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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

We present a dynamic algorithm for maintaining the connected and 2-edge-connected components in an undirected graph subject to edge deletions. The algorithm is Monte-Carlo randomized and processes any sequence of edge deletions in O(m + n poly log n) total time. Interspersed with the deletions, it can answer queries whether any two given vertices currently belong to the same (2-edge-)connected component in constant time. Our result is based on a general Monte-Carlo randomized reduction from decremental c-edge-connectivity to a variant of fully-dynamic c-edge-connectivity on a sparse graph.
For non-sparse graphs with Ω(n poly log n) edges, our connectivity and 2-edge-connectivity algorithms handle all deletions in optimal linear total time, using existing algorithms for the respective fully-dynamic problems. This improves upon an O(m log (n² / m) + n poly log n)-time algorithm of Thorup [J.Alg. 1999], which runs in linear time only for graphs with Ω(n²) edges.
Our constant amortized cost for edge deletions in decremental connectivity in non-sparse graphs should be contrasted with an Ω(log n/log log n) worst-case time lower bound in the decremental setting [Alstrup, Husfeldt, and Rauhe FOCS'98] as well as an Ω(log n) amortized time lower-bound in the fully-dynamic setting [Patrascu and Demaine STOC'04].

Anders Aamand, Adam Karczmarz, Jakub Łącki, Nikos Parotsidis, Peter M. R. Rasmussen, and Mikkel Thorup. Optimal Decremental Connectivity in Non-Sparse Graphs. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 6:1-6:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{aamand_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.6, author = {Aamand, Anders and Karczmarz, Adam and {\L}\k{a}cki, Jakub and Parotsidis, Nikos and Rasmussen, Peter M. R. and Thorup, Mikkel}, title = {{Optimal Decremental Connectivity in Non-Sparse Graphs}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {6:1--6:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180581}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.6}, annote = {Keywords: decremental connectivity, dynamic connectivity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 244, 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)

Motivated by a real-world vehicle routing application, we consider the maximum-weight independent set problem: Given a node-weighted graph, find a set of independent (mutually nonadjacent) nodes whose node-weight sum is maximum. Some of the graphs arising in the vehicle routing application are large, having hundreds of thousands of nodes and hundreds of millions of edges.
To solve instances of this size, we develop a new local search algorithm, which is a metaheuristic based on the greedy randomized adaptive search (GRASP) framework. This algorithm, named METAMIS, uses a wider range of simple local search operations than previously described in the literature. We introduce data structures that make these operations efficient. A new variant of path-relinking is introduced to escape local optima and so is a new alternating augmenting-path local search move that improves algorithm performance.
We compare an implementation of our algorithm with a state-of-the-art publicly available code on public benchmark sets, including some large instances. Our algorithm is, in general, competitive and outperforms this openly available code on large vehicle routing instances of the maximum weight independent set problem. We hope that our results will lead to even better maximum-weight independent set algorithms.

Yuanyuan Dong, Andrew V. Goldberg, Alexander Noe, Nikos Parotsidis, Mauricio G.C. Resende, and Quico Spaen. A Local Search Algorithm for Large Maximum Weight Independent Set Problems. In 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 244, pp. 45:1-45:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{dong_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2022.45, author = {Dong, Yuanyuan and Goldberg, Andrew V. and Noe, Alexander and Parotsidis, Nikos and Resende, Mauricio G.C. and Spaen, Quico}, title = {{A Local Search Algorithm for Large Maximum Weight Independent Set Problems}}, booktitle = {30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)}, pages = {45:1--45:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-247-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {244}, editor = {Chechik, Shiri and Navarro, Gonzalo and Rotenberg, Eva and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.45}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-169839}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.45}, annote = {Keywords: GRASP, local search, maximum-weight independent set, path-relinking, heuristic, metaheuristic} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 157, 10th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2021) (2020)

The problem of inconsistent planning in decision making, which leads to undesirable effects such as procrastination, has been studied in the behavioral-economics literature, and more recently in the context of computational behavioral models. Individuals, however, do not function in isolation, and successful projects most often rely on team work. Team performance does not depend only on the skills of the individual team members, but also on other collective factors, such as team spirit and cohesion. It is not an uncommon situation (for instance, experienced by the authors while working on this paper) that a hard-working individual has the capacity to give a good example to her team-mates and motivate them to work harder.
In this paper we adopt the model of Kleinberg and Oren (EC'14) on time-inconsistent planning, and extend it to account for the influence of procrastination within the members of a team. Our first contribution is to model collaborative work so that the relative progress of the team members, with respect to their respective subtasks, motivates (or discourages) them to work harder. We compare the total cost of completing a team project when the team members communicate with each other about their progress, with the corresponding cost when they work in isolation. Our main result is a tight bound on the ratio of these two costs, under mild assumptions. We also show that communication can either increase or decrease the total cost.
We also consider the problem of assigning subtasks to team members, with the objective of minimizing the negative effects of collaborative procrastination. We show that whereas a simple problem of forming teams of two members can be solved in polynomial time, the problem of assigning n tasks to n agents is NP-hard.

Aris Anagnostopoulos, Aristides Gionis, and Nikos Parotsidis. Collaborative Procrastination. In 10th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 157, pp. 2:1-2:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{anagnostopoulos_et_al:LIPIcs.FUN.2021.2, author = {Anagnostopoulos, Aris and Gionis, Aristides and Parotsidis, Nikos}, title = {{Collaborative Procrastination}}, booktitle = {10th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2021)}, pages = {2:1--2:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-145-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {157}, editor = {Farach-Colton, Martin and Prencipe, Giuseppe and Uehara, Ryuhei}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2021.2}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-127634}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2021.2}, annote = {Keywords: time-inconsistent planning, computational behavioral science, collaborative work, collaborative environments} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

The All-Pairs Min-Cut problem (aka All-Pairs Max-Flow) asks to compute a minimum s-t cut (or just its value) for all pairs of vertices s,t. We study this problem in directed graphs with unit edge/vertex capacities (corresponding to edge/vertex connectivity). Our focus is on the k-bounded case, where the algorithm has to find all pairs with min-cut value less than k, and report only those. The most basic case k=1 is the Transitive Closure (TC) problem, which can be solved in graphs with n vertices and m edges in time O(mn) combinatorially, and in time O(n^{omega}) where omega<2.38 is the matrix-multiplication exponent. These time bounds are conjectured to be optimal.
We present new algorithms and conditional lower bounds that advance the frontier for larger k, as follows:
- A randomized algorithm for vertex capacities that runs in time {O}((nk)^{omega}). This is only a factor k^omega away from the TC bound, and nearly matches it for all k=n^{o(1)}.
- Two deterministic algorithms for edge capacities (which is more general) that work in DAGs and further reports a minimum cut for each pair. The first algorithm is combinatorial (does not involve matrix multiplication) and runs in time {O}(2^{{O}(k^2)}* mn). The second algorithm can be faster on dense DAGs and runs in time {O}((k log n)^{4^{k+o(k)}}* n^{omega}). Previously, Georgiadis et al. [ICALP 2017], could match the TC bound (up to n^{o(1)} factors) only when k=2, and now our two algorithms match it for all k=o(sqrt{log n}) and k=o(log log n).
- The first super-cubic lower bound of n^{omega-1-o(1)} k^2 time under the 4-Clique conjecture, which holds even in the simplest case of DAGs with unit vertex capacities. It improves on the previous (SETH-based) lower bounds even in the unbounded setting k=n. For combinatorial algorithms, our reduction implies an n^{2-o(1)} k^2 conditional lower bound. Thus, we identify new settings where the complexity of the problem is (conditionally) higher than that of TC.
Our three sets of results are obtained via different techniques. The first one adapts the network coding method of Cheung, Lau, and Leung [SICOMP 2013] to vertex-capacitated digraphs. The second set exploits new insights on the structure of latest cuts together with suitable algebraic tools. The lower bounds arise from a novel reduction of a different structure than the SETH-based constructions.

Amir Abboud, Loukas Georgiadis, Giuseppe F. Italiano, Robert Krauthgamer, Nikos Parotsidis, Ohad Trabelsi, Przemysław Uznański, and Daniel Wolleb-Graf. Faster Algorithms for All-Pairs Bounded Min-Cuts. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 7:1-7:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{abboud_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.7, author = {Abboud, Amir and Georgiadis, Loukas and Italiano, Giuseppe F. and Krauthgamer, Robert and Parotsidis, Nikos and Trabelsi, Ohad and Uzna\'{n}ski, Przemys{\l}aw and Wolleb-Graf, Daniel}, title = {{Faster Algorithms for All-Pairs Bounded Min-Cuts}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {7:1--7:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-105833}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.7}, annote = {Keywords: All-pairs min-cut, k-reachability, network coding, Directed graphs, fine-grained complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 126, 36th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2019)

In this paper we study the dynamic versions of two basic graph problems: Minimum Dominating Set and its variant Minimum Connected Dominating Set. For those two problems, we present algorithms that maintain a solution under edge insertions and edge deletions in time O(Delta * polylog n) per update, where Delta is the maximum vertex degree in the graph. In both cases, we achieve an approximation ratio of O(log n), which is optimal up to a constant factor (under the assumption that P != NP). Although those two problems have been widely studied in the static and in the distributed settings, to the best of our knowledge we are the first to present efficient algorithms in the dynamic setting.
As a further application of our approach, we also present an algorithm that maintains a Minimal Dominating Set in O(min(Delta, sqrt{m})) per update.

Niklas Hjuler, Giuseppe F. Italiano, Nikos Parotsidis, and David Saulpic. Dominating Sets and Connected Dominating Sets in Dynamic Graphs. In 36th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 126, pp. 35:1-35:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{hjuler_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2019.35, author = {Hjuler, Niklas and Italiano, Giuseppe F. and Parotsidis, Nikos and Saulpic, David}, title = {{Dominating Sets and Connected Dominating Sets in Dynamic Graphs}}, booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2019)}, pages = {35:1--35:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-100-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {126}, editor = {Niedermeier, Rolf and Paul, Christophe}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2019.35}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-102741}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2019.35}, annote = {Keywords: Dominating Set, Connected Dominating Set, Dynamic Graph Algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

We introduce a new dynamic data structure for maintaining the strongly connected components (SCCs) of a directed graph (digraph) under edge deletions, so as to answer a rich repertoire of connectivity queries. Our main technical contribution is a decremental data structure that supports sensitivity queries of the form "are u and v strongly connected in the graph G \ w?", for any triple of vertices u, v, w, while G undergoes deletions of edges. Our data structure processes a sequence of edge deletions in a digraph with $n$ vertices in O(m n log n) total time and O(n^2 log n) space, where m is the number of edges before any deletion, and answers the above queries in constant time. We can leverage our data structure to obtain decremental data structures for many more types of queries within the same time and space complexity. For instance for edge-related queries, such as testing whether two query vertices u and v are strongly connected in G \ e, for some query edge e.
As another important application of our decremental data structure, we provide the first nontrivial algorithm for maintaining the dominator tree of a flow graph under edge deletions. We present an algorithm that processes a sequence of edge deletions in a flow graph in O(m n log n) total time and O(n^2 log n) space. For reducible flow graphs we provide an O(mn)-time and O(m + n)-space algorithm. We give a conditional lower bound that provides evidence that these running times may be tight up to subpolynomial factors.

Loukas Georgiadis, Thomas Dueholm Hansen, Giuseppe F. Italiano, Sebastian Krinninger, and Nikos Parotsidis. Decremental Data Structures for Connectivity and Dominators in Directed Graphs. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 42:1-42:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{georgiadis_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.42, author = {Georgiadis, Loukas and Dueholm Hansen, Thomas and Italiano, Giuseppe F. and Krinninger, Sebastian and Parotsidis, Nikos}, title = {{Decremental Data Structures for Connectivity and Dominators in Directed Graphs}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {42:1--42:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.42}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-74455}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.42}, annote = {Keywords: dynamic graph algorithms, decremental algorithms, dominator tree, strong connectivity under failures} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

In the 2-reachability problem we are given a directed graph G and we wish to determine if there are two (edge or vertex) disjoint paths from u to v, for given pair of vertices u and v. In this paper, we present an algorithm that computes 2-reachability information for all pairs of vertices in O(n^w log n) time, where n is the number of vertices and w is the matrix multiplication exponent. Hence, we show that the running time of all-pairs 2-reachability is only within a log factor of transitive closure. Moreover, our algorithm produces a witness (i.e., a separating edge or a separating vertex) for all pair of vertices where 2-reachability does not hold. By processing these witnesses, we can compute all the edge- and vertex-dominator trees of G in O(n^2) additional time, which in turn enables us to answer various connectivity queries in O(1) time. For instance, we can test in constant time if there is a path from u to v avoiding an edge e, for any pair of query vertices u and v, and any query edge e, or if there is a path from u to v avoiding a vertex w, for any query vertices u, v, and w.

Loukas Georgiadis, Daniel Graf, Giuseppe F. Italiano, Nikos Parotsidis, and Przemyslaw Uznanski. All-Pairs 2-Reachability in O(n^w log n) Time. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 74:1-74:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{georgiadis_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.74, author = {Georgiadis, Loukas and Graf, Daniel and Italiano, Giuseppe F. and Parotsidis, Nikos and Uznanski, Przemyslaw}, title = {{All-Pairs 2-Reachability in O(n^w log n) Time}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {74:1--74:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.74}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-74510}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.74}, annote = {Keywords: 2-reachability, All Dominator Trees, Directed Graphs, Boolean Matrix Multiplication} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 55, 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)

We present an algorithm that can update the 2-edge-connected blocks of a directed graph with n vertices through a sequence of m edge insertions in a total of O(m*n) time. After each insertion, we can answer the following queries in asymptotically optimal time:
- Test in constant time if two query vertices v and w are 2-edge-connected. Moreover, if v and w are not 2-edge-connected, we can produce in constant time a “witness” of this property, by exhibiting an edge that is contained in all paths from v to w or in all paths from w to v.
- Report in O(n) time all the 2-edge-connected blocks of G.
This is the first dynamic algorithm for 2-connectivity problems on directed graphs, and it matches the best known bounds for simpler problems, such as incremental transitive closure.

Loukas Georgiadis, Giuseppe F. Italiano, and Nikos Parotsidis. Incremental 2-Edge-Connectivity in Directed Graphs. In 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 55, pp. 49:1-49:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{georgiadis_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.49, author = {Georgiadis, Loukas and Italiano, Giuseppe F. and Parotsidis, Nikos}, title = {{Incremental 2-Edge-Connectivity in Directed Graphs}}, booktitle = {43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)}, pages = {49:1--49:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-013-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {55}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Mitzenmacher, Michael and Rabani, Yuval and Sangiorgi, Davide}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.49}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-63292}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.49}, annote = {Keywords: 2-edge connectivity on directed graphs; dynamic graph algorithms; incremental algorithms.} }

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Invited Talk

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 57, 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)

We survey some recent results on 2-edge and 2-vertex connectivity problems in directed graphs. Despite being complete analogs of the corresponding notions on undirected graphs, in digraphs 2-vertex and 2-edge connectivity have a much richer and more complicated structure. It is thus not surprising that 2-connectivity problems on directed graphs appear to be more difficult than on undirected graphs. For undirected graphs it has been known for over 40 years how to compute all bridges, articulation points, 2-edge- and 2-vertex-connected components in linear time, by simply using depth-first search. In the case of digraphs, however, the very same problems have been much more challenging and required the development of new tools and techniques.

Loukas Georgiadis, Giuseppe F. Italiano, and Nikos Parotsidis. 2-Connectivity in Directed Graphs (Invited Talk). In 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 57, pp. 1:1-1:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{georgiadis_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2016.1, author = {Georgiadis, Loukas and Italiano, Giuseppe F. and Parotsidis, Nikos}, title = {{2-Connectivity in Directed Graphs}}, booktitle = {24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)}, pages = {1:1--1:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-015-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {57}, editor = {Sankowski, Piotr and Zaroliagis, Christos}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-63451}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.1}, annote = {Keywords: 2-edge and 2-vertex connectivity on directed graphs, graph algorithms, dominator trees} }

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