7 Search Results for "Yirka, Justin"


Document
The Entangled Quantum Polynomial Hierarchy Collapses

Authors: Sabee Grewal and Justin Yirka

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
We introduce the entangled quantum polynomial hierarchy, QEPH, as the class of problems that are efficiently verifiable given alternating quantum proofs that may be entangled with each other. We prove QEPH collapses to its second level. In fact, we show that a polynomial number of alternations collapses to just two. As a consequence, QEPH = QRG(1), the class of problems having one-turn quantum refereed games, which is known to be contained in PSPACE. This is in contrast to the unentangled quantum polynomial hierarchy, QPH, which contains QMA(2). We also introduce DistributionQCPH, a generalization of the quantum-classical polynomial hierarchy QCPH where the provers send probability distributions over strings (instead of strings). We prove DistributionQCPH = QCPH, suggesting that only quantum superposition (not classical probability) increases the computational power of these hierarchies. To prove this equality, we generalize a game-theoretic result of Lipton and Young (1994) which says that, without loss of generality, the provers can send uniform distributions over a polynomial-size support. We also prove the analogous result for the polynomial hierarchy, i.e., DistributionPH = PH. Finally, we show that PH and QCPH are contained in QPH, resolving an open question of Gharibian et al. (2022).

Cite as

Sabee Grewal and Justin Yirka. The Entangled Quantum Polynomial Hierarchy Collapses. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 6:1-6:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{grewal_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.6,
  author =	{Grewal, Sabee and Yirka, Justin},
  title =	{{The Entangled Quantum Polynomial Hierarchy Collapses}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204028},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: Polynomial hierarchy, Entangled proofs, Correlated proofs, Minimax}
}
Document
On the Power of Nonstandard Quantum Oracles

Authors: Roozbeh Bassirian, Bill Fefferman, and Kunal Marwaha

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 266, 18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023)


Abstract
We study how the choices made when designing an oracle affect the complexity of quantum property testing problems defined relative to this oracle. We encode a regular graph of even degree as an invertible function f, and present f in different oracle models. We first give a one-query QMA protocol to test if a graph encoded in f has a small disconnected subset. We then use representation theory to show that no classical witness can help a quantum verifier efficiently decide this problem relative to an in-place oracle. Perhaps surprisingly, a simple modification to the standard oracle prevents a quantum verifier from efficiently deciding this problem, even with access to an unbounded witness.

Cite as

Roozbeh Bassirian, Bill Fefferman, and Kunal Marwaha. On the Power of Nonstandard Quantum Oracles. In 18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 266, pp. 11:1-11:25, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{bassirian_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2023.11,
  author =	{Bassirian, Roozbeh and Fefferman, Bill and Marwaha, Kunal},
  title =	{{On the Power of Nonstandard Quantum Oracles}},
  booktitle =	{18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023)},
  pages =	{11:1--11:25},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-283-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{266},
  editor =	{Fawzi, Omar and Walter, Michael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2023.11},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-183215},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2023.11},
  annote =	{Keywords: quantum complexity, QCMA, expander graphs, representation theory}
}
Document
On Polynomially Many Queries to NP or QMA Oracles

Authors: Sevag Gharibian and Dorian Rudolph

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)


Abstract
We study the complexity of problems solvable in deterministic polynomial time with access to an NP or Quantum Merlin-Arthur (QMA)-oracle, such as P^NP and P^QMA, respectively. The former allows one to classify problems more finely than the Polynomial-Time Hierarchy (PH), whereas the latter characterizes physically motivated problems such as Approximate Simulation (APX-SIM) [Ambainis, CCC 2014]. In this area, a central role has been played by the classes P^NP[log] and P^QMA[log], defined identically to P^NP and P^QMA, except that only logarithmically many oracle queries are allowed. Here, [Gottlob, FOCS 1993] showed that if the adaptive queries made by a P^NP machine have a "query graph" which is a tree, then this computation can be simulated in P^NP[log]. In this work, we first show that for any verification class C ∈ {NP, MA, QCMA, QMA, QMA(2), NEXP, QMA_exp}, any P^C machine with a query graph of "separator number" s can be simulated using deterministic time exp(slog n) and slog n queries to a C-oracle. When s ∈ O(1) (which includes the case of O(1)-treewidth, and thus also of trees), this gives an upper bound of P^C[log], and when s ∈ O(log^k(n)), this yields bound QP^{C[log^{k+1}]} (QP meaning quasi-polynomial time). We next show how to combine Gottlob’s "admissible-weighting function" framework with the "flag-qubit" framework of [Watson, Bausch, Gharibian, 2020], obtaining a unified approach for embedding P^C computations directly into APX-SIM instances in a black-box fashion. Finally, we formalize a simple no-go statement about polynomials (c.f. [Krentel, STOC 1986]): Given a multi-linear polynomial p specified via an arithmetic circuit, if one can "weakly compress" p so that its optimal value requires m bits to represent, then P^NP can be decided with only m queries to an NP-oracle.

Cite as

Sevag Gharibian and Dorian Rudolph. On Polynomially Many Queries to NP or QMA Oracles. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 75:1-75:27, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{gharibian_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.75,
  author =	{Gharibian, Sevag and Rudolph, Dorian},
  title =	{{On Polynomially Many Queries to NP or QMA Oracles}},
  booktitle =	{13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)},
  pages =	{75:1--75:27},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-217-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{215},
  editor =	{Braverman, Mark},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.75},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156717},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.75},
  annote =	{Keywords: admissible weighting function, oracle complexity class, quantum complexity theory, Quantum Merlin Arthur (QMA), simulation of local measurement}
}
Document
Size Bounds on Low Depth Circuits for Promise Majority

Authors: Joshua Cook

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 182, 40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020)


Abstract
We give two results on the size of AC0 circuits computing promise majority. ε-promise majority is majority promised that either at most an ε fraction of the input bits are 1 or at most ε are 0. - First, we show super-quadratic size lower bounds on both monotone and general depth-3 circuits for promise majority. - For any ε ∈ (0, 1/2), monotone depth-3 AC0 circuits for ε-promise majority have size Ω̃(ε³ n^{2 + (ln(1 - ε))/(ln(ε))}). - For any ε ∈ (0, 1/2), general depth-3 AC0 circuits for ε-promise majority have size Ω̃(ε³ n^{2 + (ln(1 - ε²))/(2ln(ε))}). These are the first quadratic size lower bounds for depth-3 ε-promise majority circuits for ε < 0.49. - Second, we give both uniform and non-uniform sub-quadratic size constant-depth circuits for promise majority. - For integer k ≥ 1 and constant ε ∈ (0, 1/2), there exists monotone non uniform AC0 circuits of depth-(2 + 2 k) computing ε-promise majority with size Õ(n^{1/(1 - 2^{-k})}). - For integer k ≥ 1 and constant ε ∈ (0, 1/2), there exists monotone uniform AC0 circuit of depth-(2 + 2 k) computing ε-promise majority with size n^{1/(1 - (2/3) ^k) + o(1)}. These circuits are based on incremental improvements to existing depth-3 circuits for promise majority given by Ajtai [Miklós Ajtai, 1983] and Viola [Emanuele Viola, 2009] combined with a divide and conquer strategy.

Cite as

Joshua Cook. Size Bounds on Low Depth Circuits for Promise Majority. In 40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 182, pp. 19:1-19:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{cook:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.19,
  author =	{Cook, Joshua},
  title =	{{Size Bounds on Low Depth Circuits for Promise Majority}},
  booktitle =	{40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020)},
  pages =	{19:1--19:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-174-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{182},
  editor =	{Saxena, Nitin and Simon, Sunil},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.19},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-132609},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.19},
  annote =	{Keywords: AC0, Approximate Counting, Approximate Majority, Promise Majority, Depth 3 Circuits, Circuit Lower Bound}
}
Document
Oracle Complexity Classes and Local Measurements on Physical Hamiltonians

Authors: Sevag Gharibian, Stephen Piddock, and Justin Yirka

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 154, 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)


Abstract
The canonical hard problems for NP and its quantum analogue, Quantum Merlin-Arthur (QMA), are MAX-k-SAT and the k-local Hamiltonian problem (k-LH), the quantum generalization of MAX-k-SAT, respectively. In recent years, however, an arguably even more physically motivated problem than k-LH has been formalized - the problem of simulating local measurements on ground states of local Hamiltonians (APX-SIM). Perhaps surprisingly, [Ambainis, CCC 2014] showed that APX-SIM is likely harder than QMA. Indeed, [Ambainis, CCC 2014] showed that APX-SIM is P^{QMA[log]}-complete, for P^{QMA[log]} the class of languages decidable by a P machine making a logarithmic number of adaptive queries to a QMA oracle. In this work, we show that APX-SIM is P^{QMA[log]}-complete even when restricted to physically motivated Hamiltonians, obtaining as intermediate steps a variety of related complexity-theoretic results. Specifically, we first give a sequence of results which together yield P^{QMA[log]}-hardness for APX-SIM on well-motivated Hamiltonians such as the 2D Heisenberg model: - We show that for NP, StoqMA, and QMA oracles, a logarithmic number of adaptive queries is equivalent to polynomially many parallel queries. Formally, P^{NP[log]}=P^{||NP}, P^{StoqMA[log]}=P^{||StoqMA}, and P^{QMA[log]}=P^{||QMA}. (The result for NP was previously shown using a different proof technique.) These equalities simplify the proofs of our subsequent results. - Next, we show that the hardness of APX-SIM is preserved under Hamiltonian simulations (à la [Cubitt, Montanaro, Piddock, 2017]) by studying a seemingly weaker problem, ∀-APX-SIM. As a byproduct, we obtain a full complexity classification of APX-SIM, showing it is complete for P, P^{||NP},P^{||StoqMA}, or P^{||QMA} depending on the Hamiltonians employed. - Leveraging the above, we show that APX-SIM is P^{QMA[log]}-complete for any family of Hamiltonians which can efficiently simulate spatially sparse Hamiltonians. This implies APX-SIM is P^{QMA[log]}-complete even on physically motivated models such as the 2D Heisenberg model. Our second focus considers 1D systems: We show that APX-SIM remains P^{QMA[log]}-complete even for local Hamiltonians on a 1D line of 8-dimensional qudits. This uses a number of ideas from above, along with replacing the "query Hamiltonian" of [Ambainis, CCC 2014] with a new "sifter" construction.

Cite as

Sevag Gharibian, Stephen Piddock, and Justin Yirka. Oracle Complexity Classes and Local Measurements on Physical Hamiltonians. In 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 154, pp. 20:1-20:37, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{gharibian_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2020.20,
  author =	{Gharibian, Sevag and Piddock, Stephen and Yirka, Justin},
  title =	{{Oracle Complexity Classes and Local Measurements on Physical Hamiltonians}},
  booktitle =	{37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)},
  pages =	{20:1--20:37},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-140-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{154},
  editor =	{Paul, Christophe and Bl\"{a}ser, Markus},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.20},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-118818},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.20},
  annote =	{Keywords: Quantum Merlin Arthur (QMA), simulation of local measurement, local Hamiltonian, oracle complexity class, physical Hamiltonians}
}
Document
Quantum Generalizations of the Polynomial Hierarchy with Applications to QMA(2)

Authors: Sevag Gharibian, Miklos Santha, Jamie Sikora, Aarthi Sundaram, and Justin Yirka

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 117, 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018)


Abstract
The polynomial-time hierarchy (PH) has proven to be a powerful tool for providing separations in computational complexity theory (modulo standard conjectures such as PH does not collapse). Here, we study whether two quantum generalizations of PH can similarly prove separations in the quantum setting. The first generalization, QCPH, uses classical proofs, and the second, QPH, uses quantum proofs. For the former, we show quantum variants of the Karp-Lipton theorem and Toda's theorem. For the latter, we place its third level, Q Sigma_3, into NEXP using the Ellipsoid Method for efficiently solving semidefinite programs. These results yield two implications for QMA(2), the variant of Quantum Merlin-Arthur (QMA) with two unentangled proofs, a complexity class whose characterization has proven difficult. First, if QCPH=QPH (i.e., alternating quantifiers are sufficiently powerful so as to make classical and quantum proofs "equivalent"), then QMA(2) is in the Counting Hierarchy (specifically, in P^{PP^{PP}}). Second, unless QMA(2)= Q Sigma_3 (i.e., alternating quantifiers do not help in the presence of "unentanglement"), QMA(2) is strictly contained in NEXP.

Cite as

Sevag Gharibian, Miklos Santha, Jamie Sikora, Aarthi Sundaram, and Justin Yirka. Quantum Generalizations of the Polynomial Hierarchy with Applications to QMA(2). In 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 117, pp. 58:1-58:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)


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@InProceedings{gharibian_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.58,
  author =	{Gharibian, Sevag and Santha, Miklos and Sikora, Jamie and Sundaram, Aarthi and Yirka, Justin},
  title =	{{Quantum Generalizations of the Polynomial Hierarchy with Applications to QMA(2)}},
  booktitle =	{43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018)},
  pages =	{58:1--58:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-086-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2018},
  volume =	{117},
  editor =	{Potapov, Igor and Spirakis, Paul and Worrell, James},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.58},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-96409},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.58},
  annote =	{Keywords: Complexity Theory, Quantum Computing, Polynomial Hierarchy, Semidefinite Programming, QMA(2), Quantum Complexity}
}
Document
The Complexity of Simulating Local Measurements on Quantum Systems

Authors: Sevag Gharibian and Justin Yirka

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 73, 12th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2017)


Abstract
An important task in quantum physics is the estimation of local quantities for ground states of local Hamiltonians. Recently, Ambainis defined the complexity class P^QMA[log], and motivated its study by showing that the physical task of estimating the expectation value of a local observable against the ground state of a local Hamiltonian is P^QMA[log]-complete. In this paper, we continue the study of P^QMA[log], obtaining the following results. The P^QMA[log]-completeness result of Ambainis requires O(log n)-local observ- ables and Hamiltonians. We show that simulating even a single qubit measurement on ground states of 5-local Hamiltonians is P^QMA[log]-complete, resolving an open question of Ambainis. We formalize the complexity theoretic study of estimating two-point correlation functions against ground states, and show that this task is similarly P^QMA[log]-complete. P^QMA[log] is thought of as "slightly harder" than QMA. We justify this formally by exploiting the hierarchical voting technique of Beigel, Hemachandra, and Wechsung to show P^QMA[log] \subseteq PP. This improves the containment QMA \subseteq PP from Kitaev and Watrous. A central theme of this work is the subtlety involved in the study of oracle classes in which the oracle solves a promise problem. In this vein, we identify a flaw in Ambainis' prior work regarding a P^UQMA[log]-hardness proof for estimating spectral gaps of local Hamiltonians. By introducing a "query validation" technique, we build on his prior work to obtain P^UQMA[log]-hardness for estimating spectral gaps under polynomial-time Turing reductions.

Cite as

Sevag Gharibian and Justin Yirka. The Complexity of Simulating Local Measurements on Quantum Systems. In 12th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 73, pp. 2:1-2:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)


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@InProceedings{gharibian_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2017.2,
  author =	{Gharibian, Sevag and Yirka, Justin},
  title =	{{The Complexity of Simulating Local Measurements on Quantum Systems}},
  booktitle =	{12th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2017)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-034-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2018},
  volume =	{73},
  editor =	{Wilde, Mark M.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2017.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-85776},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2017.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Complexity theory, Quantum Merlin Arthur (QMA), local Hamiltonian, local measurement, spectral gap}
}
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