21 Search Results for "Zimmermann, Thomas"


Document
Toward Scientific Evidence Standards in Empirical Computer Science (Dagstuhl Seminar 22442)

Authors: Timothy Kluthe, Brett A. Becker, Christopher D. Hundhausen, Ciera Jaspan, Andreas Stefik, and Thomas Zimmermann

Published in: Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 12, Issue 10 (2023)


Abstract
Many scientific fields of study use formally established evidence standards during the peer review and evaluation process, such as Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) in medical research, the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) used in education in the United States, or the APA Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS) in psychology. The basis for these standards is community agreement on what to report in empirical studies. Such standards achieve two key goals. First, they make it easier to compare studies, facilitating replications, through transparent reporting and sharing of data, which can provide confidence that multiple research teams can obtain the same results. Second, they establish community agreement on how to report on and evaluate studies using different methodologies. The discipline of computer science does not have formalized evidence standards, even for major conferences or journals. This Dagstuhl Seminar has three primary objectives: 1) To establish a process for creating or adopting an existing evidence standard for empirical research in computer science. 2) To build a community of scholars that can discuss what a general standard should include. 3) To kickstart the discussion with scholars from software engineering, human-computer interaction, and computer science education. In order to better discuss and understand the implications of such standards across several empirical subfields of computer science and to facilitate adoption, we brought together participants from a range of backgrounds; including academia and industry, software engineering, computer-human interaction and computer science education, as well as representatives from several prominent journals. Funding: This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Numbers NSF HCC: 2106392 and NSF I-TEST: 2048356.

Cite as

Timothy Kluthe, Brett A. Becker, Christopher D. Hundhausen, Ciera Jaspan, Andreas Stefik, and Thomas Zimmermann. Toward Scientific Evidence Standards in Empirical Computer Science (Dagstuhl Seminar 22442). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 12, Issue 10, pp. 225-240, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@Article{kluthe_et_al:DagRep.12.10.225,
  author =	{Kluthe, Timothy and Becker, Brett A. and Hundhausen, Christopher D. and Jaspan, Ciera and Stefik, Andreas and Zimmermann, Thomas},
  title =	{{Toward Scientific Evidence Standards in Empirical Computer Science (Dagstuhl Seminar 22442)}},
  pages =	{225--240},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Reports},
  ISSN =	{2192-5283},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{12},
  number =	{10},
  editor =	{Kluthe, Timothy and Becker, Brett A. and Hundhausen, Christopher D. and Jaspan, Ciera and Stefik, Andreas and Zimmermann, Thomas},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.12.10.225},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-178289},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagRep.12.10.225},
  annote =	{Keywords: Community evidence standards, Human factors}
}
Document
History Determinism vs. Good for Gameness in Quantitative Automata

Authors: Udi Boker and Karoliina Lehtinen

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 213, 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)


Abstract
Automata models between determinism and nondeterminism/alternations can retain some of the algorithmic properties of deterministic automata while enjoying some of the expressiveness and succinctness of nondeterminism. We study three closely related such models - history determinism, good for gameness and determinisability by pruning - on quantitative automata. While in the Boolean setting, history determinism and good for gameness coincide, we show that this is no longer the case in the quantitative setting: good for gameness is broader than history determinism, and coincides with a relaxed version of it, defined with respect to thresholds. We further identify criteria in which history determinism, which is generally broader than determinisability by pruning, coincides with it, which we then apply to typical quantitative automata types. As a key application of good for games and history deterministic automata is synthesis, we clarify the relationship between the two notions and various quantitative synthesis problems. We show that good-for-games automata are central for "global" (classical) synthesis, while "local" (good-enough) synthesis reduces to deciding whether a nondeterministic automaton is history deterministic.

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Udi Boker and Karoliina Lehtinen. History Determinism vs. Good for Gameness in Quantitative Automata. In 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 213, pp. 38:1-38:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{boker_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.38,
  author =	{Boker, Udi and Lehtinen, Karoliina},
  title =	{{History Determinism vs. Good for Gameness in Quantitative Automata}},
  booktitle =	{41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)},
  pages =	{38:1--38:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-215-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{213},
  editor =	{Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Chekuri, Chandra},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.38},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-155495},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.38},
  annote =	{Keywords: Good for games, history determinism, alternation, quantitative automata}
}
Document
HyperLTL Satisfiability Is Σ₁¹-Complete, HyperCTL* Satisfiability Is Σ₁²-Complete

Authors: Marie Fortin, Louwe B. Kuijer, Patrick Totzke, and Martin Zimmermann

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 202, 46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021)


Abstract
Temporal logics for the specification of information-flow properties are able to express relations between multiple executions of a system. The two most important such logics are HyperLTL and HyperCTL*, which generalise LTL and CTL* by trace quantification. It is known that this expressiveness comes at a price, i.e. satisfiability is undecidable for both logics. In this paper we settle the exact complexity of these problems, showing that both are in fact highly undecidable: we prove that HyperLTL satisfiability is Σ₁¹-complete and HyperCTL* satisfiability is Σ₁²-complete. These are significant increases over the previously known lower bounds and the first upper bounds. To prove Σ₁²-membership for HyperCTL*, we prove that every satisfiable HyperCTL* sentence has a model that is equinumerous to the continuum, the first upper bound of this kind. We prove this bound to be tight. Finally, we show that the membership problem for every level of the HyperLTL quantifier alternation hierarchy is Π₁¹-complete.

Cite as

Marie Fortin, Louwe B. Kuijer, Patrick Totzke, and Martin Zimmermann. HyperLTL Satisfiability Is Σ₁¹-Complete, HyperCTL* Satisfiability Is Σ₁²-Complete. In 46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 202, pp. 47:1-47:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{fortin_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.47,
  author =	{Fortin, Marie and Kuijer, Louwe B. and Totzke, Patrick and Zimmermann, Martin},
  title =	{{HyperLTL Satisfiability Is \Sigma₁¹-Complete, HyperCTL* Satisfiability Is \Sigma₁²-Complete}},
  booktitle =	{46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021)},
  pages =	{47:1--47:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-201-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{202},
  editor =	{Bonchi, Filippo and Puglisi, Simon J.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.47},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-144870},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.47},
  annote =	{Keywords: HyperLTL, HyperCTL*, Satisfiability, Analytical Hierarchy}
}
Document
SE4ML - Software Engineering for AI-ML-based Systems (Dagstuhl Seminar 20091)

Authors: Kristian Kersting, Miryung Kim, Guy Van den Broeck, and Thomas Zimmermann

Published in: Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 10, Issue 2 (2020)


Abstract
Multiple research disciplines, from cognitive sciences to biology, finance, physics, and the social sciences, as well as many companies, believe that data-driven and intelligent solutions are necessary. Unfortunately, current artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) technologies are not sufficiently democratized - building complex AI and ML systems requires deep expertise in computer science and extensive programming skills to work with various machine reasoning and learning techniques at a rather low level of abstraction. It also requires extensive trial and error exploration for model selection, data cleaning, feature selection, and parameter tuning. Moreover, there is a lack of theoretical understanding that could be used to abstract away these subtleties. Conventional programming languages and software engineering paradigms have also not been designed to address challenges faced by AI and ML practitioners. In 2016, companies invested $26–39 billion in AI and McKinsey predicts that investments will be growing over the next few years. Any AI/ML-based systems will need to be built, tested, and maintained, yet there is a lack of established engineering practices in industry for such systems because they are fundamentally different from traditional software systems. This Dagstuhl Seminar brought together two rather disjoint communities together, software engineering and programming languages (PL/SE) and artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI-ML) to discuss open problems on how to improve the productivity of data scientists, software engineers, and AI-ML practitioners in industry.

Cite as

Kristian Kersting, Miryung Kim, Guy Van den Broeck, and Thomas Zimmermann. SE4ML - Software Engineering for AI-ML-based Systems (Dagstuhl Seminar 20091). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp. 76-87, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@Article{kersting_et_al:DagRep.10.2.76,
  author =	{Kersting, Kristian and Kim, Miryung and Van den Broeck, Guy and Zimmermann, Thomas},
  title =	{{SE4ML - Software Engineering for AI-ML-based Systems (Dagstuhl Seminar 20091)}},
  pages =	{76--87},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Reports},
  ISSN =	{2192-5283},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{10},
  number =	{2},
  editor =	{Kersting, Kristian and Kim, Miryung and Van den Broeck, Guy and Zimmermann, Thomas},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.10.2.76},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-130603},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagRep.10.2.76},
  annote =	{Keywords: correctness / explainability / traceability / fairness for ml, data scientist productivity, debugging/ testing / verification for ml systems}
}
Document
BOTse: Bots in Software Engineering (Dagstuhl Seminar 19471)

Authors: Margaret-Anne Storey, Alexander Serebrenik, Carolyn Penstein Rosé, Thomas Zimmermann, and James D. Herbsleb

Published in: Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 9, Issue 11 (2020)


Abstract
This report documents the program and the outcomes of the Dagstuhl Seminar 19471 "BOTse: Bots in Software Engineering". This Dagstuhl seminar brought researchers and practitioners together from multiple research communities with disparate views of what bots are and what they can do for software engineering. The goals were to understand how bots are used today, how they could be used in innovative ways in the future, how the use of bots can be compared and synthesized, and to identify and share risks and challenges that may emerge from using bots in practice. The report briefly summarizes the goals and format of the seminar and provides selected insights and results collected during the seminar.

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Margaret-Anne Storey, Alexander Serebrenik, Carolyn Penstein Rosé, Thomas Zimmermann, and James D. Herbsleb. BOTse: Bots in Software Engineering (Dagstuhl Seminar 19471). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 9, Issue 11, pp. 84-96, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@Article{storey_et_al:DagRep.9.11.84,
  author =	{Storey, Margaret-Anne and Serebrenik, Alexander and Ros\'{e}, Carolyn Penstein and Zimmermann, Thomas and Herbsleb, James D.},
  title =	{{BOTse: Bots in Software Engineering (Dagstuhl Seminar 19471)}},
  pages =	{84--96},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Reports},
  ISSN =	{2192-5283},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{9},
  number =	{11},
  editor =	{Storey, Margaret-Anne and Serebrenik, Alexander and Ros\'{e}, Carolyn Penstein and Zimmermann, Thomas and Herbsleb, James D.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.9.11.84},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-119848},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagRep.9.11.84},
  annote =	{Keywords: automated software development, bots, chatbots, collaborative software development, cscw, devops, nlp, software engineering}
}
Document
Verified Decision Procedures for Modal Logics

Authors: Minchao Wu and Rajeev Goré

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 141, 10th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2019)


Abstract
We describe a formalization of modal tableaux with histories for the modal logics K, KT and S4 in Lean. We describe how we formalized the static and transitional rules, the non-trivial termination and the correctness of loop-checks. The formalized tableaux are essentially executable decision procedures with soundness and completeness proved. Termination is also proved in order to define them as functions in Lean. All of these decision procedures return a concrete Kripke model in cases where the input set of formulas is satisfiable, and a proof constructed via the tableau rules witnessing unsatisfiability otherwise. We also describe an extensible formalization of backjumping and its verified implementation for the modal logic K. As far as we know, these are the first verified decision procedures for these modal logics.

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Minchao Wu and Rajeev Goré. Verified Decision Procedures for Modal Logics. In 10th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 141, pp. 31:1-31:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{wu_et_al:LIPIcs.ITP.2019.31,
  author =	{Wu, Minchao and Gor\'{e}, Rajeev},
  title =	{{Verified Decision Procedures for Modal Logics}},
  booktitle =	{10th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2019)},
  pages =	{31:1--31:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-122-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{141},
  editor =	{Harrison, John and O'Leary, John and Tolmach, Andrew},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITP.2019.31},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-110866},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITP.2019.31},
  annote =	{Keywords: Formal Methods, Interactive Theorem Proving, Modal Logic, Lean}
}
Document
Ornaments for Proof Reuse in Coq

Authors: Talia Ringer, Nathaniel Yazdani, John Leo, and Dan Grossman

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 141, 10th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2019)


Abstract
Ornaments express relations between inductive types with the same inductive structure. We implement fully automatic proof reuse for a particular class of ornaments in a Coq plugin, and show how such a tool can give programmers the rewards of using indexed inductive types while automating away many of the costs. The plugin works directly on Coq code; it is the first ornamentation tool for a non-embedded dependently typed language. It is also the first tool to automatically identify ornaments: To lift a function or proof, the user must provide only the source type, the destination type, and the source function or proof. In taking advantage of the mathematical properties of ornaments, our approach produces faster functions and smaller terms than a more general approach to proof reuse in Coq.

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Talia Ringer, Nathaniel Yazdani, John Leo, and Dan Grossman. Ornaments for Proof Reuse in Coq. In 10th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 141, pp. 26:1-26:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{ringer_et_al:LIPIcs.ITP.2019.26,
  author =	{Ringer, Talia and Yazdani, Nathaniel and Leo, John and Grossman, Dan},
  title =	{{Ornaments for Proof Reuse in Coq}},
  booktitle =	{10th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2019)},
  pages =	{26:1--26:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-122-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{141},
  editor =	{Harrison, John and O'Leary, John and Tolmach, Andrew},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITP.2019.26},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-110816},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITP.2019.26},
  annote =	{Keywords: ornaments, proof reuse, proof automation}
}
Document
Primitive Floats in Coq

Authors: Guillaume Bertholon, Érik Martin-Dorel, and Pierre Roux

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 141, 10th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2019)


Abstract
Some mathematical proofs involve intensive computations, for instance: the four-color theorem, Hales' theorem on sphere packing (formerly known as the Kepler conjecture) or interval arithmetic. For numerical computations, floating-point arithmetic enjoys widespread usage thanks to its efficiency, despite the introduction of rounding errors. Formal guarantees can be obtained on floating-point algorithms based on the IEEE 754 standard, which precisely specifies floating-point arithmetic and its rounding modes, and a proof assistant such as Coq, that enjoys efficient computation capabilities. Coq offers machine integers, however floating-point arithmetic still needed to be emulated using these integers. A modified version of Coq is presented that enables using the machine floating-point operators. The main obstacles to such an implementation and its soundness are discussed. Benchmarks show potential performance gains of two orders of magnitude.

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Guillaume Bertholon, Érik Martin-Dorel, and Pierre Roux. Primitive Floats in Coq. In 10th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 141, pp. 7:1-7:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{bertholon_et_al:LIPIcs.ITP.2019.7,
  author =	{Bertholon, Guillaume and Martin-Dorel, \'{E}rik and Roux, Pierre},
  title =	{{Primitive Floats in Coq}},
  booktitle =	{10th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2019)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-122-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{141},
  editor =	{Harrison, John and O'Leary, John and Tolmach, Andrew},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITP.2019.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-110629},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITP.2019.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: Coq formal proofs, floating-point arithmetic, reflexive tactics, Cholesky decomposition}
}
Document
Consensus Clusters in Robinson-Foulds Reticulation Networks

Authors: Alexey Markin and Oliver Eulenstein

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 143, 19th International Workshop on Algorithms in Bioinformatics (WABI 2019)


Abstract
Inference of phylogenetic networks - the evolutionary histories of species involving speciation as well as reticulation events - has proved to be an extremely challenging problem even for smaller datasets easily tackled by supertree inference methods. An effective way to boost the scalability of distance-based supertree methods originates from the Pareto (for clusters) property, which is a highly desirable property for phylogenetic consensus methods. In particular, one can employ strict consensus merger algorithms to boost the scalability and accuracy of supertree methods satisfying Pareto; cf. SuperFine. In this work, we establish a Pareto-like property for phylogenetic networks. Then we consider the recently introduced RF-Net method that heuristically solves the so-called RF-Network problem and which was demonstrated to be an efficient and effective tool for the inference of hybridization and reassortment networks. As our main result, we provide a constructive proof (entailing an explicit refinement algorithm) that the Pareto property applies to the RF-Network problem when the solution space is restricted to the popular class of tree-child networks. This result implies that strict consensus merger strategies, similar to SuperFine, can be directly applied to boost both accuracy and scalability of RF-Net significantly. Finally, we further investigate the optimum solutions to the RF-Network problem; in particular, we describe structural properties of all optimum (tree-child) RF-networks in relation to strict consensus clusters of the input trees.

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Alexey Markin and Oliver Eulenstein. Consensus Clusters in Robinson-Foulds Reticulation Networks. In 19th International Workshop on Algorithms in Bioinformatics (WABI 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 143, pp. 12:1-12:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{markin_et_al:LIPIcs.WABI.2019.12,
  author =	{Markin, Alexey and Eulenstein, Oliver},
  title =	{{Consensus Clusters in Robinson-Foulds Reticulation Networks}},
  booktitle =	{19th International Workshop on Algorithms in Bioinformatics (WABI 2019)},
  pages =	{12:1--12:12},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-123-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{143},
  editor =	{Huber, Katharina T. and Gusfield, Dan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.WABI.2019.12},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-110420},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.WABI.2019.12},
  annote =	{Keywords: Phylogenetics, phylogenetic tree, phylogenetic network, reticulation network, Robinson-Foulds, Pareto, RF-Net}
}
Document
Life Is Random, Time Is Not: Markov Decision Processes with Window Objectives

Authors: Thomas Brihaye, Florent Delgrange, Youssouf Oualhadj, and Mickael Randour

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 140, 30th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2019)


Abstract
The window mechanism was introduced by Chatterjee et al. [Krishnendu Chatterjee et al., 2015] to strengthen classical game objectives with time bounds. It permits to synthesize system controllers that exhibit acceptable behaviors within a configurable time frame, all along their infinite execution, in contrast to the traditional objectives that only require correctness of behaviors in the limit. The window concept has proved its interest in a variety of two-player zero-sum games, thanks to the ability to reason about such time bounds in system specifications, but also the increased tractability that it usually yields. In this work, we extend the window framework to stochastic environments by considering the fundamental threshold probability problem in Markov decision processes for window objectives. That is, given such an objective, we want to synthesize strategies that guarantee satisfying runs with a given probability. We solve this problem for the usual variants of window objectives, where either the time frame is set as a parameter, or we ask if such a time frame exists. We develop a generic approach for window-based objectives and instantiate it for the classical mean-payoff and parity objectives, already considered in games. Our work paves the way to a wide use of the window mechanism in stochastic models.

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Thomas Brihaye, Florent Delgrange, Youssouf Oualhadj, and Mickael Randour. Life Is Random, Time Is Not: Markov Decision Processes with Window Objectives. In 30th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 140, pp. 8:1-8:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{brihaye_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2019.8,
  author =	{Brihaye, Thomas and Delgrange, Florent and Oualhadj, Youssouf and Randour, Mickael},
  title =	{{Life Is Random, Time Is Not: Markov Decision Processes with Window Objectives}},
  booktitle =	{30th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2019)},
  pages =	{8:1--8:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-121-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{140},
  editor =	{Fokkink, Wan and van Glabbeek, Rob},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2019.8},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-109103},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2019.8},
  annote =	{Keywords: Markov decision processes, window mean-payoff, window parity}
}
Document
Energy Mean-Payoff Games

Authors: Véronique Bruyère, Quentin Hautem, Mickael Randour, and Jean-François Raskin

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 140, 30th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2019)


Abstract
In this paper, we study one-player and two-player energy mean-payoff games. Energy mean-payoff games are games of infinite duration played on a finite graph with edges labeled by 2-dimensional weight vectors. The objective of the first player (the protagonist) is to satisfy an energy objective on the first dimension and a mean-payoff objective on the second dimension. We show that optimal strategies for the first player may require infinite memory while optimal strategies for the second player (the antagonist) do not require memory. In the one-player case (where only the first player has choices), the problem of deciding who is the winner can be solved in polynomial time while for the two-player case we show co-NP membership and we give effective constructions for the infinite-memory optimal strategies of the protagonist.

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Véronique Bruyère, Quentin Hautem, Mickael Randour, and Jean-François Raskin. Energy Mean-Payoff Games. In 30th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 140, pp. 21:1-21:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{bruyere_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2019.21,
  author =	{Bruy\`{e}re, V\'{e}ronique and Hautem, Quentin and Randour, Mickael and Raskin, Jean-Fran\c{c}ois},
  title =	{{Energy Mean-Payoff Games}},
  booktitle =	{30th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2019)},
  pages =	{21:1--21:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-121-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{140},
  editor =	{Fokkink, Wan and van Glabbeek, Rob},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2019.21},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-109239},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2019.21},
  annote =	{Keywords: two-player zero-sum games played on graphs, energy and mean-payoff objectives, complexity study and construction of optimal strategies}
}
Document
Rethinking Productivity in Software Engineering (Dagstuhl Seminar 17102)

Authors: Thomas Fritz, Gloria Mark, Gail C. Murphy, and Thomas Zimmermann

Published in: Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 7, Issue 3 (2017)


Abstract
This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 17102 "Rethinking Productivity in Software Engineering". In the following, we briefly summarize the goals and format of the of the seminar, before we provide insights and an outlook, including a few grand challenges, based on the results and statements collected during the seminar.

Cite as

Thomas Fritz, Gloria Mark, Gail C. Murphy, and Thomas Zimmermann. Rethinking Productivity in Software Engineering (Dagstuhl Seminar 17102). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp. 19-26, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@Article{fritz_et_al:DagRep.7.3.19,
  author =	{Fritz, Thomas and Mark, Gloria and Murphy, Gail C. and Zimmermann, Thomas},
  title =	{{Rethinking Productivity in Software Engineering (Dagstuhl Seminar 17102)}},
  pages =	{19--26},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Reports},
  ISSN =	{2192-5283},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{7},
  number =	{3},
  editor =	{Fritz, Thomas and Mark, Gloria and Murphy, Gail C. and Zimmermann, Thomas},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.7.3.19},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-73592},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagRep.7.3.19},
  annote =	{Keywords: productivity, software development, human factors, productivity factors, grand challenges}
}
Document
What are Strategies in Delay Games? Borel Determinacy for Games with Lookahead

Authors: Felix Klein and Martin Zimmermann

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 41, 24th EACSL Annual Conference on Computer Science Logic (CSL 2015)


Abstract
We investigate determinacy of delay games with Borel winning conditions, infinite-duration two-player games in which one player may delay her moves to obtain a lookahead on her opponent's moves. First, we prove determinacy of such games with respect to a fixed evolution of the lookahead. However, strategies in such games may depend on information about the evolution. Thus, we introduce different notions of universal strategies for both players, which are evolution-independent, and determine the exact amount of information a universal strategy needs about the history of a play and the evolution of the lookahead to be winning. In particular, we show that delay games with Borel winning conditions are determined with respect to universal strategies. Finally, we consider decidability problems, e.g., "Does a player have a universal winning strategy for delay games with a given winning condition?", for omega-regular and omega-context-free winning conditions.

Cite as

Felix Klein and Martin Zimmermann. What are Strategies in Delay Games? Borel Determinacy for Games with Lookahead. In 24th EACSL Annual Conference on Computer Science Logic (CSL 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 41, pp. 519-533, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)


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@InProceedings{klein_et_al:LIPIcs.CSL.2015.519,
  author =	{Klein, Felix and Zimmermann, Martin},
  title =	{{What are Strategies in Delay Games? Borel Determinacy for Games with Lookahead}},
  booktitle =	{24th EACSL Annual Conference on Computer Science Logic (CSL 2015)},
  pages =	{519--533},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-90-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2015},
  volume =	{41},
  editor =	{Kreutzer, Stephan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CSL.2015.519},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-54354},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CSL.2015.519},
  annote =	{Keywords: Determinacy, Infinite Games, Delay Games, Borel Hierarchy}
}
Document
The Love/Hate Relationship with the C Preprocessor: An Interview Study

Authors: Flávio Medeiros, Christian Kästner, Márcio Ribeiro, Sarah Nadi, and Rohit Gheyi

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 37, 29th European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP 2015)


Abstract
The C preprocessor has received strong criticism in academia, among others regarding separation of concerns, error proneness, and code obfuscation, but is widely used in practice. Many (mostly academic) alternatives to the preprocessor exist, but have not been adopted in practice. Since developers continue to use the preprocessor despite all criticism and research, we ask how practitioners perceive the C preprocessor. We performed interviews with 40 developers, used grounded theory to analyze the data, and cross-validated the results with data from a survey among 202 developers, repository mining, and results from previous studies. In particular, we investigated four research questions related to why the preprocessor is still widely used in practice, common problems, alternatives, and the impact of undisciplined annotations. Our study shows that developers are aware of the criticism the C preprocessor receives, but use it nonetheless, mainly for portability and variability. Many developers indicate that they regularly face preprocessor-related problems and preprocessor-related bugs. The majority of our interviewees do not see any current C-native technologies that can entirely replace the C preprocessor. However, developers tend to mitigate problems with guidelines, even though those guidelines are not enforced consistently. We report the key insights gained from our study and discuss implications for practitioners and researchers on how to better use the C preprocessor to minimize its negative impact.

Cite as

Flávio Medeiros, Christian Kästner, Márcio Ribeiro, Sarah Nadi, and Rohit Gheyi. The Love/Hate Relationship with the C Preprocessor: An Interview Study. In 29th European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 37, pp. 495-518, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)


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@InProceedings{medeiros_et_al:LIPIcs.ECOOP.2015.495,
  author =	{Medeiros, Fl\'{a}vio and K\"{a}stner, Christian and Ribeiro, M\'{a}rcio and Nadi, Sarah and Gheyi, Rohit},
  title =	{{The Love/Hate Relationship with the C Preprocessor: An Interview Study}},
  booktitle =	{29th European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP 2015)},
  pages =	{495--518},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-86-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2015},
  volume =	{37},
  editor =	{Boyland, John Tang},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECOOP.2015.495},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-52350},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECOOP.2015.495},
  annote =	{Keywords: C Preprocessor, CPP, Interviews, Surveys, and Grounded Theory}
}
Document
The Complexity of Counting Models of Linear-time Temporal Logic

Authors: Hazem Torfah and Martin Zimmermann

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 29, 34th International Conference on Foundation of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2014)


Abstract
We determine the complexity of counting models of bounded size of specifications expressed in Linear-time Temporal Logic. Counting word-models is #P-complete, if the bound is given in unary, and as hard as counting accepting runs of nondeterministic polynomial space Turing machines, if the bound is given in binary. Counting tree-models is as hard as counting accepting runs of nondeterministic exponential time Turing machines, if the bound is given in unary. For a binary encoding of the bound, the problem is at least as hard as counting accepting runs of nondeterministic exponential space Turing machines. On the other hand, it is not harder than counting accepting runs of nondeterministic doubly-exponential time Turing machines.

Cite as

Hazem Torfah and Martin Zimmermann. The Complexity of Counting Models of Linear-time Temporal Logic. In 34th International Conference on Foundation of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2014). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 29, pp. 241-252, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)


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@InProceedings{torfah_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2014.241,
  author =	{Torfah, Hazem and Zimmermann, Martin},
  title =	{{The Complexity of Counting Models of Linear-time Temporal Logic}},
  booktitle =	{34th International Conference on Foundation of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2014)},
  pages =	{241--252},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-77-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2014},
  volume =	{29},
  editor =	{Raman, Venkatesh and Suresh, S. P.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2014.241},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-48463},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2014.241},
  annote =	{Keywords: Model Counting, Temporal Logic, Model Checking, Counting Complexity}
}
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