackl, Thomas and Pilz, Alexander and Speckmann, Bettina and Vogtenhuber, Birgit}, title = {{An Improved Lower Bound on the Minimum Number of Triangulations}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2016)}, pages = {7:1--7:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-009-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {51}, editor = {Fekete, S\'{a}ndor and Lubiw, Anna}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2016.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-58993}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2016.7}, annote = {Keywords: Combinatorial geometry, Order types, Triangulations} }

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