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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 271, 26th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT 2023)

To test a graph’s planarity in SAT-based graph generation we develop SAT encodings with dynamic symmetry breaking as facilitated in the SAT modulo Symmetry (SMS) framework. We implement and compare encodings based on three planarity criteria. In particular, we consider two eager encodings utilizing order-based and universal-set-based planarity criteria, and a lazy encoding based on Kuratowski’s theorem. The performance and scalability of these encodings are compared on two prominent problems from combinatorics: the computation of planar Turán numbers and the Earth-Moon problem. We further showcase the power of SMS equipped with a planarity encoding by verifying and extending several integer sequences from the Online Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences (OEIS) related to planar graph enumeration. Furthermore, we extend the SMS framework to directed graphs which might be of independent interest.

Markus Kirchweger, Manfred Scheucher, and Stefan Szeider. SAT-Based Generation of Planar Graphs. In 26th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 271, pp. 14:1-14:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{kirchweger_et_al:LIPIcs.SAT.2023.14, author = {Kirchweger, Markus and Scheucher, Manfred and Szeider, Stefan}, title = {{SAT-Based Generation of Planar Graphs}}, booktitle = {26th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT 2023)}, pages = {14:1--14:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-286-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {271}, editor = {Mahajan, Meena and Slivovsky, Friedrich}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SAT.2023.14}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-184767}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SAT.2023.14}, annote = {Keywords: SAT modulo Symmetry (SMS), dynamic symmetry breaking, planarity test, universal point set, order dimension, Schnyder’s theorem, Kuratowski’s theorem, Tur\'{a}n’s theorem, Earth-Moon problem} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 258, 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)

In 1926, Levi showed that, for every pseudoline arrangement 𝒜 and two points in the plane, 𝒜 can be extended by a pseudoline which contains the two prescribed points. Later extendability was studied for arrangements of pseudohyperplanes in higher dimensions. While the extendability of an arrangement of proper hyperplanes in ℝ^d with a hyperplane containing d prescribed points is trivial, Richter-Gebert found an arrangement of pseudoplanes in ℝ³ which cannot be extended with a pseudoplane containing two particular prescribed points.
In this article, we investigate the extendability of signotopes, which are a combinatorial structure encoding a rich subclass of pseudohyperplane arrangements. Our main result is that signotopes of odd rank are extendable in the sense that for two prescribed crossing points we can add an element containing them. Moreover, we conjecture that in all even ranks r ≥ 4 there exist signotopes which are not extendable for two prescribed points. Our conjecture is supported by examples in ranks 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 that were found with a SAT based approach.

Helena Bergold, Stefan Felsner, and Manfred Scheucher. An Extension Theorem for Signotopes. In 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 258, pp. 17:1-17:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{bergold_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.17, author = {Bergold, Helena and Felsner, Stefan and Scheucher, Manfred}, title = {{An Extension Theorem for Signotopes}}, booktitle = {39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)}, pages = {17:1--17:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-273-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {258}, editor = {Chambers, Erin W. and Gudmundsson, Joachim}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.17}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-178676}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.17}, annote = {Keywords: arrangement of pseudolines, extendability, Levi’s extension lemma, arrangement of pseudohyperplanes, signotope, oriented matroid, partial order, Boolean satisfiability (SAT)} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 236, 25th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT 2022)

The SAT modulo Symmetries (SMS) is a recently introduced framework for dynamic symmetry breaking in SAT instances. It combines a CDCL SAT solver with an external lexicographic minimality checking algorithm.
We extend SMS from graphs to matroids and use it to progress on Rota’s Basis Conjecture (1989), which states that one can always decompose a collection of r disjoint bases of a rank r matroid into r disjoint rainbow bases. Through SMS, we establish that the conjecture holds for all matroids of rank 4 and certain special cases of matroids of rank 5. Furthermore, we extend SMS with the facility to produce DRAT proofs. External tools can then be used to verify the validity of additional axioms produced by the lexicographic minimality check.
As a byproduct, we have utilized our framework to enumerate matroids modulo isomorphism and to support the investigation of various other problems on matroids.

Markus Kirchweger, Manfred Scheucher, and Stefan Szeider. A SAT Attack on Rota’s Basis Conjecture. In 25th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 236, pp. 4:1-4:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{kirchweger_et_al:LIPIcs.SAT.2022.4, author = {Kirchweger, Markus and Scheucher, Manfred and Szeider, Stefan}, title = {{A SAT Attack on Rota’s Basis Conjecture}}, booktitle = {25th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT 2022)}, pages = {4:1--4:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-242-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {236}, editor = {Meel, Kuldeep S. and Strichman, Ofer}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SAT.2022.4}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-166780}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SAT.2022.4}, annote = {Keywords: SAT modulo Symmetry (SMS), dynamic symmetry breaking, Rota’s basis conjecture, matroid} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 224, 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)

We consider point sets in the real projective plane ℝ𝒫² and explore variants of classical extremal problems about planar point sets in this setting, with a main focus on Erdős-Szekeres-type problems.
We provide asymptotically tight bounds for a variant of the Erdős-Szekeres theorem about point sets in convex position in ℝ𝒫², which was initiated by Harborth and Möller in 1994. The notion of convex position in ℝ𝒫² agrees with the definition of convex sets introduced by Steinitz in 1913.
For k ≥ 3, an (affine) k-hole in a finite set S ⊆ ℝ² is a set of k points from S in convex position with no point of S in the interior of their convex hull. After introducing a new notion of k-holes for points sets from ℝ𝒫², called projective k-holes, we find arbitrarily large finite sets of points from ℝ𝒫² with no projective 8-holes, providing an analogue of a classical result by Horton from 1983. We also prove that they contain only quadratically many projective k-holes for k ≤ 7. On the other hand, we show that the number of k-holes can be substantially larger in ℝ𝒫² than in ℝ² by constructing, for every k ∈ {3,… ,6}, sets of n points from ℝ² ⊂ ℝ𝒫² with Ω(n^{3-3/5k}) projective k-holes and only O(n²) affine k-holes. Last but not least, we prove several other results, for example about projective holes in random point sets in ℝ𝒫² and about some algorithmic aspects.
The study of extremal problems about point sets in ℝ𝒫² opens a new area of research, which we support by posing several open problems.

Martin Balko, Manfred Scheucher, and Pavel Valtr. Erdős-Szekeres-Type Problems in the Real Projective Plane. In 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 224, pp. 10:1-10:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{balko_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.10, author = {Balko, Martin and Scheucher, Manfred and Valtr, Pavel}, title = {{Erd\H{o}s-Szekeres-Type Problems in the Real Projective Plane}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)}, pages = {10:1--10:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-227-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {224}, editor = {Goaoc, Xavier and Kerber, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-160182}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.10}, annote = {Keywords: real projective plane, point set, convex position, k-gon, k-hole, Erd\H{o}s-Szekeres theorem, Horton set, random point set} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 164, 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)

For d ∈ ℕ, let S be a finite set of points in ℝ^d in general position. A set H of k points from S is a k-hole in S if all points from H lie on the boundary of the convex hull conv(H) of H and the interior of conv(H) does not contain any point from S. A set I of k points from S is a k-island in S if conv(I) ∩ S = I. Note that each k-hole in S is a k-island in S.
For fixed positive integers d, k and a convex body K in ℝ^d with d-dimensional Lebesgue measure 1, let S be a set of n points chosen uniformly and independently at random from K. We show that the expected number of k-islands in S is in O(n^d). In the case k=d+1, we prove that the expected number of empty simplices (that is, (d+1)-holes) in S is at most 2^(d-1) ⋅ d! ⋅ binom(n,d). Our results improve and generalize previous bounds by Bárány and Füredi [I. Bárány and Z. Füredi, 1987], Valtr [P. Valtr, 1995], Fabila-Monroy and Huemer [Fabila-Monroy and Huemer, 2012], and Fabila-Monroy, Huemer, and Mitsche [Fabila-Monroy et al., 2015].

Martin Balko, Manfred Scheucher, and Pavel Valtr. Holes and Islands in Random Point Sets. In 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 164, pp. 14:1-14:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{balko_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.14, author = {Balko, Martin and Scheucher, Manfred and Valtr, Pavel}, title = {{Holes and Islands in Random Point Sets}}, booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)}, pages = {14:1--14:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-143-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {164}, editor = {Cabello, Sergio and Chen, Danny Z.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.14}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-121722}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.14}, annote = {Keywords: stochastic geometry, random point set, Erd\H{o}s-Szekeres type problem, k-hole, k-island, empty polytope, convex position, Horton set} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 77, 33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017)

Let P be a finite set of points in the plane in general position, that is, no three points of P are on a common line. We say that a set H of five points from P is a 5-hole in P if H is the vertex set of a convex 5-gon containing no other points of P. For a positive integer n, let h_5(n) be the minimum number of 5-holes among all sets of n points in the plane in general position.
Despite many efforts in the last 30 years, the best known asymptotic lower and upper bounds for h_5(n) have been of order Omega(n) and O(n^2), respectively. We show that h_5(n) = Omega(n(log n)^(4/5)), obtaining the first superlinear lower bound on h_5(n).
The following structural result, which might be of independent interest, is a crucial step in the proof of this lower bound. If a finite set P of points in the plane in general position is partitioned by a line l into two subsets, each of size at least 5 and not in convex position, then l intersects the convex hull of some 5-hole in P. The proof of this result is computer-assisted.

Oswin Aichholzer, Martin Balko, Thomas Hackl, Jan Kyncl, Irene Parada, Manfred Scheucher, Pavel Valtr, and Birgit Vogtenhuber. A Superlinear Lower Bound on the Number of 5-Holes. In 33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 77, pp. 8:1-8:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{aichholzer_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.8, author = {Aichholzer, Oswin and Balko, Martin and Hackl, Thomas and Kyncl, Jan and Parada, Irene and Scheucher, Manfred and Valtr, Pavel and Vogtenhuber, Birgit}, title = {{A Superlinear Lower Bound on the Number of 5-Holes}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017)}, pages = {8:1--8:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-038-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {77}, editor = {Aronov, Boris and Katz, Matthew J.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-72008}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.8}, annote = {Keywords: Erd\"{o}s-Szekeres type problem, k-hole, empty k-gon, empty pentagon, planar point set} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 51, 32nd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2016)

A straight-line drawing of a graph is a monotone drawing if for each pair of vertices there is a path which is monotonically increasing in some direction, and it is called a strongly monotone drawing if the direction of monotonicity is given by the direction of the line segment connecting the two vertices.
We present algorithms to compute crossing-free strongly monotone drawings for some classes of planar graphs; namely, 3-connected planar graphs, outerplanar graphs, and 2-trees. The drawings of 3-connected planar graphs are based on primal-dual circle packings. Our drawings of outerplanar graphs depend on a new algorithm that constructs strongly monotone drawings of trees which are also convex. For irreducible trees, these drawings are strictly convex.

Stefan Felsner, Alexander Igamberdiev, Philipp Kindermann, Boris Klemz, Tamara Mchedlidze, and Manfred Scheucher. Strongly Monotone Drawings of Planar Graphs. In 32nd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 51, pp. 37:1-37:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{felsner_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2016.37, author = {Felsner, Stefan and Igamberdiev, Alexander and Kindermann, Philipp and Klemz, Boris and Mchedlidze, Tamara and Scheucher, Manfred}, title = {{Strongly Monotone Drawings of Planar Graphs}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2016)}, pages = {37:1--37:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-009-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {51}, editor = {Fekete, S\'{a}ndor and Lubiw, Anna}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2016.37}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-59292}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2016.37}, annote = {Keywords: graph drawing, planar graphs, strongly monotone, strictly convex, primal-dual circle packing} }

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