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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

We study the k-connectivity augmentation problem (k-CAP) in the single-pass streaming model. Given a (k-1)-edge connected graph G = (V,E) that is stored in memory, and a stream of weighted edges (also called links) L with weights in {0,1,… ,W}, the goal is to choose a minimum weight subset L' ⊆ L of the links such that G' = (V,E∪ L') is k-edge connected. We give a (2+ε)-approximation algorithm for this problem which requires to store O(ε^{-1} nlog n) words. Moreover, we show the tightness of our result: Any algorithm with better than 2-approximation for the problem requires Ω(n²) bits of space even when k = 2. This establishes a gap between the optimal approximation factor one can obtain in the streaming vs the offline setting for k-CAP.
We further consider a natural generalization to the fully streaming model where both E and L arrive in the stream in an arbitrary order. We show that this problem has a space lower bound that matches the best possible size of a spanner of the same approximation ratio. Following this, we give improved results for spanners on weighted graphs: We show a streaming algorithm that finds a (2t-1+ε)-approximate weighted spanner of size at most O(ε^{-1} n^{1+1/t}log n) for integer t, whereas the best prior streaming algorithm for spanner on weighted graphs had size depending on log W. We believe that this result is of independent interest. Using our spanner result, we provide an optimal O(t)-approximation for k-CAP in the fully streaming model with O(nk + n^{1+1/t}) words of space.
Finally we apply our results to network design problems such as Steiner tree augmentation problem (STAP), k-edge connected spanning subgraph (k-ECSS) and the general Survivable Network Design problem (SNDP). In particular, we show a single-pass O(tlog k)-approximation for SNDP using O(kn^{1+1/t}) words of space, where k is the maximum connectivity requirement.

Ce Jin, Michael Kapralov, Sepideh Mahabadi, and Ali Vakilian. Streaming Algorithms for Connectivity Augmentation. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 93:1-93:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{jin_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.93, author = {Jin, Ce and Kapralov, Michael and Mahabadi, Sepideh and Vakilian, Ali}, title = {{Streaming Algorithms for Connectivity Augmentation}}, booktitle = {51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)}, pages = {93:1--93:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-322-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {297}, editor = {Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.93}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202367}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.93}, annote = {Keywords: streaming algorithms, connectivity augmentation} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

An important area of research in exact algorithms is to solve Subset-Sum-type problems faster than meet-in-middle. In this paper we study Pigeonhole Equal Sums, a total search problem proposed by Papadimitriou (1994): given n positive integers w₁,… ,w_n of total sum ∑_{i = 1}ⁿ w_i < 2ⁿ-1, the task is to find two distinct subsets A, B ⊆ [n] such that ∑_{i ∈ A}w_i = ∑_{i ∈ B}w_i.
Similar to the status of the Subset Sum problem, the best known algorithm for Pigeonhole Equal Sums runs in O^*(2^{n/2}) time, via either meet-in-middle or dynamic programming (Allcock, Hamoudi, Joux, Klingelhöfer, and Santha, 2022).
Our main result is an improved algorithm for Pigeonhole Equal Sums in O^*(2^{0.4n}) time. We also give a polynomial-space algorithm in O^*(2^{0.75n}) time. Unlike many previous works in this area, our approach does not use the representation method, but rather exploits a simple structural characterization of input instances with few solutions.

Ce Jin and Hongxun Wu. A Faster Algorithm for Pigeonhole Equal Sums. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 94:1-94:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{jin_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.94, author = {Jin, Ce and Wu, Hongxun}, title = {{A Faster Algorithm for Pigeonhole Equal Sums}}, booktitle = {51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)}, pages = {94:1--94:11}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-322-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {297}, editor = {Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.94}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202375}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.94}, annote = {Keywords: Subset Sum, Pigeonhole, PPP} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)

Given the need for ever higher performance, and the failure of CPUs to keep providing single-threaded performance gains, engineers are increasingly turning to highly-parallel custom VLSI chips to implement expensive computations. In VLSI design, the gates and wires of a logical circuit are placed on a 2-dimensional chip with a small number of layers. Traditional VLSI models use gate delay to measure the time complexity of the chip, ignoring the lengths of wires. However, as technology has advanced, wire delay is no longer negligible; it has become an important measure in the design of VLSI chips [Markov, Nature (2014)].
Motivated by this situation, we define and study a model for VLSI chips, called wire-delay VLSI, which takes wire delay into account, going beyond an earlier model of Chazelle and Monier [JACM 1985].
- We prove nearly tight upper bounds and lower bounds (up to logarithmic factors) on the time delay of this chip model for several basic problems. For example, And, Or and Parity require Θ(n^{1/3}) delay, while Addition and Multiplication require ̃ Θ(n^{1/2}) delay, and Triangle Detection on (dense) n-node graphs requires ̃ Θ(n) delay. Interestingly, when we allow input bits to be read twice, the delay for Addition can be improved to Θ(n^{1/3}).
- We also show that proving significantly higher lower bounds in our wire-delay VLSI model would imply breakthrough results in circuit lower bounds. Motivated by this barrier, we also study conditional lower bounds on the delay of chips based on the Orthogonal Vectors Hypothesis from fine-grained complexity.

Ce Jin, R. Ryan Williams, and Nathaniel Young. A VLSI Circuit Model Accounting for Wire Delay. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 66:1-66:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{jin_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.66, author = {Jin, Ce and Williams, R. Ryan and Young, Nathaniel}, title = {{A VLSI Circuit Model Accounting for Wire Delay}}, booktitle = {15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)}, pages = {66:1--66:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-309-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {287}, editor = {Guruswami, Venkatesan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.66}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195949}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.66}, annote = {Keywords: circuit complexity, systolic arrays, VLSI, wire delay} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

Our work concerns algorithms for a variant of Maximum Flow in unweighted graphs. In the All-Pairs Connectivity (APC) problem, we are given a graph G on n vertices and m edges, and are tasked with computing the maximum number of edge-disjoint paths from s to t (equivalently, the size of a minimum (s,t)-cut) in G, for all pairs of vertices (s,t). Over undirected graphs, it is known that APC can be solved in essentially optimal n^{2+o(1)} time. In contrast, the true time complexity of APC over directed graphs remains open: this problem can be solved in Õ(m^ω) time, where ω ∈ [2, 2.373) is the exponent of matrix multiplication, but no matching conditional lower bound is known.
Following [Abboud et al., ICALP 2019], we study a bounded version of APC called the k-Bounded All Pairs Connectivity (k-APC) problem. In this variant of APC, we are given an integer k in addition to the graph G, and are now tasked with reporting the size of a minimum (s,t)-cut only for pairs (s,t) of vertices with min-cut value less than k (if the minimum (s,t)-cut has size at least k, we can just report it is "large" instead of computing the exact value).
Our main result is an Õ((kn)^ω) time algorithm solving k-APC in directed graphs. This is the first algorithm which solves k-APC faster than simply solving the more general APC problem exactly, for all k ≥ 3. This runtime is Õ(n^ω) for all k ≤ poly(log n), which essentially matches the optimal runtime for the k = 1 case of k-APC, under popular conjectures from fine-grained complexity. Previously, this runtime was only achieved for general directed graphs when k ≤ 2 [Georgiadis et al., ICALP 2017]. Our result employs the same algebraic framework used in previous work, introduced by [Cheung, Lau, and Leung, FOCS 2011]. A direct implementation of this framework involves inverting a large random matrix. Our new algorithm is based off the insight that for solving k-APC, it suffices to invert a low-rank random matrix instead of a generic random matrix.
We also obtain a new algorithm for a variant of k-APC, the k-Bounded All-Pairs Vertex Connectivity (k-APVC) problem, where for every pair of vertices (s,t), we are now tasked with reporting the maximum number of internally vertex-disjoint (rather than edge-disjoint) paths from s to t if this number is less than k, and otherwise reporting that this number is at least k.
Our second result is an Õ(k²n^ω) time algorithm solving k-APVC in directed graphs. Previous work showed how to solve an easier version of the k-APVC problem (where answers only need to be returned for pairs of vertices (s,t) which are not edges in the graph) in Õ((kn)^ω) time [Abboud et al, ICALP 2019]. In comparison, our algorithm solves the full k-APVC problem, and is faster if ω > 2.

Shyan Akmal and Ce Jin. An Efficient Algorithm for All-Pairs Bounded Edge Connectivity. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 11:1-11:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{akmal_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.11, author = {Akmal, Shyan and Jin, Ce}, title = {{An Efficient Algorithm for All-Pairs Bounded Edge Connectivity}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {11:1--11:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180632}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.11}, annote = {Keywords: maximum flow, all-pairs, connectivity, matrix rank} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

In a Merlin-Arthur proof system, the proof verifier (Arthur) accepts valid proofs (from Merlin) with probability 1, and rejects invalid proofs with probability arbitrarily close to 1. The running time of such a system is defined to be the length of Merlin’s proof plus the running time of Arthur. We provide new Merlin-Arthur proof systems for some key problems in fine-grained complexity. In several cases our proof systems have optimal running time. Our main results include:
- Certifying that a list of n integers has no 3-SUM solution can be done in Merlin-Arthur time Õ(n). Previously, Carmosino et al. [ITCS 2016] showed that the problem has a nondeterministic algorithm running in Õ(n^{1.5}) time (that is, there is a proof system with proofs of length Õ(n^{1.5}) and a deterministic verifier running in Õ(n^{1.5}) time).
- Counting the number of k-cliques with total edge weight equal to zero in an n-node graph can be done in Merlin-Arthur time Õ(n^{⌈ k/2⌉}) (where k ≥ 3). For odd k, this bound can be further improved for sparse graphs: for example, counting the number of zero-weight triangles in an m-edge graph can be done in Merlin-Arthur time Õ(m). Previous Merlin-Arthur protocols by Williams [CCC'16] and Björklund and Kaski [PODC'16] could only count k-cliques in unweighted graphs, and had worse running times for small k.
- Computing the All-Pairs Shortest Distances matrix for an n-node graph can be done in Merlin-Arthur time Õ(n²). Note this is optimal, as the matrix can have Ω(n²) nonzero entries in general. Previously, Carmosino et al. [ITCS 2016] showed that this problem has an Õ(n^{2.94}) nondeterministic time algorithm.
- Certifying that an n-variable k-CNF is unsatisfiable can be done in Merlin-Arthur time 2^{n/2 - n/O(k)}. We also observe an algebrization barrier for the previous 2^{n/2}⋅ poly(n)-time Merlin-Arthur protocol of R. Williams [CCC'16] for #SAT: in particular, his protocol algebrizes, and we observe there is no algebrizing protocol for k-UNSAT running in 2^{n/2}/n^{ω(1)} time. Therefore we have to exploit non-algebrizing properties to obtain our new protocol.
- Certifying a Quantified Boolean Formula is true can be done in Merlin-Arthur time 2^{4n/5}⋅ poly(n). Previously, the only nontrivial result known along these lines was an Arthur-Merlin-Arthur protocol (where Merlin’s proof depends on some of Arthur’s coins) running in 2^{2n/3}⋅poly(n) time. Due to the centrality of these problems in fine-grained complexity, our results have consequences for many other problems of interest. For example, our work implies that certifying there is no Subset Sum solution to n integers can be done in Merlin-Arthur time 2^{n/3}⋅poly(n), improving on the previous best protocol by Nederlof [IPL 2017] which took 2^{0.49991n}⋅poly(n) time.

Shyan Akmal, Lijie Chen, Ce Jin, Malvika Raj, and Ryan Williams. Improved Merlin-Arthur Protocols for Central Problems in Fine-Grained Complexity. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 3:1-3:25, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{akmal_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.3, author = {Akmal, Shyan and Chen, Lijie and Jin, Ce and Raj, Malvika and Williams, Ryan}, title = {{Improved Merlin-Arthur Protocols for Central Problems in Fine-Grained Complexity}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {3:1--3:25}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-155991}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.3}, annote = {Keywords: Fine-grained complexity, Merlin-Arthur proofs} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

Tree edit distance is a well-studied measure of dissimilarity between rooted trees with node labels. It can be computed in O(n³) time [Demaine, Mozes, Rossman, and Weimann, ICALP 2007], and fine-grained hardness results suggest that the weighted version of this problem cannot be solved in truly subcubic time unless the APSP conjecture is false [Bringmann, Gawrychowski, Mozes, and Weimann, SODA 2018].
We consider the unweighted version of tree edit distance, where every insertion, deletion, or relabeling operation has unit cost. Given a parameter k as an upper bound on the distance, the previous fastest algorithm for this problem runs in O(nk³) time [Touzet, CPM 2005], which improves upon the cubic-time algorithm for k≪ n^{2/3}. In this paper, we give a faster algorithm taking O(nk² log n) time, improving both of the previous results for almost the full range of log n ≪ k≪ n/√{log n}.

Shyan Akmal and Ce Jin. Faster Algorithms for Bounded Tree Edit Distance. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 12:1-12:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{akmal_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.12, author = {Akmal, Shyan and Jin, Ce}, title = {{Faster Algorithms for Bounded Tree Edit Distance}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {12:1--12:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-140819}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.12}, annote = {Keywords: tree edit distance, edit distance, dynamic programming} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 187, 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)

We provide improved upper bounds for the simultaneous sketching complexity of edit distance. Consider two parties, Alice with input x ∈ Σⁿ and Bob with input y ∈ Σⁿ, that share public randomness and are given a promise that the edit distance ed(x,y) between their two strings is at most some given value k. Alice must send a message sx and Bob must send sy to a third party Charlie, who does not know the inputs but shares the same public randomness and also knows k. Charlie must output ed(x,y) precisely as well as a sequence of ed(x,y) edits required to transform x into y. The goal is to minimize the lengths |sx|, |sy| of the messages sent.
The protocol of Belazzougui and Zhang (FOCS 2016), building upon the random walk method of Chakraborty, Goldenberg, and Koucký (STOC 2016), achieves a maximum message length of Õ(k⁸) bits, where Õ(⋅) hides poly(log n) factors. In this work we build upon Belazzougui and Zhang’s protocol and provide an improved analysis demonstrating that a slight modification of their construction achieves a bound of Õ(k³).

Ce Jin, Jelani Nelson, and Kewen Wu. An Improved Sketching Algorithm for Edit Distance. In 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 187, pp. 45:1-45:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{jin_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2021.45, author = {Jin, Ce and Nelson, Jelani and Wu, Kewen}, title = {{An Improved Sketching Algorithm for Edit Distance}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)}, pages = {45:1--45:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-180-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {187}, editor = {Bl\"{a}ser, Markus and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.45}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136905}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.45}, annote = {Keywords: edit distance, sketching} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 179, 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)

We present O(log log n) round scalable Massively Parallel Computation algorithms for maximal independent set and maximal matching, in trees and more generally graphs of bounded arboricity, as well as for coloring trees with a constant number of colors. Following the standards, by a scalable MPC algorithm, we mean that these algorithms can work on machines that have capacity/memory as small as n^{δ} for any positive constant δ < 1. Our results improve over the O(log²log n) round algorithms of Behnezhad et al. [PODC'19]. Moreover, our matching algorithm is presumably optimal as its bound matches an Ω(log log n) conditional lower bound of Ghaffari, Kuhn, and Uitto [FOCS'19].

Mohsen Ghaffari, Christoph Grunau, and Ce Jin. Improved MPC Algorithms for MIS, Matching, and Coloring on Trees and Beyond. In 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 179, pp. 34:1-34:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{ghaffari_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2020.34, author = {Ghaffari, Mohsen and Grunau, Christoph and Jin, Ce}, title = {{Improved MPC Algorithms for MIS, Matching, and Coloring on Trees and Beyond}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)}, pages = {34:1--34:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-168-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {179}, editor = {Attiya, Hagit}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.34}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-131128}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.34}, annote = {Keywords: Massively Parallel Computation, MIS, Matching, Coloring} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

In this paper, we present an improved algorithm for the All Pairs Non-decreasing Paths (APNP) problem on weighted simple digraphs, which has running time O~(n^{{3 + omega}/{2}}) = O~(n^{2.686}). Here n is the number of vertices, and omega < 2.373 is the exponent of time complexity of fast matrix multiplication [Williams 2012, Le Gall 2014]. This matches the current best upper bound for (max, min)-matrix product [Duan, Pettie 2009] which is reducible to APNP. Thus, further improvement for APNP will imply a faster algorithm for (max, min)-matrix product. The previous best upper bound for APNP on weighted digraphs was O~(n^{1/2(3 + {3 - omega}/{omega + 1} + omega)}) = O~(n^{2.78}) [Duan, Gu, Zhang 2018]. We also show an O~(n^2) time algorithm for APNP in undirected simple graphs which also reaches optimal within logarithmic factors.

Ran Duan, Ce Jin, and Hongxun Wu. Faster Algorithms for All Pairs Non-Decreasing Paths Problem. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 48:1-48:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{duan_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.48, author = {Duan, Ran and Jin, Ce and Wu, Hongxun}, title = {{Faster Algorithms for All Pairs Non-Decreasing Paths Problem}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {48:1--48:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.48}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106241}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.48}, annote = {Keywords: graph optimization, matrix multiplication, non-decreasing paths} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

The 0-1 knapsack problem is an important NP-hard problem that admits fully polynomial-time approximation schemes (FPTASs). Previously the fastest FPTAS by Chan (2018) with approximation factor 1+epsilon runs in O~(n + (1/epsilon)^{12/5}) time, where O~ hides polylogarithmic factors. In this paper we present an improved algorithm in O~(n+(1/epsilon)^{9/4}) time, with only a (1/epsilon)^{1/4} gap from the quadratic conditional lower bound based on (min,+)-convolution. Our improvement comes from a multi-level extension of Chan’s number-theoretic construction, and a greedy lemma that reduces unnecessary computation spent on cheap items.

Ce Jin. An Improved FPTAS for 0-1 Knapsack. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 76:1-76:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{jin:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.76, author = {Jin, Ce}, title = {{An Improved FPTAS for 0-1 Knapsack}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {76:1--76:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.76}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106527}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.76}, annote = {Keywords: approximation algorithms, knapsack, subset sum} }

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**Published in:** OASIcs, Volume 69, 2nd Symposium on Simplicity in Algorithms (SOSA 2019)

Given a multiset S of n positive integers and a target integer t, the Subset Sum problem asks to determine whether there exists a subset of S that sums up to t. The current best deterministic algorithm, by Koiliaris and Xu [SODA'17], runs in O~(sqrt{n}t) time, where O~ hides poly-logarithm factors. Bringmann [SODA'17] later gave a randomized O~(n + t) time algorithm using two-stage color-coding. The O~(n+t) running time is believed to be near-optimal.
In this paper, we present a simple and elegant randomized algorithm for Subset Sum in O~(n + t) time. Our new algorithm actually solves its counting version modulo prime p>t, by manipulating generating functions using FFT.

Ce Jin and Hongxun Wu. A Simple Near-Linear Pseudopolynomial Time Randomized Algorithm for Subset Sum. In 2nd Symposium on Simplicity in Algorithms (SOSA 2019). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 69, pp. 17:1-17:6, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{jin_et_al:OASIcs.SOSA.2019.17, author = {Jin, Ce and Wu, Hongxun}, title = {{A Simple Near-Linear Pseudopolynomial Time Randomized Algorithm for Subset Sum}}, booktitle = {2nd Symposium on Simplicity in Algorithms (SOSA 2019)}, pages = {17:1--17:6}, series = {Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-099-6}, ISSN = {2190-6807}, year = {2019}, volume = {69}, editor = {Fineman, Jeremy T. and Mitzenmacher, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.SOSA.2019.17}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-100436}, doi = {10.4230/OASIcs.SOSA.2019.17}, annote = {Keywords: subset sum, formal power series, FFT} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 124, 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019)

We study the problem of approximately simulating a t-step random walk on a graph where the input edges come from a single-pass stream. The straightforward algorithm using reservoir sampling needs O(nt) words of memory. We show that this space complexity is near-optimal for directed graphs. For undirected graphs, we prove an Omega(n sqrt{t})-bit space lower bound, and give a near-optimal algorithm using O(n sqrt{t}) words of space with 2^{-Omega(sqrt{t})} simulation error (defined as the l_1-distance between the output distribution of the simulation algorithm and the distribution of perfect random walks). We also discuss extending the algorithms to the turnstile model, where both insertion and deletion of edges can appear in the input stream.

Ce Jin. Simulating Random Walks on Graphs in the Streaming Model. In 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 124, pp. 46:1-46:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{jin:LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.46, author = {Jin, Ce}, title = {{Simulating Random Walks on Graphs in the Streaming Model}}, booktitle = {10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019)}, pages = {46:1--46:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-095-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {124}, editor = {Blum, Avrim}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.46}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-101399}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.46}, annote = {Keywords: streaming models, random walks, sampling} }

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