Volume

LIPIcs, Volume 86

13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)



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Event

COSIT 2017, September 4-8, 2017, L'Aquila, Italy

Editors

Eliseo Clementini
Maureen Donnelly
May Yuan
Christian Kray
Paolo Fogliaroni
Andrea Ballatore

Publication Details

  • published at: 2017-08-29
  • Publisher: Schloss-Dagstuhl - Leibniz Zentrum für Informatik
  • ISBN: 978-3-95977-043-9
  • DBLP: db/conf/cosit/cosit2017

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Document
Complete Volume
LIPIcs, Volume 86, COSIT'17, Complete Volume

Authors: Eliseo Clementini, Maureen Donnelly, May Yuan, Christian Kray, Paolo Fogliaroni, and Andrea Ballatore


Abstract
LIPIcs, Volume 86, COSIT'17, Complete Volume

Cite as

Eliseo Clementini, Maureen Donnelly, May Yuan, Christian Kray, Paolo Fogliaroni, and Andrea Ballatore. LIPIcs, Volume 86, COSIT'17, Complete Volume. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@Proceedings{clementini_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017,
  title =	{{LIPIcs, Volume 86, COSIT'17, Complete Volume}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-79080},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017},
  annote =	{Keywords: Conference Proceedings, Applications and Expert Systems, Knowledge Representation Formalisms and Methods, Physical Sciences and Engineering}
}
Document
Front Matter
Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Organization, List of Authors

Authors: Eliseo Clementini, Maureen Donnelly, May Yuan, Christian Kray, Paolo Fogliaroni, and Andrea Ballatore


Abstract
Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Organization, List of Authors

Cite as

Eliseo Clementini, Maureen Donnelly, May Yuan, Christian Kray, Paolo Fogliaroni, and Andrea Ballatore. Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Organization, List of Authors. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 0:i-0:xiv, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{clementini_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.0,
  author =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  title =	{{Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Organization, List of Authors}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{0:i--0:xiv},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.0},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77464},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.0},
  annote =	{Keywords: Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Organization, List of Authors}
}
Document
The Logic of Discrete Qualitative Relations

Authors: Giulia Sindoni and John G. Stell


Abstract
We consider a modal logic based on mathematical morphology which allows the expression of mereotopological relations between subgraphs in the setting of the discrete space. A specific form of topological closure for graphs can be expressed in the logic, as a combination of the negation and its bi-intuitionistic dual, as well as a modality, using the stable relation Q, which describes the incidence structure of the graph. By working in this context we have been able to define qualitative spatial relations between discrete regions, and to compare them with earlier works in mereotopology, both in the discrete and in the continuous space.

Cite as

Giulia Sindoni and John G. Stell. The Logic of Discrete Qualitative Relations. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 1:1-1:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{sindoni_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.1,
  author =	{Sindoni, Giulia and Stell, John G.},
  title =	{{The Logic of Discrete Qualitative Relations}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{1:1--1:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77651},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: modal logic, qualitative spatial reasoning, discrete space}
}
Document
A New Perspective on the Mereotopology of RCC8

Authors: Michael Grüninger and Bahar Aameri


Abstract
RCC8 is a set of eight jointly exhaustive and pairwise disjoint binary relations representing mereotopological relationships between ordered pairs of individuals. Although the RCC8 relations were originally presented as defined relations of Region Connection Calculus (RCC), virtually all implementations use the RCC8 Composition Table (CT) rather than the axioms of RCC. This raises the question of which mereotopology actually underlies the RCC8 composition table. In this paper, we characterize the algebraic and mereotopological properties of the RCC8 CT based on the metalogical relationship between the first-order theory that captures the RCC8 CT and Ground Mereotopology (MT) of Casati and Varzi. In particular, we show that the RCC8 theory and MT are relatively interpretable in each other. We further show that a nonconservative extension of the RCC8 theory that captures the intended interpretation of the RCC8 relations is logically synonymous with MT, and that a conservative extension of MT is logically synonymous with the RCC8 theory. We also present a characterization of models of MT up to isomorphism, and explain how such a characterization provides insights for understanding models of the RCC8 theory.

Cite as

Michael Grüninger and Bahar Aameri. A New Perspective on the Mereotopology of RCC8. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 2:1-2:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{gruninger_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.2,
  author =	{Gr\"{u}ninger, Michael and Aameri, Bahar},
  title =	{{A New Perspective on the Mereotopology of RCC8}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77571},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: RCC8, mereotopology, spatial reasoning, ontologies}
}
Document
A Qualitative Spatial Descriptor of Group-Robot Interactions

Authors: Zoe Falomir and Cecilio Angulo


Abstract
The problem of finding a suitable qualitative representation for robots to reason about activity spaces where they carry out tasks such as leading or interacting with a group of people is tackled in this paper. For that, a Qualitative Spatial model for Group Robot Interaction (QS-GRI) is proposed to define Kendon’s F-formations [Kendon, 2010] depending on: (i) the relative location of the robot with respect to other individuals involved in that interaction; (ii) the individuals’ orientation; (iii) the shared peri-personal distance; and (iv) the role of the individuals (observer, main character or interactive). An iconic representation is provided and Kendon’s formations are defined logically. The conceptual neighborhood of the evolution of Kendon formations is studied, that is, how one formation is transformed into another. These transformations can depend on the role that the robot have, and on the amount of people involved.

Cite as

Zoe Falomir and Cecilio Angulo. A Qualitative Spatial Descriptor of Group-Robot Interactions. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 3:1-3:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{falomir_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.3,
  author =	{Falomir, Zoe and Angulo, Cecilio},
  title =	{{A Qualitative Spatial Descriptor of Group-Robot Interactions}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{3:1--3:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.3},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77628},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.3},
  annote =	{Keywords: qualitative modeling, spatial reasoning, location, distance, orientation, cognitive robotics, human-robot interaction, group-robot interaction, logics}
}
Document
An Efficient Representation of General Qualitative Spatial Information Using Bintrees

Authors: Leif Harald Karlsen and Martin Giese


Abstract
In this paper we extend previous work on using bintrees as an efficient representation for qualitative information about spatial objects. Our approach represents each spatial object as a bintree satisfying the exact same qualitative relationships to other bintree representations as the corresponding spatial objects. We prove that such correct bintrees always exists and that they can be constructed as a sum of local representations, allowing a practically efficient construction. Our representation is both efficient, w.r.t. storage space and query time, and can represent many well-known qualitative relations, such as the relations in the Region Connection Calculus and Allen's Interval Algebra.

Cite as

Leif Harald Karlsen and Martin Giese. An Efficient Representation of General Qualitative Spatial Information Using Bintrees. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 4:1-4:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{karlsen_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.4,
  author =	{Karlsen, Leif Harald and Giese, Martin},
  title =	{{An Efficient Representation of General Qualitative Spatial Information Using Bintrees}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{4:1--4:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.4},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77503},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.4},
  annote =	{Keywords: Qualitative spatial data, Bintree, Data structure}
}
Document
Towards a Quantum Theory of Geographic Fields

Authors: Thomas Bittner


Abstract
This paper proposes a framework that that allows for the possibility that multiple classically incompatible states are expressed simultaneously at a given point of a geographic field. The admission of such superposition states provides the basis for a new understanding of indeterminacy and ontological vagueness in the geographic world.

Cite as

Thomas Bittner. Towards a Quantum Theory of Geographic Fields. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 5:1-5:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{bittner:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.5,
  author =	{Bittner, Thomas},
  title =	{{Towards a Quantum Theory of Geographic Fields}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{5:1--5:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77667},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: Vagueness, Quantum Geography, Ontology, Ecoregion classification}
}
Document
Urban Artefacts and Their Social Roles: Towards an Ontology of Social Practices

Authors: Alessia Calafiore, Guido Boella, Stefano Borgo, and Nicola Guarino


Abstract
Cities can be seen as systems of urban artefacts interacting with human activities. Since cities in this sense need to be organized and coordinated, convergences and divergences between the "planned" and the "lived" city have always been of paramount interest in urban planning. The increasing amount of geo big data and the growing impact of Internet of Things (IoT) in contemporary smart city is pushing toward a re-conceptualization of urban systems taking into consideration the complexity of human behaviors. This work contributes to this view by proposing an ontological analysis of urban artefacts and their roles, focusing in particular on the difference between social roles and functional roles through the prism of social practices.

Cite as

Alessia Calafiore, Guido Boella, Stefano Borgo, and Nicola Guarino. Urban Artefacts and Their Social Roles: Towards an Ontology of Social Practices. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 6:1-6:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{calafiore_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.6,
  author =	{Calafiore, Alessia and Boella, Guido and Borgo, Stefano and Guarino, Nicola},
  title =	{{Urban Artefacts and Their Social Roles: Towards an Ontology of Social Practices}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77642},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: urban artefact, ontology, social practice, urban planning}
}
Document
An Ontological Framework for Characterizing Hydrological Flow Processes

Authors: Shirly Stephen and Torsten Hahmann


Abstract
The spatio-temporal processes that describe hydrologic flow - the movement of water above and below the surface of the Earth -- are currently underrepresented in formal semantic representations of the water domain. This paper analyses basic flow processes in the hydrology domain and systematically studies the hydrogeological entities, such as different rock and water bodies, the ground surface or subsurface zones, that participate in them. It identifies the source and goal entities and the transported water (the theme) as common participants in hydrologic flow and constructs a taxonomy of different flow patterns based on differences in source and goal participants. The taxonomy and related concepts are axiomatized in first-order logic as refinements of DOLCE's participation relation and reusing hydrogeological concepts from the Hydro Foundational Ontology (HyFO). The formalization further enhances HyFO and contributes to improved knowledge integration in the hydrology domain.

Cite as

Shirly Stephen and Torsten Hahmann. An Ontological Framework for Characterizing Hydrological Flow Processes. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 7:1-7:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{stephen_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.7,
  author =	{Stephen, Shirly and Hahmann, Torsten},
  title =	{{An Ontological Framework for Characterizing Hydrological Flow Processes}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77639},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: hydrology, flow processes, formal ontology, participation, semantic roles}
}
Document
Classification, Individuation and Demarcation of Forests: Formalising the Multi-Faceted Semantics of Geographic Terms

Authors: Lucía Gómez Álvarez and Brandon Bennett


Abstract
Many papers have considered the problem of how to define forest. However, as we shall illustrate, while most definitions capture some important aspects of what it means to be a forest, they almost invariably omit or are very vague regarding other aspects. In the current paper we address this issue, firstly by providing a definitional framework based on spatial and physical properties, within which one can make explicit the implicit variability of the natural language forest concept in terms of explicit parameters. Our framework explicitly differentiates between the functions of classification, individuation and demarcation that comprise the interpretation of predicative terms. Whereas ontologies have traditionally concentrated predominantly on classification, we argue that in many cases (especially in the case of geographic concepts) criteria for individuation (i.e. establishing how many distinct individual objects of a given type exist) and demarcation (establishing the boundary of an object) require separate attention, involve their own particular definitional issues and are affected by vagueness in different ways. We also describe a prototype Prolog system that illustrates how our framework can be implemented.

Cite as

Lucía Gómez Álvarez and Brandon Bennett. Classification, Individuation and Demarcation of Forests: Formalising the Multi-Faceted Semantics of Geographic Terms. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 8:1-8:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{gomezalvarez_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.8,
  author =	{G\'{o}mez \'{A}lvarez, Luc{\'\i}a and Bennett, Brandon},
  title =	{{Classification, Individuation and Demarcation of Forests: Formalising the Multi-Faceted Semantics of Geographic Terms}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{8:1--8:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.8},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77676},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.8},
  annote =	{Keywords: Forest, Definition, Vagueness, Ontology, GIS}
}
Document
Sense of Direction: One or Two Dimensions?

Authors: Clare Davies, Lucy Athersuch, and Nikki Amos


Abstract
The Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale (SBSOD) has been an invaluable research tool for over 15 years. Previous studies with non-US populations, despite supporting the scale's internal validity, suggested national differences in individual item responses and possibly the factor analytic structure, although translation differences were confounded with cultural and environmental factors. Using a pooled British sample (N=151) - avoiding linguistic translation, yet reflecting 'old world' environmental experience and strategies - this paper revisits the SBSOD's validity and structure. While largely supporting the scale's internal validity across cultures and spatial environments, findings from this population suggest at least a two-factor structure underlying the scores, with the first factor explaining less than half of its variance, supporting the oft-discussed division between survey- and route-oriented strategies. We conclude by proposing a more nuanced, efficiency-based theory of 'sense of direction'.

Cite as

Clare Davies, Lucy Athersuch, and Nikki Amos. Sense of Direction: One or Two Dimensions?. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 9:1-9:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{davies_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.9,
  author =	{Davies, Clare and Athersuch, Lucy and Amos, Nikki},
  title =	{{Sense of Direction: One or Two Dimensions?}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{9:1--9:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.9},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77590},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.9},
  annote =	{Keywords: sense of direction, spatial ability, cognitive mapping}
}
Document
How Subdimensions of Salience Influence Each Other. Comparing Models Based on Empirical Data

Authors: Markus Kattenbeck


Abstract
Theories about salience of landmarks in GIScience have been evolving for about 15 years. This paper empirically analyses hypotheses about the way different subdimensions (visual, structural, and cognitive aspects, as well as prototypicality and visibility in advance) of salience have an impact on each other. The analysis is based on empirical data acquired by means of an in-situ survey (360 objects, 112 participants). It consists of two parts: First, a theory-based structural model is assessed using variance-based Structural Equation Modeling. The results achieved are, second, corroborated by a data-driven approach, i.e. a tree-augmented naive Bayesian network is learned. This network is used as a structural model input for further analyses. The results clearly indicate that the subdimensions of salience influence each other.

Cite as

Markus Kattenbeck. How Subdimensions of Salience Influence Each Other. Comparing Models Based on Empirical Data. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 10:1-10:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{kattenbeck:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.10,
  author =	{Kattenbeck, Markus},
  title =	{{How Subdimensions of Salience Influence Each Other. Comparing Models Based on Empirical Data}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{10:1--10:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.10},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77543},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.10},
  annote =	{Keywords: Salience models, consistent PLS-SEM Analysis, Bayesian Networks}
}
Document
Evidence-Based Parametric Design: Computationally Generated Spatial Morphologies Satisfying Behavioural-Based Design Constraints

Authors: Vasiliki Kondyli, Carl Schultz, and Mehul Bhatt


Abstract
Parametric design is an established method in engineering and architecture facilitating the rapid generation and evaluation of a large number of configurations and shapes of complex physical structures according to constraints specified by the designer. However, the emphasis of parametric design systems, particularly in the context of architectural design of large-scale spaces, is on numerical aspects (e.g., maximising areas, specifying dimensions of walls) and does not address human-centred design criteria, for example, as developed from behavioural evidence-based studies. This paper aims at providing an evidence-based human-centred approach for defining design constraints for parametric modelling systems. We determine design rules that address wayfinding issues through behavioural multi-modal data analysis of a wayfinding case study in two healthcare environments of the Parkland hospital (Dallas). Our rules are related to the environmental factors of visibility and positioning of manifest cues along the navigation route. We implement our rules in FreeCAD, an open-source parametric system.

Cite as

Vasiliki Kondyli, Carl Schultz, and Mehul Bhatt. Evidence-Based Parametric Design: Computationally Generated Spatial Morphologies Satisfying Behavioural-Based Design Constraints. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 11:1-11:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{kondyli_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.11,
  author =	{Kondyli, Vasiliki and Schultz, Carl and Bhatt, Mehul},
  title =	{{Evidence-Based Parametric Design: Computationally Generated Spatial Morphologies Satisfying Behavioural-Based Design Constraints}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{11:1--11:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.11},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77682},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.11},
  annote =	{Keywords: parametric modelling, behavioural studies, Evidence-Based Design, design computing, wayfinding, spatial cognition}
}
Document
Targeted Cognitive Training of Spatial Skills: Perspective Taking in Robot Teleoperation

Authors: Liel Luko and Avi Parush


Abstract
Spatial skills are critical for robot teleoperation. For example, in order to make a judgment of relative direction when operating a robot remotely, one must take different perspectives and make decisions based on available spatial information. Training spatial skills is thus critical for robot teleoperation, yet, current training programs focus primarily on psycho-motoric skills of the task, and less on the essential cognitive aspects of spatial skills. This work addresses this need by considering previous findings on relative direction judgments in training robot teleoperation. We developed and tested a basic training paradigm of perspective taking skill targeting the cognitive skill rather than psycho-motoric skill. An experiment tested a basic training paradigm using a stationary robot, with a training group receiving perspective taking training and a control group without training, and both tested on a transfer test with the robot. The results show that participants who went through a targeted cognitive skill training reached mastery level during the training, and performed better than the control group in an analogue transfer of learning test. Moreover, results reveal that the training facilitated participants with initial poor perspective taking skills reach the level of the high-skilled participants in transfer test performance. The study validates the possibility to target only cognitive aspects of spatial skills and result in better robot teleoperation.

Cite as

Liel Luko and Avi Parush. Targeted Cognitive Training of Spatial Skills: Perspective Taking in Robot Teleoperation. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 12:1-12:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{luko_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.12,
  author =	{Luko, Liel and Parush, Avi},
  title =	{{Targeted Cognitive Training of Spatial Skills: Perspective Taking in Robot Teleoperation}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{12:1--12:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.12},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77482},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.12},
  annote =	{Keywords: Cognitive Training, Spatial Information Processing, Targeted Training, Teleoperation, Training Spatial Skills, Visual Perspective Taking}
}
Document
What Makes the Difference When Learning Spatial Information Using Language? The Contribution of Visuo-Spatial Individual Factors

Authors: Chiara Meneghetti and Veronica Muffato


Abstract
Within the spatial cognition domain, increasing interest is being paid to identifying the factors able to support good-quality environment learning. The present study examined the role of several individual visuo-spatial factors in supporting representations derived from spatial language,using descriptions. A group of undergraduates performed visuo-spatial and verbal cognitive tasks and completed visuo-spatial questionnaires, then listened to descriptions of fictitious large-scale environments presented from survey (map-based) and route (person-based) views, and to non-spatial descriptions for control purposes. Their recall was assessed using a verification test and a graphical representation task. The results showed that: (i) verbal abilities support accuracy in recall tasks of spatial and non-spatial descriptions; (ii) visuo-spatial abilities, preferences (such as pleasure in exploring), and visuo-spatial strategies specifically support accuracy in recall tasks of spatial descriptions. The contribution of individual visuo-spatial factors varies, however, as a function of the type of description and the type of recall task: preference for the survey strategy seems more associated with performance in survey description recall and graphical representation. The results are discussed in the light of spatial learning models and in terms of their implications.

Cite as

Chiara Meneghetti and Veronica Muffato. What Makes the Difference When Learning Spatial Information Using Language? The Contribution of Visuo-Spatial Individual Factors. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 13:1-13:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{meneghetti_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.13,
  author =	{Meneghetti, Chiara and Muffato, Veronica},
  title =	{{What Makes the Difference When Learning Spatial Information Using Language? The Contribution of Visuo-Spatial Individual Factors}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{13:1--13:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.13},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77587},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.13},
  annote =	{Keywords: Spatial language, survey description, route description, visuo-spatial abilities, self-reported visuo-spatial factors}
}
Document
Cities Untangled: Uncovering Order in Arterial Skeletons of Road Maps

Authors: Robert Firth


Abstract
Survey knowledge, as embodied in the road map, has been seen as too slow a navigational aid to function effectively at the speed of life in the smartphone/GPS-app era, capturing as it does details of the highway network that are seen to present too heavy a cognitive load to the user. Yet this very richness offers the promise of enabling the user to navigate with understanding, providing for flexible and resilient trip planning. But what if the map’s heavy cognitive load was not because of the difficulty in dealing with its heavy load of information, but because that information was unnecessarily disordered? We suggest a comprehensible ordering has always existed within complex-appearing road maps. We propose a model for making this ordering explicit, highlighting a "skeleton" of arterials so as to appear visually untangled. The concept of the Use-Access Island (UAI), a bounded area with a coordinate axis-like array of spanning arteries, is introduced. As ever-finer meshes of these areas are highlighted across a street map, a hierarchy of visually untangled arteries can be rendered. Locations and routings can then be visualized in terms of nested sequences of "untangled" routings. When married to geographical designations, this iterative UAI schematization is designed to embody routing spatial knowledge. Is such an untangled map fast enough? We invite researchers to test the model.

Cite as

Robert Firth. Cities Untangled: Uncovering Order in Arterial Skeletons of Road Maps. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 14:1-14:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{firth:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.14,
  author =	{Firth, Robert},
  title =	{{Cities Untangled: Uncovering Order in Arterial Skeletons of Road Maps}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{14:1--14:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.14},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77538},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.14},
  annote =	{Keywords: map schematization, arterial skeleton, untangled map}
}
Document
Uncertainty in Wayfinding: A Conceptual Framework and Agent-Based Model

Authors: David Jonietz and Peter Kiefer


Abstract
Though the wayfinding process is inherently uncertain, most models of wayfinding do not offer sufficient possibilities for modeling uncertainty. Such modeling approaches, however, are required to engineer assistance systems that recognize, predict, and react to a wayfinder's uncertainty. This paper introduces a conceptual framework for modeling uncertainty in wayfinding. It is supposed that uncertainty when following route instructions in wayfinding is caused by non-deterministic spatial reference system transformations. The uncertainty experienced by a wayfinder varies over time and depends on how well wayfinding instructions fit with the environment. The conceptual framework includes individual differences regarding wayfinding skills and regarding uncertainty tolerance. It is implemented as an agent-based model, based on the belief-desire-intention (BDI) framework. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated with agent-based simulations.

Cite as

David Jonietz and Peter Kiefer. Uncertainty in Wayfinding: A Conceptual Framework and Agent-Based Model. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 15:1-15:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{jonietz_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.15,
  author =	{Jonietz, David and Kiefer, Peter},
  title =	{{Uncertainty in Wayfinding: A Conceptual Framework and Agent-Based Model}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{15:1--15:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.15},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77497},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.15},
  annote =	{Keywords: Wayfinding, Uncertainty, Agent-Based Model}
}
Document
Timing of Pedestrian Navigation Instructions

Authors: Ioannis Giannopoulos, David Jonietz, Martin Raubal, Georgios Sarlas, and Lisa Stähli


Abstract
During pedestrian navigation in outdoor urban environments we often utilize assistance systems to support decision-making. These systems help wayfinders by providing relevant information withing the context of their surroundings, e.g., landmark-based instructions of the type "turn left at the church". Next to the instruction type and content, also the timing of the instruction must be considered in order to facilitate the wayfinding process. In this work we present our findings concerning the user and environmental factors that have an impact on the timing of instructions. We applied a survival analysis on data collected through an experiment in a realistic virtual environment in order to analyze the expected distance to the decision point until instructions are needed. The presented results can be used by navigation systems for instruction timing based on the characteristics of the current wayfinder and environment.

Cite as

Ioannis Giannopoulos, David Jonietz, Martin Raubal, Georgios Sarlas, and Lisa Stähli. Timing of Pedestrian Navigation Instructions. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 16:1-16:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{giannopoulos_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.16,
  author =	{Giannopoulos, Ioannis and Jonietz, David and Raubal, Martin and Sarlas, Georgios and St\"{a}hli, Lisa},
  title =	{{Timing of Pedestrian Navigation Instructions}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{16:1--16:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77606},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: navigation, wayfinding, instructions, timing, survival analysis}
}
Document
On Avoiding Traffic Jams with Dynamic Self-Organizing Trip Planning

Authors: Thomas Liebig and Maurice Sotzny


Abstract
Urban areas are increasingly subject to congestions. Most navigation systems and algorithms that avoid these congestions consider drivers independently and can, thus, cause novel congestions at unexpected places. Pre-computation of optimal trips (Nash equilibrium) could be a solution to the problem but is due to its static nature of no practical relevance. In contrast, the paper at-hand provides an approach to avoid traffic jams with dynamic self-organizing trip planning. We apply reinforcement learning to learn dynamic weights for routing from the decisions and feedback logs of the vehicles. In order to compare our routing regime against others, we validate our approach in an open simulation environment (LuST) that allows reproduction of the traffic in Luxembourg for a particular day. Additionally, in two realistic scenarios: (1) usage of stationary sensors and (2) deployment in a mobile navigation system, we perform experiments with varying penetration rates. All our experiments reveal that performance of the traffic network is increased and occurrence of traffic jams are reduced by application of our routing regime.

Cite as

Thomas Liebig and Maurice Sotzny. On Avoiding Traffic Jams with Dynamic Self-Organizing Trip Planning. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 17:1-17:12, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{liebig_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.17,
  author =	{Liebig, Thomas and Sotzny, Maurice},
  title =	{{On Avoiding Traffic Jams with Dynamic Self-Organizing Trip Planning}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{17:1--17:12},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.17},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77615},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.17},
  annote =	{Keywords: situation-aware trip planning, self-organizing traffic, reinforcement learning}
}
Document
Global Landmarks in a Complex Indoor Environment

Authors: Cristina Robles Bahm and Stephen C. Hirtle


Abstract
Wayfinding in complex indoor environments can be a difficult and disorienting activity. Many factors contribute to this difficulty, including the variable number of floors and half-floors paired with many different and often unpredictable ways to get from one floor to another. In order to explore how the spatial information of floor to floor transitions is represented cognitively, a user study was conducted at the Carnegie Museums of Art and Natural History that drew on experienced participants from the Visitor Services Department. The participants were asked to give wayfinding descriptions to and from several landmarks in the museums with the majority of the routes spanning multiple floors. It was found that floor to floor transition points were often represented as landmarks with notable locations in the Museums being represented with both functional and referential aspects. A functional aspect of a floor to floor transition points meant that its purpose in the wayfinding description was to provide a means to get from one floor to another. A referential quality meant that a floor to floor transition points was simply an indemnity and did not serve as a way to move vertically through the environment. This finding informs the discussion on global landmarks and their representation and salience in large complex indoor environments.

Cite as

Cristina Robles Bahm and Stephen C. Hirtle. Global Landmarks in a Complex Indoor Environment. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 18:1-18:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{roblesbahm_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.18,
  author =	{Robles Bahm, Cristina and Hirtle, Stephen C.},
  title =	{{Global Landmarks in a Complex Indoor Environment}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{18:1--18:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.18},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77561},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.18},
  annote =	{Keywords: Navigation, wayfinding, indoor environments}
}
Document
A Crowdsourced Model of Landscape Preference

Authors: Olga Chesnokova, Mario Nowak, and Ross S. Purves


Abstract
The advent of new sources of spatial data and associated information (e.g. Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI)) allows us to explore non-expert conceptualisations of space, where the number of participants and spatial extent coverage encompassed can be much greater than is available through traditional empirical approaches. In this paper we explore such data through the prism of landscape preference or scenicness. VGI in the form of photographs is particularly suited to this task, and the volume of images has been suggested as a simple proxy for landscape preference. We propose another approach, which models landscape aesthetics based on the descriptions of some 220000 images collected in a large VGI project in the UK, and more than 1.5 million votes related to the perceived scenicness of these images collected in a crowdsourcing project. We use image descriptions to build features for a supervised machine learning algorithm. Features include the most frequent uni- and bigrams, adjectives, presence of verbs of perception and adjectives from the "Landscape Adjective Checklist". Our results include not only qualitative information relating terms to scenicness in the UK, but a model based on our features which can predict some 52% of the variation in scenicness, comparable to typical models using more traditional approaches. The most useful features are the 800 most frequent unigrams, presence of adjectives from the "Landscape Adjective Checklist" and a spatial weighting term.

Cite as

Olga Chesnokova, Mario Nowak, and Ross S. Purves. A Crowdsourced Model of Landscape Preference. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 19:1-19:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{chesnokova_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.19,
  author =	{Chesnokova, Olga and Nowak, Mario and Purves, Ross S.},
  title =	{{A Crowdsourced Model of Landscape Preference}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{19:1--19:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.19},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77513},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.19},
  annote =	{Keywords: VGI, crowdsourcing, semantics, landscape preference}
}
Document
Juxtaposing Thematic Regions Derived from Spatial and Platial User-Generated Content

Authors: Grant McKenzie and Benjamin Adams


Abstract
Typical approaches to defining regions, districts or neighborhoods within a city often focus on place instances of a similar type that are grouped together. For example, most cities have at least one bar district defined as such by the clustering of bars within a few city blocks. In reality, it is not the presence of spatial locations labeled as bars that contribute to a bar region, but rather the popularity of the bars themselves. Following the principle that places, and by extension, place-type regions exist via the people that have given space meaning, we explore user-contributed content as a way of extracting this meaning. Kernel density estimation models of place-based social check-ins are compared to spatially tagged social posts with the goal of identifying thematic regions within the city of Los Angeles, CA. Dynamic human activity patterns, represented as temporal signatures, are included in this analysis to demonstrate how regions change over time.

Cite as

Grant McKenzie and Benjamin Adams. Juxtaposing Thematic Regions Derived from Spatial and Platial User-Generated Content. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 20:1-20:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{mckenzie_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.20,
  author =	{McKenzie, Grant and Adams, Benjamin},
  title =	{{Juxtaposing Thematic Regions Derived from Spatial and Platial User-Generated Content}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{20:1--20:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.20},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77476},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.20},
  annote =	{Keywords: place type, thematic region, temporal signature, topic modeling, user-generated content}
}
Document
Using Flickr for Characterizing the Environment: An Exploratory Analysis

Authors: Shelan S. Jeawak, Christopher B. Jones, and Steven Schockaert


Abstract
The photo-sharing website Flickr has become a valuable informal information source in disciplines such as geography and ecology. Some ecologists, for instance, have been manually analysing Flickr to obtain information that is more up-to-date than what is found in traditional sources. While several previous works have shown the potential of Flickr tags for characterizing places, it remains unclear to what extent such tags can be used to derive scientifically useful information for ecologists in an automated way. To obtain a clearer picture about the kinds of environmental features that can be modelled using Flickr tags, we consider the problem of predicting scenicness, species distribution, land cover, and several climate related features. Our focus is on comparing the predictive power of Flickr tags with that of structured data from more traditional sources. We find that, broadly speaking, Flickr tags perform comparably to the considered structured data sources, being sometimes better and sometimes worse. Most importantly, we find that combining Flickr tags with structured data sources consistently, and sometimes substantially, improves the results. This suggests that Flickr indeed provides information that is complementary to traditional sources.

Cite as

Shelan S. Jeawak, Christopher B. Jones, and Steven Schockaert. Using Flickr for Characterizing the Environment: An Exploratory Analysis. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 21:1-21:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{jeawak_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.21,
  author =	{Jeawak, Shelan S. and Jones, Christopher B. and Schockaert, Steven},
  title =	{{Using Flickr for Characterizing the Environment: An Exploratory Analysis}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{21:1--21:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.21},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77523},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.21},
  annote =	{Keywords: Social media, Volunteered Geographic Information, Ecology}
}
Document
Defining Local Experts: Geographical Expertise as a Basis for Geographic Information Quality

Authors: Colin Robertson and Rob Feick


Abstract
As more data are produced by location sensors, mobile devices, and online participatory processes, the field of GIScience has grappled with issues of information quality, context, and appropriate analytical approaches for data with heterogeneous and/or unknown provenance. Data quality has often been viewed through a bifurcated lens of experts and amateurs, but consideration of what the nature of geographical expertise is reveals a much more more nuanced situation. We consider how adapting frameworks from the field of studies of experience and expertise may provide a conceptual basis and methodological framework for evaluating the quality of geographic information. For contributed geographic information, quality is typically derived from a data user’s trust in and/or perception of the reputation of the data producer. Trust and reputation of producers of geographic information has typically been derived from the presence or absence of professional qualifications and training. However this framework applies exclusively to ‘crisp’ notions of data quality, and has limited utility for more subjective contributions associated with volunteered geographic information which may provide a rich source of geographic information for many applications. We hypothesize that a conceptual framework for geographical expertise may be used as the basis for assessing information quality in both formal and informal sources of geospatial data. Two case studies are used to highlight the new concepts of geographical expertise introduced in the paper.

Cite as

Colin Robertson and Rob Feick. Defining Local Experts: Geographical Expertise as a Basis for Geographic Information Quality. In 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 86, pp. 22:1-22:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{robertson_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.22,
  author =	{Robertson, Colin and Feick, Rob},
  title =	{{Defining Local Experts: Geographical Expertise as a Basis for Geographic Information Quality}},
  booktitle =	{13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017)},
  pages =	{22:1--22:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-043-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{86},
  editor =	{Clementini, Eliseo and Donnelly, Maureen and Yuan, May and Kray, Christian and Fogliaroni, Paolo and Ballatore, Andrea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.22},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-77553},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2017.22},
  annote =	{Keywords: data quality, expertise, geographic information, conceptual framework}
}

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