Document

APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 317, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024)

We consider the problem in which n points arrive online over time, and upon arrival must be irrevocably assigned to one of k clusters where the objective is the standard k-median objective. Lower-bound instances show that for this problem no online algorithm can achieve a competitive ratio bounded by any function of n. Thus we turn to a beyond worst-case analysis approach, namely we assume that the online algorithm is a priori provided with a predicted budget B that is an upper bound to the optimal objective value (e.g., obtained from past instances). Our main result is an online algorithm whose competitive ratio (measured against B) is solely a function of k. We also give a lower bound showing that the competitive ratio of every algorithm must depend on k.

Benjamin Moseley, Heather Newman, and Kirk Pruhs. Online k-Median with Consistent Clusters. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 317, pp. 20:1-20:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{moseley_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.20, author = {Moseley, Benjamin and Newman, Heather and Pruhs, Kirk}, title = {{Online k-Median with Consistent Clusters}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024)}, pages = {20:1--20:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-348-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {317}, editor = {Kumar, Amit and Ron-Zewi, Noga}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.20}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-210133}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.20}, annote = {Keywords: k-median, online algorithms, learning-augmented algorithms, beyond worst-case analysis} }

Document

Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

This paper considers correlation clustering on unweighted complete graphs. We give a combinatorial algorithm that returns a single clustering solution that is simultaneously O(1)-approximate for all 𝓁_p-norms of the disagreement vector; in other words, a combinatorial O(1)-approximation of the all-norms objective for correlation clustering. This is the first proof that minimal sacrifice is needed in order to optimize different norms of the disagreement vector. In addition, our algorithm is the first combinatorial approximation algorithm for the 𝓁₂-norm objective, and more generally the first combinatorial algorithm for the 𝓁_p-norm objective when 1 < p < ∞. It is also faster than all previous algorithms that minimize the 𝓁_p-norm of the disagreement vector, with run-time O(n^ω), where O(n^ω) is the time for matrix multiplication on n × n matrices. When the maximum positive degree in the graph is at most Δ, this can be improved to a run-time of O(nΔ² log n).

Sami Davies, Benjamin Moseley, and Heather Newman. Simultaneously Approximating All 𝓁_p-Norms in Correlation Clustering. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 52:1-52:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{davies_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.52, author = {Davies, Sami and Moseley, Benjamin and Newman, Heather}, title = {{Simultaneously Approximating All 𝓁\underlinep-Norms in Correlation Clustering}}, booktitle = {51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)}, pages = {52:1--52:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-322-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {297}, editor = {Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.52}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201950}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.52}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation algorithms, correlation clustering, all-norms, lp-norms} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 290, 27th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2024)

Datalog^∘ is an extension of Datalog, where instead of a program being a collection of union of conjunctive queries over the standard Boolean semiring, a program may now be a collection of sum-product queries over an arbitrary commutative partially ordered pre-semiring. Datalog^∘ is more powerful than Datalog in that its additional algebraic structure alows for supporting recursion with aggregation. At the same time, Datalog^∘ retains the syntactic and semantic simplicity of Datalog: Datalog^∘ has declarative least fixpoint semantics. The least fixpoint can be found via the naïve evaluation algorithm that repeatedly applies the immediate consequence operator until no further change is possible.
It was shown in [Mahmoud Abo Khamis et al., 2022] that, when the underlying semiring is p-stable, then the naïve evaluation of any Datalog^∘ program over the semiring converges in a finite number of steps. However, the upper bounds on the rate of convergence were exponential in the number n of ground IDB atoms.
This paper establishes polynomial upper bounds on the convergence rate of the naïve algorithm on linear Datalog^∘ programs, which is quite common in practice. In particular, the main result of this paper is that the convergence rate of linear Datalog^∘ programs under any p-stable semiring is O(pn³). Furthermore, we show a matching lower bound by constructing a p-stable semiring and a linear Datalog^∘ program that requires Ω(pn³) iterations for the naïve iteration algorithm to converge. Next, we study the convergence rate in terms of the number of elements in the semiring for linear Datalog^∘ programs. When L is the number of elements, the convergence rate is bounded by O(pn log L). This significantly improves the convergence rate for small L. We show a nearly matching lower bound as well.

Sungjin Im, Benjamin Moseley, Hung Ngo, and Kirk Pruhs. On the Convergence Rate of Linear Datalog ^∘ over Stable Semirings. In 27th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 290, pp. 11:1-11:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{im_et_al:LIPIcs.ICDT.2024.11, author = {Im, Sungjin and Moseley, Benjamin and Ngo, Hung and Pruhs, Kirk}, title = {{On the Convergence Rate of Linear Datalog ^∘ over Stable Semirings}}, booktitle = {27th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2024)}, pages = {11:1--11:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-312-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {290}, editor = {Cormode, Graham and Shekelyan, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICDT.2024.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-197939}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICDT.2024.11}, annote = {Keywords: Datalog, convergence rate, semiring} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 204, 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)

We propose a new model for augmenting algorithms with predictions by requiring that they are formally learnable and instance robust. Learnability ensures that predictions can be efficiently constructed from a reasonable amount of past data. Instance robustness ensures that the prediction is robust to modest changes in the problem input, where the measure of the change may be problem specific. Instance robustness insists on a smooth degradation in performance as a function of the change. Ideally, the performance is never worse than worst-case bounds. This also allows predictions to be objectively compared.
We design online algorithms with predictions for a network flow allocation problem and restricted assignment makespan minimization. For both problems, two key properties are established: high quality predictions can be learned from a small sample of prior instances and these predictions are robust to errors that smoothly degrade as the underlying problem instance changes.

Thomas Lavastida, Benjamin Moseley, R. Ravi, and Chenyang Xu. Learnable and Instance-Robust Predictions for Online Matching, Flows and Load Balancing. In 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 204, pp. 59:1-59:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{lavastida_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2021.59, author = {Lavastida, Thomas and Moseley, Benjamin and Ravi, R. and Xu, Chenyang}, title = {{Learnable and Instance-Robust Predictions for Online Matching, Flows and Load Balancing}}, booktitle = {29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)}, pages = {59:1--59:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-204-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {204}, editor = {Mutzel, Petra and Pagh, Rasmus and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.59}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-146405}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.59}, annote = {Keywords: Learning-augmented algorithms, Online algorithms, Flow allocation} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 204, 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)

Our main contribution is a polynomial-time algorithm to reduce a k-colorable gammoid to a (2k-2)-colorable partition matroid. It is known that there are gammoids that can not be reduced to any (2k-3)-colorable partition matroid, so this result is tight. We then discuss how such a reduction can be used to obtain polynomial-time algorithms with better approximation ratios for various natural problems related to coloring and list coloring the intersection of matroids.

Marilena Leichter, Benjamin Moseley, and Kirk Pruhs. An Efficient Reduction of a Gammoid to a Partition Matroid. In 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 204, pp. 62:1-62:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{leichter_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2021.62, author = {Leichter, Marilena and Moseley, Benjamin and Pruhs, Kirk}, title = {{An Efficient Reduction of a Gammoid to a Partition Matroid}}, booktitle = {29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)}, pages = {62:1--62:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-204-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {204}, editor = {Mutzel, Petra and Pagh, Rasmus and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.62}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-146432}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.62}, annote = {Keywords: Matroid, Gammoid, Reduction, Algorithms} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 202, 46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021)

We consider the Matrix Tree Multiplication problem. This problem is a generalization of the classic Matrix Chain Multiplication problem covered in the dynamic programming chapter of many introductory algorithms textbooks. An instance of the Matrix Tree Multiplication problem consists of a rooted tree with a matrix associated with each edge. The output is, for each leaf in the tree, the product of the matrices on the chain/path from the root to that leaf. Matrix multiplications that are shared between various chains need only be computed once, potentially being shared between different root to leaf chains. Algorithms are evaluated by the number of scalar multiplications performed. Our main result is a linear time algorithm for which the number of scalar multiplications performed is at most 15 times the optimal number of scalar multiplications.

Mahmoud Abo-Khamis, Ryan Curtin, Sungjin Im, Benjamin Moseley, Hung Ngo, Kirk Pruhs, and Alireza Samadian. An Approximation Algorithm for the Matrix Tree Multiplication Problem. In 46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 202, pp. 6:1-6:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{abokhamis_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.6, author = {Abo-Khamis, Mahmoud and Curtin, Ryan and Im, Sungjin and Moseley, Benjamin and Ngo, Hung and Pruhs, Kirk and Samadian, Alireza}, title = {{An Approximation Algorithm for the Matrix Tree Multiplication Problem}}, booktitle = {46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021)}, pages = {6:1--6:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-201-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {202}, editor = {Bonchi, Filippo and Puglisi, Simon J.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-144464}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.6}, annote = {Keywords: Matrix Multiplication, Approximation Algorithm} }

Document

Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

This paper considers approximation algorithms for generalized k-median problems. This class of problems can be informally described as k-median with a constant number of extra constraints, and includes k-median with outliers, and knapsack median. Our first contribution is a pseudo-approximation algorithm for generalized k-median that outputs a 6.387-approximate solution with a constant number of fractional variables. The algorithm is based on iteratively rounding linear programs, and the main technical innovation comes from understanding the rich structure of the resulting extreme points.
Using our pseudo-approximation algorithm, we give improved approximation algorithms for k-median with outliers and knapsack median. This involves combining our pseudo-approximation with pre- and post-processing steps to round a constant number of fractional variables at a small increase in cost. Our algorithms achieve approximation ratios 6.994 + ε and 6.387 + ε for k-median with outliers and knapsack median, respectively. These both improve on the best known approximations.

Anupam Gupta, Benjamin Moseley, and Rudy Zhou. Structural Iterative Rounding for Generalized k-Median Problems. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 77:1-77:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{gupta_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.77, author = {Gupta, Anupam and Moseley, Benjamin and Zhou, Rudy}, title = {{Structural Iterative Rounding for Generalized k-Median Problems}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {77:1--77:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.77}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141465}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.77}, annote = {Keywords: approximation algorithms, clustering, linear programming} }

Document

Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

This paper gives a k-means approximation algorithm that is efficient in the relational algorithms model. This is an algorithm that operates directly on a relational database without performing a join to convert it to a matrix whose rows represent the data points. The running time is potentially exponentially smaller than N, the number of data points to be clustered that the relational database represents.
Few relational algorithms are known and this paper offers techniques for designing relational algorithms as well as characterizing their limitations. We show that given two data points as cluster centers, if we cluster points according to their closest centers, it is NP-Hard to approximate the number of points in the clusters on a general relational input. This is trivial for conventional data inputs and this result exemplifies that standard algorithmic techniques may not be directly applied when designing an efficient relational algorithm. This paper then introduces a new method that leverages rejection sampling and the k-means++ algorithm to construct a O(1)-approximate k-means solution.

Benjamin Moseley, Kirk Pruhs, Alireza Samadian, and Yuyan Wang. Relational Algorithms for k-Means Clustering. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 97:1-97:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{moseley_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.97, author = {Moseley, Benjamin and Pruhs, Kirk and Samadian, Alireza and Wang, Yuyan}, title = {{Relational Algorithms for k-Means Clustering}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {97:1--97:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.97}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141668}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.97}, annote = {Keywords: k-means, clustering, approximation, big-data, databases} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 150, 39th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2019)

We consider the problem of scheduling jobs to minimize the maximum weighted flow-time on a set of related machines. When jobs can be preempted this problem is well-understood; for example, there exists a constant competitive algorithm using speed augmentation. When jobs must be scheduled non-preemptively, only hardness results are known. In this paper, we present the first online guarantees for the non-preemptive variant. We present the first constant competitive algorithm for minimizing the maximum weighted flow-time on related machines by relaxing the problem and assuming that the online algorithm can reject a small fraction of the total weight of jobs. This is essentially the best result possible given the strong lower bounds on the non-preemptive problem without rejection.

Giorgio Lucarelli, Benjamin Moseley, Nguyen Kim Thang, Abhinav Srivastav, and Denis Trystram. Online Non-Preemptive Scheduling to Minimize Maximum Weighted Flow-Time on Related Machines. In 39th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 150, pp. 24:1-24:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{lucarelli_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2019.24, author = {Lucarelli, Giorgio and Moseley, Benjamin and Thang, Nguyen Kim and Srivastav, Abhinav and Trystram, Denis}, title = {{Online Non-Preemptive Scheduling to Minimize Maximum Weighted Flow-Time on Related Machines}}, booktitle = {39th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2019)}, pages = {24:1--24:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-131-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {150}, editor = {Chattopadhyay, Arkadev and Gastin, Paul}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2019.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-115867}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2019.24}, annote = {Keywords: Online Algorithms, Scheduling, Resource Augmentation} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 145, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)

This paper considers optimizing a submodular function subject to a set of downward closed constraints. Previous literature on this problem has often constructed solutions by (1) discovering a fractional solution to the multi-linear extension and (2) rounding this solution to an integral solution via a contention resolution scheme. This line of research has improved results by either optimizing (1) or (2).
Diverging from previous work, this paper introduces a principled method called contention resolution extensions of submodular functions. A contention resolution extension combines the contention resolution scheme into a continuous extension of a discrete submodular function. The contention resolution extension can be defined from effectively any contention resolution scheme. In the case where there is a loss in both (1) and (2), by optimizing them together, the losses can be combined resulting in an overall improvement. This paper showcases the concept by demonstrating that for the problem of optimizing a non-monotone submodular subject to the elements forming an independent set in an interval graph, the algorithm gives a .188-approximation. This improves upon the best known 1/(2e)~eq .1839 approximation.

Benjamin Moseley and Maxim Sviridenko. Submodular Optimization with Contention Resolution Extensions. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 145, pp. 3:1-3:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{moseley_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.3, author = {Moseley, Benjamin and Sviridenko, Maxim}, title = {{Submodular Optimization with Contention Resolution Extensions}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)}, pages = {3:1--3:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-125-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {145}, editor = {Achlioptas, Dimitris and V\'{e}gh, L\'{a}szl\'{o} A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112188}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.3}, annote = {Keywords: Submodular, Optimization, Approximation Algorithm, Interval Scheduling} }

Document

Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

This paper considers scheduling on identical machines. The scheduling objective considered in this paper generalizes most scheduling minimization problems. In the problem, there are n jobs and each job j is associated with a monotonically increasing function g_j. The goal is to design a schedule that minimizes sum_{j in [n]} g_{j}(C_j) where C_j is the completion time of job j in the schedule. An O(1)-approximation is known for the single machine case. On multiple machines, this paper shows that if the scheduler is required to be either non-migratory or non-preemptive then any algorithm has an unbounded approximation ratio. Using preemption and migration, this paper gives a O(log log nP)-approximation on multiple machines, the first result on multiple machines. These results imply the first non-trivial positive results for several special cases of the problem considered, such as throughput minimization and tardiness.
Natural linear programs known for the problem have a poor integrality gap. The results are obtained by strengthening a natural linear program for the problem with a set of covering inequalities we call job cover inequalities. This linear program is rounded to an integral solution by building on quasi-uniform sampling and rounding techniques.

Benjamin Moseley. Scheduling to Approximate Minimization Objectives on Identical Machines. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 86:1-86:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{moseley:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.86, author = {Moseley, Benjamin}, title = {{Scheduling to Approximate Minimization Objectives on Identical Machines}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {86:1--86:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.86}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106621}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.86}, annote = {Keywords: Scheduling, LP rounding, Approximation Algorithms} }

Document

Track C: Foundations of Networks and Multi-Agent Systems: Models, Algorithms and Information Management

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

We consider the matroid coflow scheduling problem, where each job is comprised of a set of flows and the family of sets that can be scheduled at any time form a matroid. Our main result is a polynomial-time algorithm that yields a 2-approximation for the objective of minimizing the weighted completion time. This result is tight assuming P != NP. As a by-product we also obtain the first (2+epsilon)-approximation algorithm for the preemptive concurrent open shop scheduling problem.

Sungjin Im, Benjamin Moseley, Kirk Pruhs, and Manish Purohit. Matroid Coflow Scheduling. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 145:1-145:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{im_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.145, author = {Im, Sungjin and Moseley, Benjamin and Pruhs, Kirk and Purohit, Manish}, title = {{Matroid Coflow Scheduling}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {145:1--145:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.145}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-107213}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.145}, annote = {Keywords: Coflow Scheduling, Concurrent Open Shop, Matroid Scheduling} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 112, 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)

In this paper, we consider the online problem of scheduling independent jobs non-preemptively so as to minimize the weighted flow-time on a set of unrelated machines. There has been a considerable amount of work on this problem in the preemptive setting where several competitive algorithms are known in the classical competitive model. However, the problem in the non-preemptive setting admits a strong lower bound. Recently, Lucarelli et al. presented an algorithm that achieves a O(1/epsilon^2)-competitive ratio when the algorithm is allowed to reject epsilon-fraction of total weight of jobs and has an epsilon-speed augmentation. They further showed that speed augmentation alone is insufficient to derive any competitive algorithm. An intriguing open question is whether there exists a scalable competitive algorithm that rejects a small fraction of total weights.
In this paper, we affirmatively answer this question. Specifically, we show that there exists a O(1/epsilon^3)-competitive algorithm for minimizing weighted flow-time on a set of unrelated machine that rejects at most O(epsilon)-fraction of total weight of jobs. The design and analysis of the algorithm is based on the primal-dual technique. Our result asserts that alternative models beyond speed augmentation should be explored when designing online schedulers in the non-preemptive setting in an effort to find provably good algorithms.

Giorgio Lucarelli, Benjamin Moseley, Nguyen Kim Thang, Abhinav Srivastav, and Denis Trystram. Online Non-Preemptive Scheduling to Minimize Weighted Flow-time on Unrelated Machines. In 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 112, pp. 59:1-59:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{lucarelli_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2018.59, author = {Lucarelli, Giorgio and Moseley, Benjamin and Thang, Nguyen Kim and Srivastav, Abhinav and Trystram, Denis}, title = {{Online Non-Preemptive Scheduling to Minimize Weighted Flow-time on Unrelated Machines}}, booktitle = {26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)}, pages = {59:1--59:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-081-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {112}, editor = {Azar, Yossi and Bast, Hannah and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.59}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-95226}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.59}, annote = {Keywords: Online Algorithms, Scheduling, Resource Augmentation} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 87, 25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017)

We consider a setting where selfish agents want to schedule jobs on related machines. The agent submitting a job picks a server that minimizes a linear combination of the server price and the resulting response time for that job on the selected server. The manager's task is to maintain server prices to (approximately) optimize the maximum response time, which is a measure of social good. We show that the existence of a pricing scheme with certain competitiveness is equivalent to the existence of a monotone immediate-dispatch algorithm. Our main result is a monotone immediate-dispatch algorithm that is O(1)-competitive with respect to the maximum response time.

Sungjin Im, Benjamin Moseley, Kirk Pruhs, and Clifford Stein. Minimizing Maximum Flow Time on Related Machines via Dynamic Posted Pricing. In 25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 87, pp. 51:1-51:10, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{im_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2017.51, author = {Im, Sungjin and Moseley, Benjamin and Pruhs, Kirk and Stein, Clifford}, title = {{Minimizing Maximum Flow Time on Related Machines via Dynamic Posted Pricing}}, booktitle = {25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017)}, pages = {51:1--51:10}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-049-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {87}, editor = {Pruhs, Kirk and Sohler, Christian}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2017.51}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-78287}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2017.51}, annote = {Keywords: Posted pricing scheme, online scheduling, related machines, maximum flow time, competitiveness analysis} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 60, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)

Modern data centers consist of a large number of heterogeneous resources such as CPU, memory, network bandwidth, etc. The resources are pooled into clusters for various reasons such as scalability, resource consolidation, and privacy. Clusters are often heterogeneous so that they can better serve jobs with different characteristics submitted from clients. Each job benefits differently depending on how much resource is allocated to the job, which in turn translates to how quickly the job gets completed.
In this paper, we formulate this setting, which we term Multi-Cluster Polytope Scheduling (MCPS). In MCPS, a set of n jobs arrive over time to be executed on m clusters. Each cluster i is associated with a polytope P_i, which constrains how fast one can process jobs assigned to the cluster. For MCPS, we seek to optimize the popular objective of minimizing average weighted flow time of jobs in the online setting. We give a constant competitive algorithm with small constant resource augmentation for a large class of polytopes, which capture many interesting problems that arise in practice. Further, our algorithm is non-clairvoyant. Our algorithm and analysis combine and generalize techniques developed in the recent results for the classical unrelated machines scheduling and the polytope scheduling problem [10,12,11].

Sungjin Im, Janardhan Kulkarni, Benjamin Moseley, and Kamesh Munagala. A Competitive Flow Time Algorithm for Heterogeneous Clusters Under Polytope Constraints. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 60, pp. 10:1-10:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{im_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.10, author = {Im, Sungjin and Kulkarni, Janardhan and Moseley, Benjamin and Munagala, Kamesh}, title = {{A Competitive Flow Time Algorithm for Heterogeneous Clusters Under Polytope Constraints}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)}, pages = {10:1--10:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-018-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {60}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Mathieu, Claire and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Umans, Chris}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-66336}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.10}, annote = {Keywords: Polytope constraints, average flow time, multi-clusters, online scheduling, and competitive analysis} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 30, 32nd International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2015)

We revisit the classical stochastic scheduling problem of nonpreemptively scheduling n jobs so as to minimize total completion time on m identical machines, P \mid \mid \mathbb{E} \sum C_j in the standard 3-field scheduling notation. Previously it was only known how to obtain reasonable approximation if jobs sizes have low variability. However, distributions commonly arising in practice have high variability, and the upper bounds on the approximation ratio for the previous algorithms for such distributions can be even inverse-polynomial in the maximum possible job size. We start by showing that
the natural list scheduling algorithm Shortest Expected Processing Time (SEPT) has a bad approximation ratio for high variability jobs. We observe that a simple randomized rounding of a natural linear programming relaxation is a (1+\epsilon)-machine O(1)-approximation assuming the number of machines is at least logarithmic in the number of jobs. Turning to the case of a modest number of machines, we develop a list scheduling algorithm that is O(\log^2 n + m \log n)-approximate. Our results together imply a (1+\epsilon)-machine O(\log^2 n )-approximation for an arbitrary number of machines. Intuitively our list scheduling algorithm finds an ordering that not only takes the expected size of a job into account, but also takes into account the probability that job will be big.

Sungjin Im, Benjamin Moseley, and Kirk Pruhs. Stochastic Scheduling of Heavy-tailed Jobs. In 32nd International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 30, pp. 474-486, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{im_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2015.474, author = {Im, Sungjin and Moseley, Benjamin and Pruhs, Kirk}, title = {{Stochastic Scheduling of Heavy-tailed Jobs}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2015)}, pages = {474--486}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-78-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {30}, editor = {Mayr, Ernst W. and Ollinger, Nicolas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2015.474}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-49359}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2015.474}, annote = {Keywords: stochastic scheduling, completion time, approximation} }

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