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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 289, 41st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2024)

In this paper, we present the first decremental fixed-parameter sensitivity oracles for a number of basic covering and packing problems on graphs. In particular, we obtain the first decremental sensitivity oracles for Vertex Planarization (delete k vertices to make the graph planar) and Cycle Packing (pack k vertex-disjoint cycles in the given graph). That is, we give a sensitivity oracle that preprocesses the given graph in time f(k,𝓁)n^{{O}(1)} such that, when given a set of 𝓁 edge deletions, the data structure decides in time f(k,𝓁) whether the updated graph is a positive instance of the problem. These results are obtained as a corollary of our central result, which is the first decremental sensitivity oracle for Topological Minor Deletion (cover all topological minors in the input graph that belong to a specified set, using k vertices).
Though our methodology closely follows the literature, we are able to produce the first explicit bounds on the preprocessing and query times for several problems. We also initiate the study of fixed-parameter sensitivity oracles with so-called structural parameterizations and give sufficient conditions for the existence of fixed-parameter sensitivity oracles where the parameter is just the treewidth of the graph. In contrast, all existing literature on this topic and the aforementioned results in this paper assume a bound on the solution size (a weaker parameter than treewidth for many problems). As corollaries, we obtain decremental sensitivity oracles for well-studied problems such as Vertex Cover and Dominating Set when only the treewidth of the input graph is bounded. A feature of our methodology behind these results is that we are able to obtain query times independent of treewidth.

Lawqueen Kanesh, Fahad Panolan, M. S. Ramanujan, and Peter Strulo. Decremental Sensitivity Oracles for Covering and Packing Minors. In 41st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 289, pp. 44:1-44:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{kanesh_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2024.44, author = {Kanesh, Lawqueen and Panolan, Fahad and Ramanujan, M. S. and Strulo, Peter}, title = {{Decremental Sensitivity Oracles for Covering and Packing Minors}}, booktitle = {41st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2024)}, pages = {44:1--44:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-311-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {289}, editor = {Beyersdorff, Olaf and Kant\'{e}, Mamadou Moustapha and Kupferman, Orna and Lokshtanov, Daniel}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2024.44}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-197544}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2024.44}, annote = {Keywords: Sensitivity oracles, Data Structures, FPT algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 284, 43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023)

For numerous graph problems in the realm of parameterized algorithms, using the size of a smallest deletion set (called a modulator) into well-understood graph families as parameterization has led to a long and successful line of research. Recently, however, there has been an extensive study of structural parameters that are potentially much smaller than the modulator size. In particular, recent papers [Jansen et al. STOC 2021; Agrawal et al. SODA 2022] have studied parameterization by the size of the modulator to a graph family ℋ(mod_ℋ(⋅)), elimination distance to ℋ(ed_ℋ(⋅)), and ℋ-treewidth (tw_ℋ(⋅)). These parameters are related by the fact that tw_ℋ lower bounds ed_ℋ, which in turn lower bounds mod_ℋ. While these new parameters have been successfully exploited to design fast exact algorithms their utility (especially that of ed_ℋ and tw_ℋ) in the context of approximation algorithms is mostly unexplored.
The conceptual contribution of this paper is to present novel algorithmic meta-theorems that expand the impact of these structural parameters to the area of FPT Approximation, mirroring their utility in the design of exact FPT algorithms. Precisely, we show that if a covering or packing problem is definable in Monadic Second Order Logic and has a property called Finite Integer Index (FII), then the existence of an FPT Approximation Scheme (FPT-AS, i.e., (1±ε)-approximation) parameterized by mod_ℋ(⋅), ed_ℋ(⋅), and tw_ℋ(⋅) is in fact equivalent. As a consequence, we obtain FPT-ASes for a wide range of covering, packing, and domination problems on graphs with respect to these parameters. In the process, we show that several graph problems, that are W[1]-hard parameterized by mod_ℋ, admit FPT-ASes not only when parameterized by mod_ℋ, but even when parameterized by the potentially much smaller parameter tw_ℋ(⋅). In the spirit of [Agrawal et al. SODA 2022], our algorithmic results highlight a broader connection between these parameters in the world of approximation. As concrete exemplifications of our meta-theorems, we obtain FPT-ASes for well-studied graph problems such as Vertex Cover, Feedback Vertex Set, Cycle Packing and Dominating Set, parameterized by tw_ℋ(⋅) (and hence, also by mod_ℋ(⋅) or ed_ℋ(⋅)), where ℋ is any family of minor free graphs.

Tanmay Inamdar, Lawqueen Kanesh, Madhumita Kundu, M. S. Ramanujan, and Saket Saurabh. FPT Approximations for Packing and Covering Problems Parameterized by Elimination Distance and Even Less. In 43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 284, pp. 28:1-28:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{inamdar_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.28, author = {Inamdar, Tanmay and Kanesh, Lawqueen and Kundu, Madhumita and Ramanujan, M. S. and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{FPT Approximations for Packing and Covering Problems Parameterized by Elimination Distance and Even Less}}, booktitle = {43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023)}, pages = {28:1--28:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-304-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {284}, editor = {Bouyer, Patricia and Srinivasan, Srikanth}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.28}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194013}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.28}, annote = {Keywords: FPT-AS, F-Deletion, Packing, Elimination Distance, Elimination Treewidth} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 272, 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)

Selection of a group of representatives satisfying certain fairness constraints, is a commonly occurring scenario. Motivated by this, we initiate a systematic algorithmic study of a fair version of Hitting Set. In the classical Hitting Set problem, the input is a universe 𝒰, a family ℱ of subsets of 𝒰, and a non-negative integer k. The goal is to determine whether there exists a subset S ⊆ 𝒰 of size k that hits (i.e., intersects) every set in ℱ. Inspired by several recent works, we formulate a fair version of this problem, as follows. The input additionally contains a family ℬ of subsets of 𝒰, where each subset in ℬ can be thought of as the group of elements of the same type. We want to find a set S ⊆ 𝒰 of size k that (i) hits all sets of ℱ, and (ii) does not contain too many elements of each type. We call this problem Fair Hitting Set, and chart out its tractability boundary from both classical as well as multivariate perspective. Our results use a multitude of techniques from parameterized complexity including classical to advanced tools, such as, methods of representative sets for matroids, FO model checking, and a generalization of best known kernels for Hitting Set.

Tanmay Inamdar, Lawqueen Kanesh, Madhumita Kundu, Nidhi Purohit, and Saket Saurabh. Fixed-Parameter Algorithms for Fair Hitting Set Problems. In 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 272, pp. 55:1-55:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{inamdar_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.55, author = {Inamdar, Tanmay and Kanesh, Lawqueen and Kundu, Madhumita and Purohit, Nidhi and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Fixed-Parameter Algorithms for Fair Hitting Set Problems}}, booktitle = {48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)}, pages = {55:1--55:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-292-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {272}, editor = {Leroux, J\'{e}r\^{o}me and Lombardy, Sylvain and Peleg, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.55}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-185897}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.55}, annote = {Keywords: Fairness, Parameterized Algorithms, Hitting Set} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 219, 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)

For a positive integer c, a graph G is said to be c-closed if every pair of non-adjacent vertices in G have at most c-1 neighbours in common. The closure of a graph G, denoted by cl(G), is the least positive integer c for which G is c-closed. The class of c-closed graphs was introduced by Fox et al. [ICALP `18 and SICOMP `20]. Koana et al. [ESA `20] started the study of using cl(G) as an additional structural parameter to design kernels for problems that are W-hard under standard parameterizations. In particular, they studied problems such as Independent Set, Induced Matching, Irredundant Set and (Threshold) Dominating Set, and showed that each of these problems admits a polynomial kernel, either w.r.t. the parameter k+c or w.r.t. the parameter k for each fixed value of c. Here, k is the solution size and c = cl(G). The work of Koana et al. left several questions open, one of which was whether the Perfect Code problem admits a fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) algorithm and a polynomial kernel on c-closed graphs. In this paper, among other results, we answer this question in the affirmative. Inspired by the FPT algorithm for Perfect Code, we further explore two more domination problems on the graphs of bounded closure. The other problems that we study are Connected Dominating Set and Partial Dominating Set. We show that Perfect Code and Connected Dominating Set are fixed-parameter tractable w.r.t. the parameter k+cl(G), whereas Partial Dominating Set, parameterized by k is W[1]-hard even when cl(G) = 2. We also show that for each fixed c, Perfect Code admits a polynomial kernel on the class of c-closed graphs. And we observe that Connected Dominating Set has no polynomial kernel even on 2-closed graphs, unless NP ⊆ co-NP/poly.

Lawqueen Kanesh, Jayakrishnan Madathil, Sanjukta Roy, Abhishek Sahu, and Saket Saurabh. Further Exploiting c-Closure for FPT Algorithms and Kernels for Domination Problems. In 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 219, pp. 39:1-39:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{kanesh_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2022.39, author = {Kanesh, Lawqueen and Madathil, Jayakrishnan and Roy, Sanjukta and Sahu, Abhishek and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Further Exploiting c-Closure for FPT Algorithms and Kernels for Domination Problems}}, booktitle = {39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)}, pages = {39:1--39:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-222-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {219}, editor = {Berenbrink, Petra and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.39}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-158494}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.39}, annote = {Keywords: c-closed graphs, domination problems, perfect code, connected dominating set, fixed-parameter tractable, polynomial kernel} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 214, 16th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2021)

In a permutation graph, vertices represent the elements of a permutation, and edges represent pairs of elements that are reversed by the permutation. In the Permutation Vertex Deletion problem, given an undirected graph G and an integer k, the objective is to test whether there exists a vertex subset S ⊆ V(G) such that |S| ≤ k and G-S is a permutation graph. The parameterized complexity of Permutation Vertex Deletion is a well-known open problem. Bożyk et al. [IPEC 2020] initiated a study towards this problem by requiring that G-S be a bipartite permutation graph (a permutation graph that is bipartite). They called this the Bipartite Permutation Vertex Deletion (BPVD) problem. They showed that the problem admits a factor 9-approximation algorithm as well as a fixed parameter tractable (FPT) algorithm running in time 𝒪(9^k |V(G)|⁹). And they posed the question {whether BPVD admits a polynomial kernel.}
We resolve this question in the affirmative by designing a polynomial kernel for BPVD. In particular, we obtain the following: Given an instance (G,k) of BPVD, in polynomial time we obtain an equivalent instance (G',k') of BPVD such that k' ≤ k, and |V(G')|+|E(G')| ≤ k^{𝒪(1)}.

Lawqueen Kanesh, Jayakrishnan Madathil, Abhishek Sahu, Saket Saurabh, and Shaily Verma. A Polynomial Kernel for Bipartite Permutation Vertex Deletion. In 16th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 214, pp. 23:1-23:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{kanesh_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2021.23, author = {Kanesh, Lawqueen and Madathil, Jayakrishnan and Sahu, Abhishek and Saurabh, Saket and Verma, Shaily}, title = {{A Polynomial Kernel for Bipartite Permutation Vertex Deletion}}, booktitle = {16th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2021)}, pages = {23:1--23:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-216-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {214}, editor = {Golovach, Petr A. and Zehavi, Meirav}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2021.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-154065}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2021.23}, annote = {Keywords: kernelization, bipartite permutation graph, bicliques} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 187, 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)

In the literature on parameterized graph problems, there has been an increased effort in recent years aimed at exploring novel notions of graph edit-distance that are more powerful than the size of a modulator to a specific graph class. In this line of research, Bulian and Dawar [Algorithmica, 2016] introduced the notion of elimination distance and showed that deciding whether a given graph has elimination distance at most k to any minor-closed class of graphs is fixed-parameter tractable parameterized by k [Algorithmica, 2017]. They showed that Graph Isomorphism parameterized by the elimination distance to bounded degree graphs is fixed-parameter tractable and asked whether determining the elimination distance to the class of bounded degree graphs is fixed-parameter tractable. Recently, Lindermayr et al. [MFCS 2020] obtained a fixed-parameter algorithm for this problem in the special case where the input is restricted to K₅-minor free graphs.
In this paper, we answer the question of Bulian and Dawar in the affirmative for general graphs. In fact, we give a more general result capturing elimination distance to any graph class characterized by a finite set of graphs as forbidden induced subgraphs.

Akanksha Agrawal, Lawqueen Kanesh, Fahad Panolan, M. S. Ramanujan, and Saket Saurabh. An FPT Algorithm for Elimination Distance to Bounded Degree Graphs. In 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 187, pp. 5:1-5:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{agrawal_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2021.5, author = {Agrawal, Akanksha and Kanesh, Lawqueen and Panolan, Fahad and Ramanujan, M. S. and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{An FPT Algorithm for Elimination Distance to Bounded Degree Graphs}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)}, pages = {5:1--5:11}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-180-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {187}, editor = {Bl\"{a}ser, Markus and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136507}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.5}, annote = {Keywords: Elimination Distance, Fixed-parameter Tractability, Graph Modification} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 182, 40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020)

A feedback vertex set in a hypergraph H is a set of vertices S such that deleting S from H results in an acyclic hypergraph. Here, deleting a vertex means removing the vertex and all incident hyperedges, and a hypergraph is acyclic if its vertex-edge incidence graph is acyclic. We study the (parameterized complexity of) the Hypergraph Feedback Vertex Set (HFVS) problem: given as input a hypergraph H and an integer k, determine whether H has a feedback vertex set of size at most k. It is easy to see that this problem generalizes the classic Feedback Vertex Set (FVS) problem on graphs. Remarkably, despite the central role of FVS in parameterized algorithms and complexity, the parameterized complexity of a generalization of FVS to hypergraphs has not been studied previously. In this paper, we fill this void. Our main results are as follows
- HFVS is W[2]-hard (as opposed to FVS, which is fixed parameter tractable).
- If the input hypergraph is restricted to a linear hypergraph (no two hyperedges intersect in more than one vertex), HFVS admits a randomized algorithm with running time 2^{𝒪(k³log k)}n^{𝒪(1)}.
- If the input hypergraph is restricted to a d-hypergraph (hyperedges have cardinality at most d), then HFVS admits a deterministic algorithm with running time d^{𝒪(k)}n^{𝒪(1)}. The algorithm for linear hypergraphs combines ideas from the randomized algorithm for FVS by Becker et al. [J. Artif. Intell. Res., 2000] with the branching algorithm for Point Line Cover by Langerman and Morin [Discrete & Computational Geometry, 2005].

Pratibha Choudhary, Lawqueen Kanesh, Daniel Lokshtanov, Fahad Panolan, and Saket Saurabh. Parameterized Complexity of Feedback Vertex Sets on Hypergraphs. In 40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 182, pp. 18:1-18:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{choudhary_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.18, author = {Choudhary, Pratibha and Kanesh, Lawqueen and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Panolan, Fahad and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Parameterized Complexity of Feedback Vertex Sets on Hypergraphs}}, booktitle = {40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020)}, pages = {18:1--18:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-174-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {182}, editor = {Saxena, Nitin and Simon, Sunil}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.18}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-132596}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.18}, annote = {Keywords: feedback vertex sets, hypergraphs, FPT, randomized algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 150, 39th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2019)

In this paper, we introduce a directed variant of the classical Bandwidth problem and study it from the view-point of moderately exponential time algorithms, both exactly and approximately. Motivated by the definitions of the directed variants of the classical Cutwidth and Pathwidth problems, we define Digraph Bandwidth as follows. Given a digraph D and an ordering sigma of its vertices, the digraph bandwidth of sigma with respect to D is equal to the maximum value of sigma(v)-sigma(u) over all arcs (u,v) of D going forward along sigma (that is, when sigma(u) < sigma (v)). The Digraph Bandwidth problem takes as input a digraph D and asks to output an ordering with the minimum digraph bandwidth. The undirected Bandwidth easily reduces to Digraph Bandwidth and thus, it immediately implies that Directed Bandwidth is {NP-hard}. While an O^*(n!) time algorithm for the problem is trivial, the goal of this paper is to design algorithms for Digraph Bandwidth which have running times of the form 2^O(n). In particular, we obtain the following results. Here, n and m denote the number of vertices and arcs of the input digraph D, respectively.
- Digraph Bandwidth can be solved in O^*(3^n * 2^m) time. This result implies a 2^O(n) time algorithm on sparse graphs, such as graphs of bounded average degree.
- Let G be the underlying undirected graph of the input digraph. If the treewidth of G is at most t, then Digraph Bandwidth can be solved in time O^*(2^(n + (t+2) log n)). This result implies a 2^(n+O(sqrt(n) log n)) algorithm for directed planar graphs and, in general, for the class of digraphs whose underlying undirected graph excludes some fixed graph H as a minor.
- Digraph Bandwidth can be solved in min{O^*(4^n * b^n), O^*(4^n * 2^(b log b log n))} time, where b denotes the optimal digraph bandwidth of D. This allow us to deduce a 2^O(n) algorithm in many cases, for example when b <= n/(log^2n).
- Finally, we give a (Single) Exponential Time Approximation Scheme for Digraph Bandwidth. In particular, we show that for any fixed real epsilon > 0, we can find an ordering whose digraph bandwidth is at most (1+epsilon) times the optimal digraph bandwidth, in time O^*(4^n * (ceil[4/epsilon])^n).

Pallavi Jain, Lawqueen Kanesh, William Lochet, Saket Saurabh, and Roohani Sharma. Exact and Approximate Digraph Bandwidth. In 39th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 150, pp. 18:1-18:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{jain_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2019.18, author = {Jain, Pallavi and Kanesh, Lawqueen and Lochet, William and Saurabh, Saket and Sharma, Roohani}, title = {{Exact and Approximate Digraph Bandwidth}}, booktitle = {39th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2019)}, pages = {18:1--18:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-131-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {150}, editor = {Chattopadhyay, Arkadev and Gastin, Paul}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2019.18}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-115802}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2019.18}, annote = {Keywords: directed bandwidth, digraph bandwidth, approximation scheme, exact exponential algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 138, 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)

An input to a conflict-free variant of a classical problem Gamma, called Conflict-Free Gamma, consists of an instance I of Gamma coupled with a graph H, called the conflict graph. A solution to Conflict-Free Gamma in (I,H) is a solution to I in Gamma, which is also an independent set in H. In this paper, we study conflict-free variants of Maximum Matching and Shortest Path, which we call Conflict-Free Matching (CF-Matching) and Conflict-Free Shortest Path (CF-SP), respectively. We show that both CF-Matching and CF-SP are W[1]-hard, when parameterized by the solution size. Moreover, W[1]-hardness for CF-Matching holds even when the input graph where we want to find a matching is itself a matching, and W[1]-hardness for CF-SP holds for conflict graph being a unit-interval graph. Next, we study these problems with restriction on the conflict graphs. We give FPT algorithms for CF-Matching when the conflict graph is chordal. Also, we give FPT algorithms for both CF-Matching and CF-SP, when the conflict graph is d-degenerate. Finally, we design FPT algorithms for variants of CF-Matching and CF-SP, where the conflicting conditions are given by a (representable) matroid.

Akanksha Agrawal, Pallavi Jain, Lawqueen Kanesh, and Saket Saurabh. Parameterized Complexity of Conflict-Free Matchings and Paths. In 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 138, pp. 35:1-35:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{agrawal_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.35, author = {Agrawal, Akanksha and Jain, Pallavi and Kanesh, Lawqueen and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Parameterized Complexity of Conflict-Free Matchings and Paths}}, booktitle = {44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)}, pages = {35:1--35:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-117-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {138}, editor = {Rossmanith, Peter and Heggernes, Pinar and Katoen, Joost-Pieter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.35}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-109798}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.35}, annote = {Keywords: Conflict-free, Matching, Shortest Path, FPT algorithm, W\lbrack1\rbrack-hard, Matroid} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 115, 13th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2018)

A generalization of classical cycle hitting problems, called conflict version of the problem, is defined as follows. An input is undirected graphs G and H on the same vertex set, and a positive integer k, and the objective is to decide whether there exists a vertex subset X subseteq V(G) such that it intersects all desired "cycles" (all cycles or all odd cycles or all even cycles) and X is an independent set in H. In this paper we study the conflict version of classical Feedback Vertex Set, and Odd Cycle Transversal problems, from the view point of kernelization complexity. In particular, we obtain the following results, when the conflict graph H belongs to the family of d-degenerate graphs.
1) CF-FVS admits a O(k^{O(d)}) kernel.
2) CF-OCT does not admit polynomial kernel (even when H is 1-degenerate), unless NP subseteq coNP/poly.
For our kernelization algorithm we exploit ideas developed for designing polynomial kernels for the classical Feedback Vertex Set problem, as well as, devise new reduction rules that exploit degeneracy crucially. Our main conceptual contribution here is the notion of "k-independence preserver". Informally, it is a set of "important" vertices for a given subset X subseteq V(H), that is enough to capture the independent set property in H. We show that for d-degenerate graph independence preserver of size k^{O(d)} exists, and can be used in designing polynomial kernel.

Akanksha Agrawal, Pallavi Jain, Lawqueen Kanesh, Pranabendu Misra, and Saket Saurabh. Exploring the Kernelization Borders for Hitting Cycles. In 13th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 115, pp. 14:1-14:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{agrawal_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2018.14, author = {Agrawal, Akanksha and Jain, Pallavi and Kanesh, Lawqueen and Misra, Pranabendu and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Exploring the Kernelization Borders for Hitting Cycles}}, booktitle = {13th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2018)}, pages = {14:1--14:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-084-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {115}, editor = {Paul, Christophe and Pilipczuk, Michal}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2018.14}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-102158}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2018.14}, annote = {Keywords: Parameterized Complexity, Kernelization, Conflict-free problems, Feedback Vertex Set, Even Cycle Transversal, Odd Cycle Transversal} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 117, 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018)

In this paper we study recently introduced conflict version of the classical Feedback Vertex Set (FVS) problem. For a family of graphs F, we consider the problem F-CF-Feedback Vertex Set (F-CF-FVS, for short). The F-CF-FVS problem takes as an input a graph G, a graph H in F (where V(G)=V(H)), and an integer k, and the objective is to decide if there is a set S subseteq V(G) of size at most k such that G-S is a forest and S is an independent set in H. Observe that if we instantiate F to be the family of edgeless graphs then we get the classical FVS problem. Jain, Kanesh, and Misra [CSR 2018] showed that in contrast to FVS, F-CF-FVS is W[1]-hard on general graphs and admits an FPT algorithm if F is the family of d-degenerate graphs. In this paper, we relate F-CF-FVS to the Independent Set problem on special classes of graphs, and obtain a complete dichotomy result on the Parameterized Complexity of the problem F-CF-FVS, when F is a hereditary graph family. In particular, we show that F-CF-FVS is FPT parameterized by the solution size if and only if F+Cluster IS is FPT parameterized by the solution size. Here, F+Cluster IS is the Independent Set problem in the (edge) union of a graph G in F and a cluster graph H (G and H are explicitly given). Next, we exploit this characterization to obtain new FPT results as well as intractability results for F-CF-FVS. In particular, we give an FPT algorithm for F+Cluster IS when F is the family of K_{i,j}-free graphs. We show that for the family of bipartite graph B, B-CF-FVS is W[1]-hard, when parameterized by the solution size. Finally, we consider, for each 0< epsilon<1, the family of graphs F_epsilon, which comprise of graphs G such that |E(G)| <= |V(G)|^(2-epsilon), and show that F_epsilon-CF-FVS is W[1]-hard, when parameterized by the solution size, for every 0<epsilon<1.

Akanksha Agrawal, Pallavi Jain, Lawqueen Kanesh, Daniel Lokshtanov, and Saket Saurabh. Conflict Free Feedback Vertex Set: A Parameterized Dichotomy. In 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 117, pp. 53:1-53:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{agrawal_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.53, author = {Agrawal, Akanksha and Jain, Pallavi and Kanesh, Lawqueen and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Conflict Free Feedback Vertex Set: A Parameterized Dichotomy}}, booktitle = {43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018)}, pages = {53:1--53:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-086-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {117}, editor = {Potapov, Igor and Spirakis, Paul and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.53}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-96355}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.53}, annote = {Keywords: Conflict-free, Feedback Vertex Set, FPT algorithm, W\lbrack1\rbrack-hardness} }

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