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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

What is the power of polynomial-time quantum computation with access to an NP oracle? In this work, we focus on two fundamental tasks from the study of Boolean satisfiability (SAT) problems: search-to-decision reductions, and approximate counting. We first show that, in strong contrast to the classical setting where a poly-time Turing machine requires Θ(n) queries to an NP oracle to compute a witness to a given SAT formula, quantumly Θ(log n) queries suffice. We then show this is tight in the black-box model - any quantum algorithm with "NP-like" query access to a formula requires Ω(log n) queries to extract a solution with constant probability.
Moving to approximate counting of SAT solutions, by exploiting a quantum link between search-to-decision reductions and approximate counting, we show that existing classical approximate counting algorithms are likely optimal. First, we give a lower bound in the "NP-like" black-box query setting: Approximate counting requires Ω(log n) queries, even on a quantum computer. We then give a "white-box" lower bound (i.e. where the input formula is not hidden in the oracle) - if there exists a randomized poly-time classical or quantum algorithm for approximate counting making o(log n) NP queries, then BPP^NP[o(n)] contains a 𝖯^NP-complete problem if the algorithm is classical and FBQP^NP[o(n)] contains an FP^NP-complete problem if the algorithm is quantum.

Sevag Gharibian and Jonas Kamminga. BQP, Meet NP: Search-To-Decision Reductions and Approximate Counting. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 70:1-70:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{gharibian_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.70, author = {Gharibian, Sevag and Kamminga, Jonas}, title = {{BQP, Meet NP: Search-To-Decision Reductions and Approximate Counting}}, booktitle = {51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)}, pages = {70:1--70:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-322-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {297}, editor = {Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.70}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202134}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.70}, annote = {Keywords: Approximate Counting, Search to Decision Reduction, BQP, NP, Oracle Complexity Class} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 264, 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)

Variational Quantum Algorithms (VQAs), such as the Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA) of [Farhi, Goldstone, Gutmann, 2014], have seen intense study towards near-term applications on quantum hardware. A crucial parameter for VQAs is the depth of the variational ansatz used - the smaller the depth, the more amenable the ansatz is to near-term quantum hardware in that it gives the circuit a chance to be fully executed before the system decoheres. In this work, we show that approximating the optimal depth for a given VQA ansatz is intractable. Formally, we show that for any constant ε > 0, it is QCMA-hard to approximate the optimal depth of a VQA ansatz within multiplicative factor N^(1-ε), for N denoting the encoding size of the VQA instance. (Here, Quantum Classical Merlin-Arthur (QCMA) is a quantum generalization of NP.) We then show that this hardness persists in the even "simpler" QAOA-type settings. To our knowledge, this yields the first natural QCMA-hard-to-approximate problems.

Lennart Bittel, Sevag Gharibian, and Martin Kliesch. The Optimal Depth of Variational Quantum Algorithms Is QCMA-Hard to Approximate. In 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 264, pp. 34:1-34:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{bittel_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2023.34, author = {Bittel, Lennart and Gharibian, Sevag and Kliesch, Martin}, title = {{The Optimal Depth of Variational Quantum Algorithms Is QCMA-Hard to Approximate}}, booktitle = {38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)}, pages = {34:1--34:24}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-282-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {264}, editor = {Ta-Shma, Amnon}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.34}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-183045}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.34}, annote = {Keywords: Variational quantum algorithms (VQA), Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA), circuit depth minimization, Quantum-Classical Merlin-Arthur (QCMA), hardness of approximation, hybrid quantum algorithms} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

Estimating the ground state energy of a local Hamiltonian is a central problem in quantum chemistry. In order to further investigate its complexity and the potential of quantum algorithms for quantum chemistry, Gharibian and Le Gall (STOC 2022) recently introduced the guided local Hamiltonian problem (GLH), which is a variant of the local Hamiltonian problem where an approximation of a ground state (which is called a guiding state) is given as an additional input. Gharibian and Le Gall showed quantum advantage (more precisely, BQP-completeness) for GLH with 6-local Hamiltonians when the guiding state has fidelity (inverse-polynomially) close to 1/2 with a ground state.
In this paper, we optimally improve both the locality and the fidelity parameter: we show that the BQP-completeness persists even with 2-local Hamiltonians, and even when the guiding state has fidelity (inverse-polynomially) close to 1 with a ground state. Moreover, we show that the BQP-completeness also holds for 2-local physically motivated Hamiltonians on a 2D square lattice or a 2D triangular lattice. Beyond the hardness of estimating the ground state energy, we also show BQP-hardness persists when considering estimating energies of excited states of these Hamiltonians instead. Those make further steps towards establishing practical quantum advantage in quantum chemistry.

Chris Cade, Marten Folkertsma, Sevag Gharibian, Ryu Hayakawa, François Le Gall, Tomoyuki Morimae, and Jordi Weggemans. Improved Hardness Results for the Guided Local Hamiltonian Problem. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 32:1-32:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{cade_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.32, author = {Cade, Chris and Folkertsma, Marten and Gharibian, Sevag and Hayakawa, Ryu and Le Gall, Fran\c{c}ois and Morimae, Tomoyuki and Weggemans, Jordi}, title = {{Improved Hardness Results for the Guided Local Hamiltonian Problem}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {32:1--32:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.32}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180840}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.32}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum computing, Quantum advantage, Quantum Chemistry, Guided Local Hamiltonian Problem} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 254, 40th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2023)

The physically motivated quantum generalisation of k-SAT, the k-Local Hamiltonian (k-LH) problem, is well-known to be QMA-complete ("quantum NP"-complete). What is surprising, however, is that while the former is easy on 1D Boolean formulae, the latter remains hard on 1D local Hamiltonians, even if all constraints are identical [Gottesman, Irani, FOCS 2009]. Such "translation-invariant" systems are much closer in structure to what one might see in Nature. Moving beyond k-LH, what is often more physically interesting is the computation of properties of the ground space (i.e. "solution space") itself. In this work, we focus on two such recent problems: Simulating local measurements on the ground space (APX-SIM, analogous to computing properties of optimal solutions to MAX-SAT formulae) [Ambainis, CCC 2014], and deciding if the low energy space has an energy barrier (GSCON, analogous to classical reconfiguration problems) [Gharibian, Sikora, ICALP 2015]. These problems are known to be P^{QMA[log]}- and QCMA-complete, respectively, in the general case. Yet, to date, it is not known whether they remain hard in such simple 1D translationally invariant systems.
In this work, we show that the 1D translationally invariant versions of both APX-SIM and GSCON are intractable, namely are P^{QMA_{EXP}}- and QCMA^{EXP}-complete ("quantum P^{NEXP}" and "quantum NEXP"), respectively. Each of these results is attained by giving a respective generic "lifting theorem". For APX-SIM we give a framework for lifting any abstract local circuit-to-Hamiltonian mapping H satisfying mild assumptions to hardness of APX-SIM on the family of Hamiltonians produced by H, while preserving the structural properties of H (e.g. translation invariance, geometry, locality, etc). Each result also leverages counterintuitive properties of our constructions: for APX-SIM, we compress the answers to polynomially many parallel queries to a QMA oracle into a single qubit. For GSCON, we show strong robustness, i.e. soundness even against adversaries acting on all but a single qudit in the system.

James D. Watson, Johannes Bausch, and Sevag Gharibian. The Complexity of Translationally Invariant Problems Beyond Ground State Energies. In 40th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 254, pp. 54:1-54:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{watson_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2023.54, author = {Watson, James D. and Bausch, Johannes and Gharibian, Sevag}, title = {{The Complexity of Translationally Invariant Problems Beyond Ground State Energies}}, booktitle = {40th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2023)}, pages = {54:1--54:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-266-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {254}, editor = {Berenbrink, Petra and Bouyer, Patricia and Dawar, Anuj and Kant\'{e}, Mamadou Moustapha}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2023.54}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-177065}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2023.54}, annote = {Keywords: Complexity, Quantum Computing, Physics, Constraint Satisfaction, Combinatorial Reconfiguration, Many-Body Physics} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)

A celebrated result in classical complexity theory is Savitch’s theorem, which states that non-deterministic polynomial-space computations (NPSPACE) can be simulated by deterministic poly-space computations (PSPACE). In this work, we initiate the study of a quantum analogue of NPSPACE, denoted Streaming-QCMASPACE (SQCMASPACE), in which an exponentially long classical proof is streamed to a poly-space quantum verifier. We first show that a quantum analogue of Savitch’s theorem is unlikely to hold, in that SQCMASPACE = NEXP. For completeness, we also introduce the companion class Streaming-QMASPACE (SQMASPACE) with an exponentially long streamed quantum proof, and show SQMASPACE = QMAEXP (the quantum analogue of NEXP). Our primary focus, however, is on the study of exponentially long streaming classical proofs, where we next show the following two main results.
The first result shows that, in strong contrast to the classical setting, the solution space of a quantum constraint satisfaction problem (i.e. a local Hamiltonian) is always connected when exponentially long proofs are permitted. For this, we show how to simulate any Lipschitz continuous path on the unit hypersphere via a sequence of local unitary gates, at the expense of blowing up the circuit size. This shows that quantum error-correcting codes can be unable to detect one codeword erroneously evolving to another if the evolution happens sufficiently slowly, and answers an open question of [Gharibian, Sikora, ICALP 2015] regarding the Ground State Connectivity problem.
Our second main result is that any SQCMASPACE computation can be embedded into "unentanglement", i.e. into a quantum constraint satisfaction problem with unentangled provers. Formally, we show how to embed SQCMASPACE into the Sparse Separable Hamiltonian problem of [Chailloux, Sattath, CCC 2012] (QMA(2)-complete for 1/poly promise gap), at the expense of scaling the promise gap with the streamed proof size. As a corollary, we obtain the first systematic construction for obtaining QMA(2)-type upper bounds on arbitrary multi-prover interactive proof systems, where the QMA(2) promise gap scales exponentially with the number of bits of communication in the interactive proof. Our construction uses a new technique for exploiting unentanglement to simulate quadratic Boolean functions, which in some sense allows history states to encode the future.

Sevag Gharibian and Dorian Rudolph. Quantum Space, Ground Space Traversal, and How to Embed Multi-Prover Interactive Proofs into Unentanglement. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 53:1-53:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{gharibian_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.53, author = {Gharibian, Sevag and Rudolph, Dorian}, title = {{Quantum Space, Ground Space Traversal, and How to Embed Multi-Prover Interactive Proofs into Unentanglement}}, booktitle = {14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)}, pages = {53:1--53:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-263-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {251}, editor = {Tauman Kalai, Yael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.53}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175564}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.53}, annote = {Keywords: quantum complexity theory, Quantum Merlin Arthur (QMA), QMA(2), ground state connectivity (GSCON), quantum error correction} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

We study the complexity of problems solvable in deterministic polynomial time with access to an NP or Quantum Merlin-Arthur (QMA)-oracle, such as P^NP and P^QMA, respectively. The former allows one to classify problems more finely than the Polynomial-Time Hierarchy (PH), whereas the latter characterizes physically motivated problems such as Approximate Simulation (APX-SIM) [Ambainis, CCC 2014]. In this area, a central role has been played by the classes P^NP[log] and P^QMA[log], defined identically to P^NP and P^QMA, except that only logarithmically many oracle queries are allowed. Here, [Gottlob, FOCS 1993] showed that if the adaptive queries made by a P^NP machine have a "query graph" which is a tree, then this computation can be simulated in P^NP[log].
In this work, we first show that for any verification class C ∈ {NP, MA, QCMA, QMA, QMA(2), NEXP, QMA_exp}, any P^C machine with a query graph of "separator number" s can be simulated using deterministic time exp(slog n) and slog n queries to a C-oracle. When s ∈ O(1) (which includes the case of O(1)-treewidth, and thus also of trees), this gives an upper bound of P^C[log], and when s ∈ O(log^k(n)), this yields bound QP^{C[log^{k+1}]} (QP meaning quasi-polynomial time). We next show how to combine Gottlob’s "admissible-weighting function" framework with the "flag-qubit" framework of [Watson, Bausch, Gharibian, 2020], obtaining a unified approach for embedding P^C computations directly into APX-SIM instances in a black-box fashion. Finally, we formalize a simple no-go statement about polynomials (c.f. [Krentel, STOC 1986]): Given a multi-linear polynomial p specified via an arithmetic circuit, if one can "weakly compress" p so that its optimal value requires m bits to represent, then P^NP can be decided with only m queries to an NP-oracle.

Sevag Gharibian and Dorian Rudolph. On Polynomially Many Queries to NP or QMA Oracles. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 75:1-75:27, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{gharibian_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.75, author = {Gharibian, Sevag and Rudolph, Dorian}, title = {{On Polynomially Many Queries to NP or QMA Oracles}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {75:1--75:27}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.75}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156717}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.75}, annote = {Keywords: admissible weighting function, oracle complexity class, quantum complexity theory, Quantum Merlin Arthur (QMA), simulation of local measurement} }

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**Published in:** Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 11, Issue 5 (2021)

This report documents the program and outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 21261 "Quantum Complexity: Theory and Application". The seminar ran from June 27 to July 2 , 2021, and was held in a hybrid format (due to COVID travel restrictions). Of the 55 total participants from 14 countries, 17 participants were on-site, and 38 were remote. Recent advances in both theoretic and experimental aspects of quantum complexity theory were presented and discussed, ranging from new theoretical developments via a "Quantum Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis", to more experimentally oriented talks involving benchmarking of random circuits in quantum supremacy experiments. In addition, an open problem session and a discussion session regarding the current state of the field were included.

Bill Fefferman, Sevag Gharibian, Norbert Schuch, and Barbara Terhal. Quantum Complexity: Theory and Application (Dagstuhl Seminar 21261). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp. 76-88, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@Article{fefferman_et_al:DagRep.11.5.76, author = {Fefferman, Bill and Gharibian, Sevag and Schuch, Norbert and Terhal, Barbara}, title = {{Quantum Complexity: Theory and Application (Dagstuhl Seminar 21261)}}, pages = {76--88}, journal = {Dagstuhl Reports}, ISSN = {2192-5283}, year = {2021}, volume = {11}, number = {5}, editor = {Fefferman, Bill and Gharibian, Sevag and Schuch, Norbert and Terhal, Barbara}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.11.5.76}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-155715}, doi = {10.4230/DagRep.11.5.76}, annote = {Keywords: complexity theory, many-body systems, proof and verification systems, quantum computation, quantum supremacy} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 158, 15th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2020)

A central tenet of theoretical cryptography is the study of the minimal assumptions required to implement a given cryptographic primitive. One such primitive is the one-time memory (OTM), introduced by Goldwasser, Kalai, and Rothblum [CRYPTO 2008], which is a classical functionality modeled after a non-interactive 1-out-of-2 oblivious transfer, and which is complete for one-time classical and quantum programs. It is known that secure OTMs do not exist in the standard model in both the classical and quantum settings. Here, we propose a scheme for using quantum information, together with the assumption of stateless (i.e., reusable) hardware tokens, to build statistically secure OTMs. Via the semidefinite programming-based quantum games framework of Gutoski and Watrous [STOC 2007], we prove security for a malicious receiver, against a linear number of adaptive queries to the token, in the quantum universal composability framework, but leave open the question of security against a polynomial amount of queries. Compared to alternative schemes derived from the literature on quantum money, our scheme is technologically simple since it is of the "prepare-and-measure" type. We also show our scheme is "tight" according to two scenarios.

Anne Broadbent, Sevag Gharibian, and Hong-Sheng Zhou. Towards Quantum One-Time Memories from Stateless Hardware. In 15th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 158, pp. 6:1-6:25, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{broadbent_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2020.6, author = {Broadbent, Anne and Gharibian, Sevag and Zhou, Hong-Sheng}, title = {{Towards Quantum One-Time Memories from Stateless Hardware}}, booktitle = {15th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2020)}, pages = {6:1--6:25}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-146-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {158}, editor = {Flammia, Steven T.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2020.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-120654}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2020.6}, annote = {Keywords: quantum cryptography, one-time memories, semi-definite programming} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 154, 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)

The canonical hard problems for NP and its quantum analogue, Quantum Merlin-Arthur (QMA), are MAX-k-SAT and the k-local Hamiltonian problem (k-LH), the quantum generalization of MAX-k-SAT, respectively. In recent years, however, an arguably even more physically motivated problem than k-LH has been formalized - the problem of simulating local measurements on ground states of local Hamiltonians (APX-SIM). Perhaps surprisingly, [Ambainis, CCC 2014] showed that APX-SIM is likely harder than QMA. Indeed, [Ambainis, CCC 2014] showed that APX-SIM is P^{QMA[log]}-complete, for P^{QMA[log]} the class of languages decidable by a P machine making a logarithmic number of adaptive queries to a QMA oracle. In this work, we show that APX-SIM is P^{QMA[log]}-complete even when restricted to physically motivated Hamiltonians, obtaining as intermediate steps a variety of related complexity-theoretic results.
Specifically, we first give a sequence of results which together yield P^{QMA[log]}-hardness for APX-SIM on well-motivated Hamiltonians such as the 2D Heisenberg model:
- We show that for NP, StoqMA, and QMA oracles, a logarithmic number of adaptive queries is equivalent to polynomially many parallel queries. Formally, P^{NP[log]}=P^{||NP}, P^{StoqMA[log]}=P^{||StoqMA}, and P^{QMA[log]}=P^{||QMA}. (The result for NP was previously shown using a different proof technique.) These equalities simplify the proofs of our subsequent results.
- Next, we show that the hardness of APX-SIM is preserved under Hamiltonian simulations (à la [Cubitt, Montanaro, Piddock, 2017]) by studying a seemingly weaker problem, ∀-APX-SIM. As a byproduct, we obtain a full complexity classification of APX-SIM, showing it is complete for P, P^{||NP},P^{||StoqMA}, or P^{||QMA} depending on the Hamiltonians employed.
- Leveraging the above, we show that APX-SIM is P^{QMA[log]}-complete for any family of Hamiltonians which can efficiently simulate spatially sparse Hamiltonians. This implies APX-SIM is P^{QMA[log]}-complete even on physically motivated models such as the 2D Heisenberg model.
Our second focus considers 1D systems: We show that APX-SIM remains P^{QMA[log]}-complete even for local Hamiltonians on a 1D line of 8-dimensional qudits. This uses a number of ideas from above, along with replacing the "query Hamiltonian" of [Ambainis, CCC 2014] with a new "sifter" construction.

Sevag Gharibian, Stephen Piddock, and Justin Yirka. Oracle Complexity Classes and Local Measurements on Physical Hamiltonians. In 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 154, pp. 20:1-20:37, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{gharibian_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2020.20, author = {Gharibian, Sevag and Piddock, Stephen and Yirka, Justin}, title = {{Oracle Complexity Classes and Local Measurements on Physical Hamiltonians}}, booktitle = {37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)}, pages = {20:1--20:37}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-140-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {154}, editor = {Paul, Christophe and Bl\"{a}ser, Markus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.20}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-118818}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.20}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum Merlin Arthur (QMA), simulation of local measurement, local Hamiltonian, oracle complexity class, physical Hamiltonians} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 145, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)

Approximation algorithms for constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) are a central direction of study in theoretical computer science. In this work, we study classical product state approximation algorithms for a physically motivated quantum generalization of Max-Cut, known as the quantum Heisenberg model. This model is notoriously difficult to solve exactly, even on bipartite graphs, in stark contrast to the classical setting of Max-Cut. Here we show, for any interaction graph, how to classically and efficiently obtain approximation ratios 0.649 (anti-feromagnetic XY model) and 0.498 (anti-ferromagnetic Heisenberg XYZ model). These are almost optimal; we show that the best possible ratios achievable by a product state for these models is 2/3 and 1/2, respectively.

Sevag Gharibian and Ojas Parekh. Almost Optimal Classical Approximation Algorithms for a Quantum Generalization of Max-Cut. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 145, pp. 31:1-31:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{gharibian_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.31, author = {Gharibian, Sevag and Parekh, Ojas}, title = {{Almost Optimal Classical Approximation Algorithms for a Quantum Generalization of Max-Cut}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)}, pages = {31:1--31:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-125-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {145}, editor = {Achlioptas, Dimitris and V\'{e}gh, L\'{a}szl\'{o} A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.31}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112463}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.31}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation algorithm, Max-Cut, local Hamiltonian, QMA-hard, Heisenberg model, product state} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 117, 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018)

The constraint satisfaction problems k-SAT and Quantum k-SAT (k-QSAT) are canonical NP-complete and QMA_1-complete problems (for k >= 3), respectively, where QMA_1 is a quantum generalization of NP with one-sided error. Whereas k-SAT has been well-studied for special tractable cases, as well as from a parameterized complexity perspective, much less is known in similar settings for k-QSAT. Here, we study the open problem of computing satisfying assignments to k-QSAT instances which have a "matching" or "dimer covering"; this is an NP problem whose decision variant is trivial, but whose search complexity remains open.
Our results fall into three directions, all of which relate to the "matching" setting: (1) We give a polynomial-time classical algorithm for k-QSAT when all qubits occur in at most two clauses. (2) We give a parameterized algorithm for k-QSAT instances from a certain non-trivial class, which allows us to obtain exponential speedups over brute force methods in some cases by reducing the problem to solving for a single root of a single univariate polynomial. (3) We conduct a structural graph theoretic study of 3-QSAT interaction graphs which have a "matching". We remark that the results of (2), in particular, introduce a number of new tools to the study of Quantum SAT, including graph theoretic concepts such as transfer filtrations and blow-ups from algebraic geometry; we hope these prove useful elsewhere.

Marco Aldi, Niel de Beaudrap, Sevag Gharibian, and Seyran Saeedi. On Efficiently Solvable Cases of Quantum k-SAT. In 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 117, pp. 38:1-38:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{aldi_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.38, author = {Aldi, Marco and de Beaudrap, Niel and Gharibian, Sevag and Saeedi, Seyran}, title = {{On Efficiently Solvable Cases of Quantum k-SAT}}, booktitle = {43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018)}, pages = {38:1--38:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-086-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {117}, editor = {Potapov, Igor and Spirakis, Paul and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.38}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-96201}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.38}, annote = {Keywords: search complexity, local Hamiltonian, Quantum SAT, algebraic geometry} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 117, 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018)

The polynomial-time hierarchy (PH) has proven to be a powerful tool for providing separations in computational complexity theory (modulo standard conjectures such as PH does not collapse). Here, we study whether two quantum generalizations of PH can similarly prove separations in the quantum setting. The first generalization, QCPH, uses classical proofs, and the second, QPH, uses quantum proofs. For the former, we show quantum variants of the Karp-Lipton theorem and Toda's theorem. For the latter, we place its third level, Q Sigma_3, into NEXP using the Ellipsoid Method for efficiently solving semidefinite programs. These results yield two implications for QMA(2), the variant of Quantum Merlin-Arthur (QMA) with two unentangled proofs, a complexity class whose characterization has proven difficult. First, if QCPH=QPH (i.e., alternating quantifiers are sufficiently powerful so as to make classical and quantum proofs "equivalent"), then QMA(2) is in the Counting Hierarchy (specifically, in P^{PP^{PP}}). Second, unless QMA(2)= Q Sigma_3 (i.e., alternating quantifiers do not help in the presence of "unentanglement"), QMA(2) is strictly contained in NEXP.

Sevag Gharibian, Miklos Santha, Jamie Sikora, Aarthi Sundaram, and Justin Yirka. Quantum Generalizations of the Polynomial Hierarchy with Applications to QMA(2). In 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 117, pp. 58:1-58:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{gharibian_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.58, author = {Gharibian, Sevag and Santha, Miklos and Sikora, Jamie and Sundaram, Aarthi and Yirka, Justin}, title = {{Quantum Generalizations of the Polynomial Hierarchy with Applications to QMA(2)}}, booktitle = {43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018)}, pages = {58:1--58:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-086-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {117}, editor = {Potapov, Igor and Spirakis, Paul and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.58}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-96409}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.58}, annote = {Keywords: Complexity Theory, Quantum Computing, Polynomial Hierarchy, Semidefinite Programming, QMA(2), Quantum Complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 73, 12th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2017)

An important task in quantum physics is the estimation of local quantities for ground states of local Hamiltonians. Recently, Ambainis defined the complexity class P^QMA[log], and motivated its study by showing that the physical task of estimating the expectation value of a local observable against the ground state of a local Hamiltonian is P^QMA[log]-complete. In this paper, we continue the study of P^QMA[log], obtaining the following results.
The P^QMA[log]-completeness result of Ambainis requires O(log n)-local observ- ables and Hamiltonians. We show that simulating even a single qubit measurement on ground states of 5-local Hamiltonians is P^QMA[log]-complete, resolving an open question of Ambainis. We formalize the complexity theoretic study of estimating two-point correlation functions against ground states, and show that this task is similarly P^QMA[log]-complete.
P^QMA[log] is thought of as "slightly harder" than QMA. We justify this formally by exploiting the hierarchical voting technique of Beigel, Hemachandra, and Wechsung to show P^QMA[log] \subseteq PP. This improves the containment QMA \subseteq PP from Kitaev and Watrous. A central theme of this work is the subtlety involved in the study of oracle classes in which the oracle solves a promise problem. In this vein, we identify a flaw in Ambainis' prior work regarding a P^UQMA[log]-hardness proof for estimating spectral gaps of local Hamiltonians. By introducing a "query validation" technique, we build on his prior work to obtain P^UQMA[log]-hardness for estimating spectral gaps under polynomial-time Turing reductions.

Sevag Gharibian and Justin Yirka. The Complexity of Simulating Local Measurements on Quantum Systems. In 12th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 73, pp. 2:1-2:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{gharibian_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2017.2, author = {Gharibian, Sevag and Yirka, Justin}, title = {{The Complexity of Simulating Local Measurements on Quantum Systems}}, booktitle = {12th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2017)}, pages = {2:1--2:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-034-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {73}, editor = {Wilde, Mark M.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2017.2}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-85776}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2017.2}, annote = {Keywords: Complexity theory, Quantum Merlin Arthur (QMA), local Hamiltonian, local measurement, spectral gap} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 50, 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016)

The Boolean constraint satisfaction problem 3-SAT is arguably the canonical NP-complete problem. In contrast, 2-SAT can not only be decided in polynomial time, but in fact in deterministic linear time. In 2006, Bravyi proposed a physically motivated generalization of k-SAT to the quantum setting, defining the problem "quantum k-SAT". He showed that quantum 2-SAT is also solvable in polynomial time on a classical computer, in particular in deterministic time O(n^4), assuming unit-cost arithmetic over a field extension of the rational numbers, where n is number of variables. In this paper, we present an algorithm for quantum 2-SAT which runs in linear time, i.e. deterministic time O(n+m) for n and m the number of variables and clauses, respectively. Our approach exploits the transfer matrix techniques of Laumann et al. [QIC, 2010] used in the study of phase transitions for random quantum 2-SAT, and bears similarities with both the linear time 2-SAT algorithms of Even, Itai, and Shamir (based on backtracking) [SICOMP, 1976] and Aspvall, Plass, and Tarjan (based on strongly connected components) [IPL, 1979].

Niel de Beaudrap and Sevag Gharibian. A Linear Time Algorithm for Quantum 2-SAT. In 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 50, pp. 27:1-27:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{debeaudrap_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2016.27, author = {de Beaudrap, Niel and Gharibian, Sevag}, title = {{A Linear Time Algorithm for Quantum 2-SAT}}, booktitle = {31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016)}, pages = {27:1--27:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-008-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {50}, editor = {Raz, Ran}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2016.27}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-58363}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2016.27}, annote = {Keywords: quantum 2-SAT, transfer matrix, strongly connected components, limited backtracking, local Hamiltonian} }