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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)

Relational problems (those with many possible valid outputs) are different from decision problems, but it is easy to forget just how different. This paper initiates the study of FBQP/qpoly, the class of relational problems solvable in quantum polynomial-time with the help of polynomial-sized quantum advice, along with its analogues for deterministic and randomized computation (FP, FBPP) and advice (/poly, /rpoly).
Our first result is that FBQP/qpoly ≠ FBQP/poly, unconditionally, with no oracle - a striking contrast with what we know about the analogous decision classes. The proof repurposes the separation between quantum and classical one-way communication complexities due to Bar-Yossef, Jayram, and Kerenidis. We discuss how this separation raises the prospect of near-term experiments to demonstrate "quantum information supremacy," a form of quantum supremacy that would not depend on unproved complexity assumptions.
Our second result is that FBPP ̸ ⊂ FP/poly - that is, Adleman’s Theorem fails for relational problems - unless PSPACE ⊂ NP/poly. Our proof uses IP = PSPACE and time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity. On the other hand, we show that proving FBPP ̸ ⊂ FP/poly will be hard, as it implies a superpolynomial circuit lower bound for PromiseBPEXP.
We prove the following further results:
- Unconditionally, FP ≠ FBPP and FP/poly ≠ FBPP/poly (even when these classes are carefully defined).
- FBPP/poly = FBPP/rpoly (and likewise for FBQP). For sampling problems, by contrast, SampBPP/poly ≠ SampBPP/rpoly (and likewise for SampBQP).

Scott Aaronson, Harry Buhrman, and William Kretschmer. A Qubit, a Coin, and an Advice String Walk into a Relational Problem. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 1:1-1:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{aaronson_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.1, author = {Aaronson, Scott and Buhrman, Harry and Kretschmer, William}, title = {{A Qubit, a Coin, and an Advice String Walk into a Relational Problem}}, booktitle = {15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)}, pages = {1:1--1:24}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-309-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {287}, editor = {Guruswami, Venkatesan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195290}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.1}, annote = {Keywords: Relational problems, quantum advice, randomized advice, FBQP, FBPP} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)

Entanglement is a quantum resource, in some ways analogous to randomness in classical computation. Inspired by recent work of Gheorghiu and Hoban, we define the notion of "pseudoentanglement", a property exhibited by ensembles of efficiently constructible quantum states which are indistinguishable from quantum states with maximal entanglement. Our construction relies on the notion of quantum pseudorandom states - first defined by Ji, Liu and Song - which are efficiently constructible states indistinguishable from (maximally entangled) Haar-random states. Specifically, we give a construction of pseudoentangled states with entanglement entropy arbitrarily close to log n across every cut, a tight bound providing an exponential separation between computational vs information theoretic quantum pseudorandomness. We discuss applications of this result to Matrix Product State testing, entanglement distillation, and the complexity of the AdS/CFT correspondence. As compared with a previous version of this manuscript (arXiv:2211.00747v1) this version introduces a new pseudorandom state construction, has a simpler proof of correctness, and achieves a technically stronger result of low entanglement across all cuts simultaneously.

Scott Aaronson, Adam Bouland, Bill Fefferman, Soumik Ghosh, Umesh Vazirani, Chenyi Zhang, and Zixin Zhou. Quantum Pseudoentanglement. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 2:1-2:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{aaronson_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.2, author = {Aaronson, Scott and Bouland, Adam and Fefferman, Bill and Ghosh, Soumik and Vazirani, Umesh and Zhang, Chenyi and Zhou, Zixin}, title = {{Quantum Pseudoentanglement}}, booktitle = {15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)}, pages = {2:1--2:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-309-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {287}, editor = {Guruswami, Venkatesan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.2}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195300}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.2}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum computing, Quantum complexity theory, entanglement} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 266, 18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023)

We give an efficient algorithm that learns a non-interacting-fermion state, given copies of the state. For a system of n non-interacting fermions and m modes, we show that O(m³ n² log(1/δ) / ε⁴) copies of the input state and O(m⁴ n² log(1/δ)/ ε⁴) time are sufficient to learn the state to trace distance at most ε with probability at least 1 - δ. Our algorithm empirically estimates one-mode correlations in O(m) different measurement bases and uses them to reconstruct a succinct description of the entire state efficiently.

Scott Aaronson and Sabee Grewal. Efficient Tomography of Non-Interacting-Fermion States. In 18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 266, pp. 12:1-12:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{aaronson_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2023.12, author = {Aaronson, Scott and Grewal, Sabee}, title = {{Efficient Tomography of Non-Interacting-Fermion States}}, booktitle = {18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023)}, pages = {12:1--12:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-283-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {266}, editor = {Fawzi, Omar and Walter, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2023.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-183222}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2023.12}, annote = {Keywords: free-fermions, Gaussian fermions, non-interacting fermions, quantum state tomography, efficient tomography} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 234, 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)

One can fix the randomness used by a randomized algorithm, but there is no analogous notion of fixing the quantumness used by a quantum algorithm. Underscoring this fundamental difference, we show that, in the black-box setting, the behavior of quantum polynomial-time (BQP) can be remarkably decoupled from that of classical complexity classes like NP. Specifically:
- There exists an oracle relative to which NP^{BQP} ⊄ BQP^{PH}, resolving a 2005 problem of Fortnow. As a corollary, there exists an oracle relative to which 𝖯 = NP but BQP ≠ QCMA.
- Conversely, there exists an oracle relative to which BQP^{NP} ⊄ PH^{BQP}.
- Relative to a random oracle, PP is not contained in the "QMA hierarchy" QMA^{QMA^{QMA^{⋯}}}.
- Relative to a random oracle, Σ_{k+1}^𝖯 ⊄ BQP^{Σ_k^𝖯} for every k.
- There exists an oracle relative to which BQP = P^#P and yet PH is infinite. (By contrast, relative to all oracles, if NP ⊆ BPP, then PH collapses.)
- There exists an oracle relative to which 𝖯 = NP ≠ BQP = 𝖯^#P.
To achieve these results, we build on the 2018 achievement by Raz and Tal of an oracle relative to which BQP ⊄ PH, and associated results about the Forrelation problem. We also introduce new tools that might be of independent interest. These include a "quantum-aware" version of the random restriction method, a concentration theorem for the block sensitivity of AC⁰ circuits, and a (provable) analogue of the Aaronson-Ambainis Conjecture for sparse oracles.

Scott Aaronson, DeVon Ingram, and William Kretschmer. The Acrobatics of BQP. In 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 234, pp. 20:1-20:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{aaronson_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2022.20, author = {Aaronson, Scott and Ingram, DeVon and Kretschmer, William}, title = {{The Acrobatics of BQP}}, booktitle = {37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)}, pages = {20:1--20:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-241-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {234}, editor = {Lovett, Shachar}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.20}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165820}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.20}, annote = {Keywords: BQP, Forrelation, oracle separations, Polynomial Hierarchy, query complexity} }

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Invited Talk

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 213, 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)

I will discuss the now-ancient question of where BQP, Bounded-Error Quantum Polynomial-Time, fits in among classical complexity classes. After reviewing some basics from the 90s, I will discuss the Forrelation problem that I introduced in 2009 to yield an oracle separation between BQP and PH, and the dramatic completion of that program by Ran Raz and Avishay Tal in 2018. I will then discuss very recent work, with William Kretschmer and DeVon Ingram, which leverages the Raz-Tal theorem, along with a new "quantum-aware" random restriction method, to obtain results that illustrate just how differently BQP can behave from BPP. These include oracles relative to which NP^{BQP} ̸ ⊂ BQP^{PH} - solving a 2005 open problem of Lance Fortnow - and conversely, relative to which BQP^{NP} ̸ ⊂ PH^{BQP}; an oracle relative to which 𝖯 = NP and yet BQP ≠ QCMA; an oracle relative to which NP ⊆ BQP yet PH is infinite; an oracle relative to which 𝖯 = NP≠ BQP = PP; and an oracle relative to which PP = PostBQP ̸ ⊂ QMA^{QMA^{…}}. By popular demand, I will also speculate about the status of BQP in the unrelativized world.

Scott Aaronson. BQP After 28 Years (Invited Talk). In 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 213, p. 1:1, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{aaronson:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.1, author = {Aaronson, Scott}, title = {{BQP After 28 Years}}, booktitle = {41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)}, pages = {1:1--1:1}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-215-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {213}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Chekuri, Chandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-155124}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.1}, annote = {Keywords: quantum computing, complexity theory, oracle separations, circuit lower bounds} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 169, 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)

We study quantum algorithms that are given access to trusted and untrusted quantum witnesses. We establish strong limitations of such algorithms, via new techniques based on Laurent polynomials (i.e., polynomials with positive and negative integer exponents). Specifically, we resolve the complexity of approximate counting, the problem of multiplicatively estimating the size of a nonempty set S ⊆ [N], in two natural generalizations of quantum query complexity.
Our first result holds in the standard Quantum Merlin - Arthur (QMA) setting, in which a quantum algorithm receives an untrusted quantum witness. We show that, if the algorithm makes T quantum queries to S, and also receives an (untrusted) m-qubit quantum witness, then either m = Ω(|S|) or T = Ω(√{N/|S|}). This is optimal, matching the straightforward protocols where the witness is either empty, or specifies all the elements of S. As a corollary, this resolves the open problem of giving an oracle separation between SBP, the complexity class that captures approximate counting, and QMA.
In our second result, we ask what if, in addition to a membership oracle for S, a quantum algorithm is also given "QSamples" - i.e., copies of the state |S⟩ = 1/√|S| ∑_{i ∈ S} |i⟩ - or even access to a unitary transformation that enables QSampling? We show that, even then, the algorithm needs either Θ(√{N/|S|}) queries or else Θ(min{|S|^{1/3},√{N/|S|}}) QSamples or accesses to the unitary.
Our lower bounds in both settings make essential use of Laurent polynomials, but in different ways.

Scott Aaronson, Robin Kothari, William Kretschmer, and Justin Thaler. Quantum Lower Bounds for Approximate Counting via Laurent Polynomials. In 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 169, pp. 7:1-7:47, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{aaronson_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2020.7, author = {Aaronson, Scott and Kothari, Robin and Kretschmer, William and Thaler, Justin}, title = {{Quantum Lower Bounds for Approximate Counting via Laurent Polynomials}}, booktitle = {35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)}, pages = {7:1--7:47}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-156-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {169}, editor = {Saraf, Shubhangi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125593}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.7}, annote = {Keywords: Approximate counting, Laurent polynomials, QSampling, query complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 169, 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)

The closest pair problem is a fundamental problem of computational geometry: given a set of n points in a d-dimensional space, find a pair with the smallest distance. A classical algorithm taught in introductory courses solves this problem in O(n log n) time in constant dimensions (i.e., when d = O(1)). This paper asks and answers the question of the problem’s quantum time complexity. Specifically, we give an Õ(n^(2/3)) algorithm in constant dimensions, which is optimal up to a polylogarithmic factor by the lower bound on the quantum query complexity of element distinctness. The key to our algorithm is an efficient history-independent data structure that supports quantum interference.
In polylog(n) dimensions, no known quantum algorithms perform better than brute force search, with a quadratic speedup provided by Grover’s algorithm. To give evidence that the quadratic speedup is nearly optimal, we initiate the study of quantum fine-grained complexity and introduce the Quantum Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis (QSETH), which is based on the assumption that Grover’s algorithm is optimal for CNF-SAT when the clause width is large. We show that the naïve Grover approach to closest pair in higher dimensions is optimal up to an n^o(1) factor unless QSETH is false. We also study the bichromatic closest pair problem and the orthogonal vectors problem, with broadly similar results.

Scott Aaronson, Nai-Hui Chia, Han-Hsuan Lin, Chunhao Wang, and Ruizhe Zhang. On the Quantum Complexity of Closest Pair and Related Problems. In 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 169, pp. 16:1-16:43, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{aaronson_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2020.16, author = {Aaronson, Scott and Chia, Nai-Hui and Lin, Han-Hsuan and Wang, Chunhao and Zhang, Ruizhe}, title = {{On the Quantum Complexity of Closest Pair and Related Problems}}, booktitle = {35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)}, pages = {16:1--16:43}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-156-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {169}, editor = {Saraf, Shubhangi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.16}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125681}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.16}, annote = {Keywords: Closest pair, Quantum computing, Quantum fine grained reduction, Quantum strong exponential time hypothesis, Fine grained complexity} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

Blind delegation protocols allow a client to delegate a computation to a server so that the server learns nothing about the input to the computation apart from its size. For the specific case of quantum computation we know, from work over the past decade, that blind delegation protocols can achieve information-theoretic security (provided the client and the server exchange some amount of quantum information). In this paper we prove, provided certain complexity-theoretic conjectures are true, that the power of information-theoretically secure blind delegation protocols for quantum computation (ITS-BQC protocols) is in a number of ways constrained.
In the first part of our paper we provide some indication that ITS-BQC protocols for delegating polynomial-time quantum computations in which the client and the server interact only classically are unlikely to exist. We first show that having such a protocol in which the client and the server exchange O(n^d) bits of communication, implies that BQP subset MA/O(n^d). We conjecture that this containment is unlikely by proving that there exists an oracle relative to which BQP not subset MA/O(n^d). We then show that if an ITS-BQC protocol exists in which the client and the server interact only classically and which allows the client to delegate quantum sampling problems to the server (such as BosonSampling) then there exist non-uniform circuits of size 2^{n - Omega(n/log(n))}, making polynomially-sized queries to an NP^{NP} oracle, for computing the permanent of an n x n matrix.
The second part of our paper concerns ITS-BQC protocols in which the client and the server engage in one round of quantum communication and then exchange polynomially many classical messages. First, we provide a complexity-theoretic upper bound on the types of functions that could be delegated in such a protocol by showing that they must be contained in QCMA/qpoly cap coQCMA/qpoly. Then, we show that having such a protocol for delegating NP-hard functions implies coNP^{NP^{NP}} subseteq NP^{NP^{PromiseQMA}}.

Scott Aaronson, Alexandru Cojocaru, Alexandru Gheorghiu, and Elham Kashefi. Complexity-Theoretic Limitations on Blind Delegated Quantum Computation. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 6:1-6:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{aaronson_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.6, author = {Aaronson, Scott and Cojocaru, Alexandru and Gheorghiu, Alexandru and Kashefi, Elham}, title = {{Complexity-Theoretic Limitations on Blind Delegated Quantum Computation}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {6:1--6:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-105826}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.6}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum cryptography, Complexity theory, Delegated quantum computation, Computing on encrypted data} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 67, 8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017)

We present a complete classification of all possible sets of classical reversible gates acting on bits, in terms of which reversible transformations they generate, assuming swaps and ancilla bits are available for free. Our classification can be seen as the reversible-computing analogue of Post's lattice, a central result in mathematical logic from the 1940s. It is a step toward the ambitious goal of classifying all possible quantum gate sets acting on qubits.
Our theorem implies a linear-time algorithm (which we have implemented), that takes as input the truth tables of reversible gates G and H, and that decides whether G generates H. Previously, this problem was not even known to be decidable (though with effort, one can derive from abstract considerations an algorithm that takes triply-exponential time). The theorem also implies that any n-bit reversible circuit can be "compressed" to an equivalent circuit, over the same gates, that uses at most 2^{n}poly(n) gates and O(1) ancilla bits; these are the first upper bounds on these quantities known, and are close to optimal. Finally, the theorem implies that every non-degenerate reversible gate can implement either every reversible transformation, or every affine transformation, when restricted to an "encoded subspace."
Briefly, the theorem says that every set of reversible gates generates either all reversible transformations on n-bit strings (as the Toffoli gate does); no transformations; all transformations that preserve Hamming weight (as the Fredkin gate does); all transformations that preserve Hamming weight mod k for some k; all affine transformations (as the Controlled-NOT gate does); all affine transformations that preserve Hamming weight mod 2 or mod 4, inner products mod 2, or a combination thereof; or a previous class augmented by a NOT or NOTNOT gate. Prior to this work, it was not even known that every class was finitely generated. Ruling out the possibility of additional classes, not in the list, requires involved arguments about polynomials, lattices, and Diophantine equations.

Scott Aaronson, Daniel Grier, and Luke Schaeffer. The Classification of Reversible Bit Operations. In 8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 67, pp. 23:1-23:34, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{aaronson_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.23, author = {Aaronson, Scott and Grier, Daniel and Schaeffer, Luke}, title = {{The Classification of Reversible Bit Operations}}, booktitle = {8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017)}, pages = {23:1--23:34}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-029-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {67}, editor = {Papadimitriou, Christos H.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-81737}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.23}, annote = {Keywords: Reversible computation, Reversible gates, Circuit synthesis, Gate classification, Boolean logic, Post’s lattice} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 79, 32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017)

In the near future, there will likely be special-purpose quantum computers with 40-50 high-quality qubits. This paper lays general theoretical foundations for how to use such devices to demonstrate "quantum supremacy": that is, a clear quantum speedup for some task, motivated by the goal of overturning the Extended Church-Turing Thesis as confidently as possible.
First, we study the hardness of sampling the output distribution of a random quantum circuit, along the lines of a recent proposal by by the Quantum AI group at Google. We show that there's a natural average-case hardness assumption, which has nothing to do with sampling, yet implies that no polynomial-time classical algorithm can pass a statistical test that the quantum sampling procedure's outputs do pass. Compared to previous work - for example, on BosonSampling and IQP - the central advantage is that we can now talk directly about the observed outputs, rather than about the distribution being sampled.
Second, in an attempt to refute our hardness assumption, we give a new algorithm, inspired by Savitch's Theorem, for simulating a general quantum circuit with n qubits and m gates in polynomial space and m^O(n) time. We then discuss why this and other known algorithms fail to refute our assumption.
Third, resolving an open problem of Aaronson and Arkhipov, we show that any strong quantum supremacy theorem - of the form "if approximate quantum sampling is classically easy, then the polynomial hierarchy collapses" - must be non-relativizing. This sharply contrasts with the situation for exact sampling.
Fourth, refuting a conjecture by Aaronson and Ambainis, we show that the Fourier Sampling problem achieves a constant versus linear separation between quantum and randomized query complexities.
Fifth, in search of a "happy medium" between black-box and non-black-box arguments, we study quantum supremacy relative to oracles in P/poly. Previous work implies that, if one-way functions exist, then quantum supremacy is possible relative to such oracles. We show, conversely, that some computational assumption is needed: if SampBPP=SampBQP and NP is in BPP, then quantum supremacy is impossible relative to oracles with small circuits.

Scott Aaronson and Lijie Chen. Complexity-Theoretic Foundations of Quantum Supremacy Experiments. In 32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 79, pp. 22:1-22:67, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{aaronson_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2017.22, author = {Aaronson, Scott and Chen, Lijie}, title = {{Complexity-Theoretic Foundations of Quantum Supremacy Experiments}}, booktitle = {32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017)}, pages = {22:1--22:67}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-040-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {79}, editor = {O'Donnell, Ryan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2017.22}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-75274}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2017.22}, annote = {Keywords: computational complexity, quantum computing, quantum supremacy} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 49, 8th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2016)

When analyzing the computational complexity of well-known puzzles, most papers consider the algorithmic challenge of solving a given instance of (a generalized form of) the puzzle. We take a different approach by analyzing the computational complexity of designing a "good" puzzle. We assume a puzzle maker designs part of an instance, but before publishing it, wants to ensure that the puzzle has a unique solution. Given a puzzle, we introduce the FCP (fewest clues problem) version of the problem:
Given an instance to a puzzle, what is the minimum number of clues we must add in order to make the instance uniquely solvable?
We analyze this question for the Nikoli puzzles Sudoku, Shakashaka, and Akari. Solving these puzzles is NP-complete, and we show their FCP versions are Sigma_2^P-complete. Along the way, we show that the FCP versions of 3SAT, 1-in-3SAT, Triangle Partition, Planar 3SAT, and Latin Square are all Sigma_2^P-complete. We show that even problems in P have difficult FCP versions, sometimes even Sigma_2^P-complete, though "closed under cluing" problems are in the (presumably) smaller class NP; for example, FCP 2SAT is NP-complete.

Erik D. Demaine, Fermi Ma, Ariel Schvartzman, Erik Waingarten, and Scott Aaronson. The Fewest Clues Problem. In 8th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 49, pp. 12:1-12:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{demaine_et_al:LIPIcs.FUN.2016.12, author = {Demaine, Erik D. and Ma, Fermi and Schvartzman, Ariel and Waingarten, Erik and Aaronson, Scott}, title = {{The Fewest Clues Problem}}, booktitle = {8th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2016)}, pages = {12:1--12:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-005-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {49}, editor = {Demaine, Erik D. and Grandoni, Fabrizio}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2016.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-58654}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2016.12}, annote = {Keywords: computational complexity, pencil-and-paper puzzles, hardness reductions} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 50, 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016)

We show an equivalence between 1-query quantum algorithms and representations by degree-2 polynomials. Namely, a partial Boolean function f is computable by a 1-query quantum algorithm with error bounded by epsilon<1/2 iff f can be approximated by a degree-2 polynomial with error bounded by epsilon'<1/2. This result holds for two different notions of approximation by a polynomial: the standard definition of Nisan and Szegedy and the approximation by block-multilinear polynomials recently introduced by Aaronson and Ambainis [Aaronson/Ambainis, STOC 2015]. The proof uses Grothendieck's inequality to relate two matrix norms, with one norm corresponding to polynomial approximations and the other norm corresponding to quantum algorithms.
We also show two results for polynomials of higher degree. First, there is a total Boolean function which requires ~Omega(n) quantum queries but can be represented by a block-multilinear polynomial of degree ~O(sqrt(n)). Thus, in the general case (for an arbitrary number of queries), block-multilinear polynomials are not equivalent to quantum algorithms.
Second, for any constant degree k, the two notions of approximation by a polynomial (the standard and the block-multilinear) are equivalent. As a consequence, we solve an open problem from [Aaronson/Ambainis, STOC 2015], showing that one can estimate the value of any bounded degree-k polynomial p:{0,1}^n -> [-1,1] with O(n^{1-1/(2k)) queries.

Scott Aaronson, Andris Ambainis, Janis Iraids, Martins Kokainis, and Juris Smotrovs. Polynomials, Quantum Query Complexity, and Grothendieck's Inequality. In 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 50, pp. 25:1-25:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{aaronson_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2016.25, author = {Aaronson, Scott and Ambainis, Andris and Iraids, Janis and Kokainis, Martins and Smotrovs, Juris}, title = {{Polynomials, Quantum Query Complexity, and Grothendieck's Inequality}}, booktitle = {31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016)}, pages = {25:1--25:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-008-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {50}, editor = {Raz, Ran}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2016.25}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-58394}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2016.25}, annote = {Keywords: quantum algorithms, Boolean functions, approximation by polynomials, Grothendieck's inequality} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 50, 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016)

Given a problem which is intractable for both quantum and classical algorithms, can we find a sub-problem for which quantum algorithms provide an exponential advantage? We refer to this problem as the "sculpting problem." In this work, we give a full characterization of sculptable functions in the query complexity setting. We show that a total function f can be restricted to a promise P such that Q(f|_P)=O(polylog(N)) and R(f|_P)=N^{Omega(1)}, if and only if f has a large number of inputs with large certificate complexity. The proof uses some interesting techniques: for one direction, we introduce new relationships between randomized and quantum query complexity in various settings, and for the other direction, we use a recent result from communication complexity due to Klartag and Regev. We also characterize sculpting for other query complexity measures, such as R(f) vs. R_0(f) and R_0(f) vs. D(f).
Along the way, we prove some new relationships for quantum query complexity: for example, a nearly quadratic relationship between Q(f) and D(f) whenever the promise of f is small. This contrasts with the recent super-quadratic query complexity separations, showing that the maximum gap between classical and quantum query complexities is indeed quadratic in various settings - just not for total functions!
Lastly, we investigate sculpting in the Turing machine model. We show that if there is any BPP-bi-immune language in BQP, then every language outside BPP can be restricted to a promise which places it in PromiseBQP but not in PromiseBPP. Under a weaker assumption, that some problem in BQP is hard on average for P/poly, we show that every paddable language outside BPP is sculptable in this way.

Scott Aaronson and Shalev Ben-David. Sculpting Quantum Speedups. In 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 50, pp. 26:1-26:28, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{aaronson_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2016.26, author = {Aaronson, Scott and Ben-David, Shalev}, title = {{Sculpting Quantum Speedups}}, booktitle = {31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016)}, pages = {26:1--26:28}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-008-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {50}, editor = {Raz, Ran}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2016.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-58538}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2016.26}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum Computing, Query Complexity, Decision Tree Complexity, Structural Complexity} }