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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

For a given (possibly directed) graph G, a hopset (a.k.a. shortcut set) is a (small) set of edges whose addition reduces the graph diameter while preserving desired properties from the given graph G, such as, reachability and shortest-path distances. The key objective is in optimizing the tradeoff between the achieved diameter and the size of the shortcut set (possibly also, the distance distortion). Despite the centrality of these objects and their thorough study over the years, there are still significant gaps between the known upper and lower bound results.
A common property shared by almost all known shortcut lower bounds is that they hold for the seemingly simpler task of reducing the diameter of the given graph, D_G, by a constant additive term, in fact, even by just one! We denote such restricted structures by (D_G-1)-diameter hopsets. In this paper we show that this relaxation can be leveraged to narrow the current gaps, and in certain cases to also bypass the known lower bound results, when restricting to sparse graphs (with O(n) edges):
- {Hopsets for Directed Weighted Sparse Graphs.} For every n-vertex directed and weighted sparse graph G with D_G ≥ n^{1/4}, one can compute an exact (D_G-1)-diameter hopset of linear size. Combining this with known lower bound results for dense graphs, we get a separation between dense and sparse graphs, hence shortcutting sparse graphs is provably easier. For reachability hopsets, we can provide (D_G-1)-diameter hopsets of linear size, for sparse DAGs, already for D_G ≥ n^{1/5}. This should be compared with the diameter bound of Õ(n^{1/3}) [Kogan and Parter, SODA 2022], and the lower bound of D_G = n^{1/6} by [Huang and Pettie, {SIAM} J. Discret. Math. 2018].
- {Additive Hopsets for Undirected and Unweighted Graphs.} We show a construction of +24 additive (D_G-1)-diameter hopsets with linear number of edges for D_G ≥ n^{1/12} for sparse graphs. This bypasses the current lower bound of D_G = n^{1/6} obtained for exact (D_G-1)-diameter hopset by [HP'18]. For general graphs, the bound becomes D_G ≥ n^{1/6} which matches the lower bound of exact (D_G-1) hopsets implied by [HP'18]. We also provide new additive D-diameter hopsets with linear size, for any given diameter D.
Altogether, we show that the current lower bounds can be bypassed by restricting to sparse graphs (with O(n) edges). Moreover, the gaps are narrowed significantly for any graph by allowing for a constant additive stretch.

Shimon Kogan and Merav Parter. Towards Bypassing Lower Bounds for Graph Shortcuts. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 73:1-73:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{kogan_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.73, author = {Kogan, Shimon and Parter, Merav}, title = {{Towards Bypassing Lower Bounds for Graph Shortcuts}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {73:1--73:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.73}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187264}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.73}, annote = {Keywords: Directed Shortcuts, Hopsets, Emulators} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

For a given (possibly weighted) graph G = (V,E), an additive emulator H is a weighted graph in V × V that preserves the (all pairs) G-distances up to a small additive stretch. In their breakthrough result, [Abboud and Bodwin, STOC 2016] ruled out the possibility of obtaining o(n^{4/3})-size emulator with n^{o(1)} additive stretch. The focus of our paper is in the following question that has been explicitly stated in many of the prior work on this topic:
What is the minimal additive stretch attainable with linear size emulators?
The only known upper bound for this problem is given by an implicit construction of [Pettie, ICALP 2007] that provides a linear-size emulator with +Õ(n^{1/4}) stretch. No improvement on this problem has been shown since then.
In this work we improve upon the long standing additive stretch of Õ(n^{1/4}), by presenting constructions of linear-size emulators with Õ(n^{0.222}) additive stretch. Our constructions improve the state-of-the-art size vs. stretch tradeoff in the entire regime. For example, for every ε > 1/7, we provide +n^{f(ε)} emulators of size Õ(n^{1+ε}), for f(ε) = 1/5-3ε/5. This should be compared with the current bound of f(ε) = 1/4-3ε/4 by [Pettie, ICALP 2007].
The new emulators are based on an extended and optimized toolkit for computing weighted additive emulators with sublinear distance error. Our key construction provides a weighted modification of the well-known Thorup and Zwick emulators [SODA 2006]. We believe that this TZ variant might be of independent interest, especially for providing improved stretch for distant pairs.

Shimon Kogan and Merav Parter. New Additive Emulators. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 85:1-85:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{kogan_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.85, author = {Kogan, Shimon and Parter, Merav}, title = {{New Additive Emulators}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {85:1--85:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.85}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181377}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.85}, annote = {Keywords: Spanners, Emulators, Distance Preservers} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)

We present a new algorithmic framework for distributed network optimization in the presence of eavesdropper adversaries, also known as passive wiretappers. In this setting, the adversary is listening to the traffic exchanged over a fixed set of edges in the graph, trying to extract information on the private input and output of the vertices. A distributed algorithm is denoted as f-secure, if it guarantees that the adversary learns nothing on the input and output for the vertices, provided that it controls at most f graph edges.
Recent work has presented general simulation results for f-secure algorithms, with a round overhead of D^Θ(f), where D is the diameter of the graph. In this paper, we present a completely different white-box, and yet quite general, approach for obtaining f-secure algorithms for fundamental network optimization tasks. Specifically, for n-vertex D-diameter graphs with (unweighted) edge-connectivity Ω(f), there are f-secure congest algorithms for computing MST, partwise aggregation, and (1+ε) (weighted) minimum cut approximation, within Õ(D+f √n) congest rounds, hence nearly tight for f = Õ(1).
Our algorithms are based on designing a secure algorithmic-toolkit that leverages the special structure of congest algorithms for global optimization graph problems. One of these tools is a general secure compiler that simulates light-weight distributed algorithms in a congestion-sensitive manner. We believe that these tools set the ground for designing additional secure solutions in the congest model and beyond.

Yael Hitron, Merav Parter, and Eylon Yogev. Secure Distributed Network Optimization Against Eavesdroppers. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 71:1-71:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{hitron_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.71, author = {Hitron, Yael and Parter, Merav and Yogev, Eylon}, title = {{Secure Distributed Network Optimization Against Eavesdroppers}}, booktitle = {14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)}, pages = {71:1--71:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-263-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {251}, editor = {Tauman Kalai, Yael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.71}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175746}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.71}, annote = {Keywords: congest, secure computation, network optimization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 246, 36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022)

An eavesdropper is a passive adversary that aims at extracting private information on the input and output values of the network’s participants, by listening to the traffic exchanged over a subset of edges in the graph. We consider secure congest algorithms for the basic broadcast task, in the presence of eavesdropper (edge) adversaries.
For D-diameter n-vertex graphs with edge connectivity Θ(f), we present f-secure broadcast algorithms that run in Õ(D+√{f n}) rounds. These algorithms transmit some broadcast message m^* to all the vertices in the graph, in a way that is information-theoretically secure against an eavesdropper controlling any subset of at most f edges in the graph. While our algorithms are heavily based on network coding (secret sharing), we also show that this is essential. For the basic problem of secure unicast we demonstrate a network coding gap of Ω(n) rounds.
In the presence of vertex adversaries, known as semi-honest, we introduce the Forbidden-Set Broadcast problem: In this problem, the vertices of the graph are partitioned into two sets, trusted and untrusted, denoted as R, F ⊆ V, respectively, such that G[R] is connected. It is then desired to exchange a secret message m^* between all the trusted vertices while leaking no information to the untrusted set F. Our algorithm works in Õ(D+√|R|) rounds and its security guarantees hold even when all the untrusted vertices F are controlled by a (centralized) adversary.

Yael Hitron, Merav Parter, and Eylon Yogev. Broadcast CONGEST Algorithms Against Eavesdroppers. In 36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 246, pp. 27:1-27:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{hitron_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2022.27, author = {Hitron, Yael and Parter, Merav and Yogev, Eylon}, title = {{Broadcast CONGEST Algorithms Against Eavesdroppers}}, booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022)}, pages = {27:1--27:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-255-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {246}, editor = {Scheideler, Christian}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2022.27}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-172186}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2022.27}, annote = {Keywords: congest, edge-connectivity, secret sharing} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 246, 36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022)

We present near-optimal algorithms for detecting small vertex cuts in the {CONGEST} model of distributed computing. Despite extensive research in this area, our understanding of the vertex connectivity of a graph is still incomplete, especially in the distributed setting. To this date, all distributed algorithms for detecting cut vertices suffer from an inherent dependency in the maximum degree of the graph, Δ. Hence, in particular, there is no truly sub-linear time algorithm for this problem, not even for detecting a single cut vertex. We take a new algorithmic approach for vertex connectivity which allows us to bypass the existing Δ barrier.
- As a warm-up to our approach, we show a simple Õ(D)-round randomized algorithm for computing all cut vertices in a D-diameter n-vertex graph. This improves upon the O(D+Δ/log n)-round algorithm of [Pritchard and Thurimella, ICALP 2008].
- Our key technical contribution is an Õ(D)-round randomized algorithm for computing all cut pairs in the graph, improving upon the state-of-the-art O(Δ ⋅ D)⁴-round algorithm by [Parter, DISC '19]. Note that even for the considerably simpler setting of edge cuts, currently Õ(D)-round algorithms are currently known only for detecting pairs of cut edges.
Our approach is based on employing the well-known linear graph sketching technique [Ahn, Guha and McGregor, SODA 2012] along with the heavy-light tree decomposition of [Sleator and Tarjan, STOC 1981] . Combining this with a careful characterization of the survivable subgraphs, allows us to determine the connectivity of G ⧵ {x,y} for every pair x,y ∈ V, using Õ(D)-rounds. We believe that the tools provided in this paper are useful for omitting the Δ-dependency even for larger cut values.

Merav Parter and Asaf Petruschka. Near-Optimal Distributed Computation of Small Vertex Cuts. In 36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 246, pp. 31:1-31:21, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{parter_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2022.31, author = {Parter, Merav and Petruschka, Asaf}, title = {{Near-Optimal Distributed Computation of Small Vertex Cuts}}, booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022)}, pages = {31:1--31:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-255-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {246}, editor = {Scheideler, Christian}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2022.31}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-172223}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2022.31}, annote = {Keywords: Vertex-connectivity, Congest, Graph Sketches} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 246, 36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022)

In this paper we present succinct labeling schemes for supporting connectivity queries under vertex faults. For a given n-vertex graph G, an f-VFT (resp., EFT) connectivity labeling scheme is a distributed data structure that assigns each of the graph edges and vertices a short label, such that given the labels of a vertex pair u and v, and the labels of at most f failing vertices (resp., edges) F, one can determine if u and v are connected in G ⧵ F. The primary complexity measure is the length of the individual labels. Since their introduction by [Courcelle, Twigg, STACS '07], FT labeling schemes have been devised only for a limited collection of graph families. A recent work [Dory and Parter, PODC 2021] provided EFT labeling schemes for general graphs under edge failures, leaving the vertex failure case fairly open.
We provide the first sublinear f-VFT labeling schemes for f ≥ 2 for any n-vertex graph. Our key result is 2-VFT connectivity labels with O(log³ n) bits. Our constructions are based on analyzing the structure of dual failure replacement paths on top of the well-known heavy-light tree decomposition technique of [Sleator and Tarjan, STOC 1981]. We also provide f-VFT labels with sub-linear length (in |V|) for any f = o(log log n), that are based on a reduction to the existing EFT labels.

Merav Parter and Asaf Petruschka. Õptimal Dual Vertex Failure Connectivity Labels. In 36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 246, pp. 32:1-32:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{parter_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2022.32, author = {Parter, Merav and Petruschka, Asaf}, title = {{\~{O}ptimal Dual Vertex Failure Connectivity Labels}}, booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022)}, pages = {32:1--32:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-255-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {246}, editor = {Scheideler, Christian}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2022.32}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-172239}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2022.32}, annote = {Keywords: Fault-Tolerance, Heavy-Light Decomposition, Labeling Schemes} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)

For an n-vertex digraph G = (V,E) and integer parameter D, a D-shortcut is a small set H of directed edges taken from the transitive closure of G, satisfying that the diameter of G ∪ H is at most D. A recent work [Kogan and Parter, SODA 2022] presented shortcutting algorithms with improved diameter vs. size tradeoffs. Most notably, obtaining linear size D-shortcuts for D = Õ(n^{1/3}), breaking the √n-diameter barrier. These algorithms run in O(n^{ω}) time, as they are based on the computation of the transitive closure of the graph.
We present a new algorithmic approach for D-shortcuts, that matches the bounds of [Kogan and Parter, SODA 2022], while running in o(n^{ω}) time for every D ≥ n^{1/3}. Our approach is based on a reduction to the min-cost max-flow problem, which can be solved in Õ(m+n^{3/2}) time due to the recent breakthrough result of [Brand et al., STOC 2021].
We also demonstrate the applicability of our techniques to computing the minimal chain covers and dipath decompositions for directed acyclic graphs. For an n-vertex m-edge digraph G = (V,E), our key results are:
- An Õ(n^{1/3}⋅ m+n^{3/2})-time algorithm for computing D-shortcuts of linear size for D = Õ(n^{1/3}), and an Õ(n^{1/4}⋅ m+n^{7/4})-time algorithm for computing D-shortcuts of Õ(n^{3/4}) edges for D = Õ(n^{1/2}).
- For a DAG G, we provide Õ(m+n^{3/2})-time algorithms for computing its minimum chain covers, maximum antichain, and decomposition into dipaths and independent sets. This improves considerably over the state-of-the-art bounds by [Caceres et al., SODA 2022] and [Grandoni et al., SODA 2021].
Our results also provide a new connection between shortcutting sets and the seemingly less related problems of minimum chain covers and the maximum antichains in DAGs.

Shimon Kogan and Merav Parter. Beating Matrix Multiplication for n^{1/3}-Directed Shortcuts. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 82:1-82:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{kogan_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.82, author = {Kogan, Shimon and Parter, Merav}, title = {{Beating Matrix Multiplication for n^\{1/3\}-Directed Shortcuts}}, booktitle = {49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)}, pages = {82:1--82:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-235-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {229}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.82}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-164230}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.82}, annote = {Keywords: Directed Shortcuts, Transitive Closure, Width} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 209, 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)

We consider the corner-stone broadcast task with an adaptive adversary that controls a fixed number of t edges in the input communication graph. In this model, the adversary sees the entire communication in the network and the random coins of the nodes, while maliciously manipulating the messages sent through a set of t edges (unknown to the nodes). Since the influential work of [Pease, Shostak and Lamport, JACM'80], broadcast algorithms against plentiful adversarial models have been studied in both theory and practice for over more than four decades. Despite this extensive research, there is no round efficient broadcast algorithm for general graphs in the CONGEST model of distributed computing. Even for a single adversarial edge (i.e., t = 1), the state-of-the-art round complexity is polynomial in the number of nodes.
We provide the first round-efficient broadcast algorithms against adaptive edge adversaries. Our two key results for n-node graphs of diameter D are as follows:
- For t = 1, there is a deterministic algorithm that solves the problem within Õ(D²) rounds, provided that the graph is 3 edge-connected. This round complexity beats the natural barrier of O(D³) rounds, the existential lower bound on the maximal length of 3 edge-disjoint paths between a given pair of nodes in G. This algorithm can be extended to a Õ((tD)^{O(t)})-round algorithm against t adversarial edges in (2t+1) edge-connected graphs.
- For expander graphs with edge connectivity of Ω(t²log n), there is a considerably improved broadcast algorithm with O(t log ² n) rounds against t adversarial edges. This algorithm exploits the connectivity and conductance properties of G-subgraphs obtained by employing the Karger’s edge sampling technique.
Our algorithms mark a new connection between the areas of fault-tolerant network design and reliable distributed communication.

Yael Hitron and Merav Parter. Broadcast CONGEST Algorithms against Adversarial Edges. In 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 209, pp. 23:1-23:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{hitron_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2021.23, author = {Hitron, Yael and Parter, Merav}, title = {{Broadcast CONGEST Algorithms against Adversarial Edges}}, booktitle = {35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)}, pages = {23:1--23:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-210-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {209}, editor = {Gilbert, Seth}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-148256}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.23}, annote = {Keywords: CONGEST, Fault-Tolerant Network Design, Edge Connectivity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 209, 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)

We consider the adversarial CONGEST model of distributed computing in which a fixed number of edges (or nodes) in the graph are controlled by a computationally unbounded adversary that corrupts the computation by sending malicious messages over these (a-priori unknown) controlled edges. As in the standard CONGEST model, communication is synchronous, where per round each processor can send O(log n) bits to each of its neighbors.
This paper is concerned with distributed algorithms that are both time efficient (in terms of the number of rounds), as well as, robust against a fixed number of adversarial edges. Unfortunately, the existing algorithms in this setting usually assume that the communication graph is complete (n-clique), and very little is known for graphs with arbitrary topologies. We fill in this gap by extending the methodology of [Parter and Yogev, SODA 2019] and provide a compiler that simulates any CONGEST algorithm 𝒜 (in the reliable setting) into an equivalent algorithm 𝒜' in the adversarial CONGEST model. Specifically, we show the following for every (2f+1) edge-connected graph of diameter D:
- For f = 1, there is a general compiler against a single adversarial edge with a compilation overhead of Ô(D³) rounds. This improves upon the Ô(D⁵) round overhead of [Parter and Yogev, SODA 2019] and omits their assumption regarding a fault-free preprocessing phase.
- For any constant f, there is a general compiler against f adversarial edges with a compilation overhead of Ô(D^{O(f)}) rounds. The prior compilers of [Parter and Yogev, SODA 2019] were limited to a single adversarial edge.
Our compilers are based on a new notion of fault-tolerant cycle covers. The computation of these cycles in the adversarial CONGEST model constitutes the key technical contribution of the paper.

Yael Hitron and Merav Parter. General CONGEST Compilers against Adversarial Edges. In 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 209, pp. 24:1-24:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{hitron_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2021.24, author = {Hitron, Yael and Parter, Merav}, title = {{General CONGEST Compilers against Adversarial Edges}}, booktitle = {35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)}, pages = {24:1--24:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-210-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {209}, editor = {Gilbert, Seth}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-148266}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.24}, annote = {Keywords: CONGEST, Cycle Covers, Byzantine Adversaries} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 179, 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)

We initiate the study of biologically-inspired spiking neural networks from the perspective of streaming algorithms. Like computers, human brains face memory limitations, which pose a significant obstacle when processing large scale and dynamically changing data. In computer science, these challenges are captured by the well-known streaming model, which can be traced back to Munro and Paterson `78 and has had significant impact in theory and beyond. In the classical streaming setting, one must compute a function f of a stream of updates 𝒮 = {u₁,…,u_m}, given restricted single-pass access to the stream. The primary complexity measure is the space used by the algorithm.
In contrast to the large body of work on streaming algorithms, relatively little is known about the computational aspects of data processing in spiking neural networks. In this work, we seek to connect these two models, leveraging techniques developed for streaming algorithms to better understand neural computation. Our primary goal is to design networks for various computational tasks using as few auxiliary (non-input or output) neurons as possible. The number of auxiliary neurons can be thought of as the "space" required by the network.
Previous algorithmic work in spiking neural networks has many similarities with streaming algorithms. However, the connection between these two space-limited models has not been formally addressed. We take the first steps towards understanding this connection. On the upper bound side, we design neural algorithms based on known streaming algorithms for fundamental tasks, including distinct elements, approximate median, and heavy hitters. The number of neurons in our solutions almost match the space bounds of the corresponding streaming algorithms. As a general algorithmic primitive, we show how to implement the important streaming technique of linear sketching efficiently in spiking neural networks. On the lower bound side, we give a generic reduction, showing that any space-efficient spiking neural network can be simulated by a space-efficient streaming algorithm. This reduction lets us translate streaming-space lower bounds into nearly matching neural-space lower bounds, establishing a close connection between the two models.

Yael Hitron, Cameron Musco, and Merav Parter. Spiking Neural Networks Through the Lens of Streaming Algorithms. In 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 179, pp. 10:1-10:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{hitron_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2020.10, author = {Hitron, Yael and Musco, Cameron and Parter, Merav}, title = {{Spiking Neural Networks Through the Lens of Streaming Algorithms}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)}, pages = {10:1--10:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-168-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {179}, editor = {Attiya, Hagit}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-130882}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.10}, annote = {Keywords: Biological distributed algorithms, Spiking neural networks, Streaming algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 179, 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)

Fault tolerant distance preservers (spanners) are sparse subgraphs that preserve (approximate) distances between given pairs of vertices under edge or vertex failures. So-far, these structures have been studied thoroughly mainly from a centralized viewpoint. Despite the fact fault tolerant preservers are mainly motivated by the error-prone nature of distributed networks, not much is known on the distributed computational aspects of these structures.
In this paper, we present distributed algorithms for constructing fault tolerant distance preservers and +2 additive spanners that are resilient to at most two edge faults. Prior to our work, the only non-trivial constructions known were for the single fault and single source setting by [Ghaffari and Parter SPAA'16].
Our key technical contribution is a distributed algorithm for computing distance preservers w.r.t. a subset S of source vertices, resilient to two edge faults. The output structure contains a BFS tree BFS(s,G ⧵ {e₁,e₂}) for every s ∈ S and every e₁,e₂ ∈ G. The distributed construction of this structure is based on a delicate balance between the edge congestion (formed by running multiple BFS trees simultaneously) and the sparsity of the output subgraph. No sublinear-round algorithms for constructing these structures have been known before.

Merav Parter. Distributed Constructions of Dual-Failure Fault-Tolerant Distance Preservers. In 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 179, pp. 21:1-21:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{parter:LIPIcs.DISC.2020.21, author = {Parter, Merav}, title = {{Distributed Constructions of Dual-Failure Fault-Tolerant Distance Preservers}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)}, pages = {21:1--21:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-168-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {179}, editor = {Attiya, Hagit}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.21}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-130992}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.21}, annote = {Keywords: Fault Tolerance, Distance Preservers, CONGEST} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 179, 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)

We present nearly optimal distributed algorithms for fundamental reachability problems in planar graphs. In the single-source reachability problem given is an n-vertex directed graph G = (V,E) and a source node s, it is required to determine the subset of nodes that are reachable from s in G. We present the first distributed reachability algorithm for planar graphs that runs in nearly optimal time of Õ(D) rounds, where D is the undirected diameter of the graph. This improves the complexity of Õ(D²) rounds implied by the recent work of [Li and Parter, STOC'19].
We also consider the more general reachability problem of identifying the strongly connected components (SCCs) of the graph. We present an Õ(D)-round algorithm that computes for each node in the graph an identifier of its strongly connected component in G. No non-trivial upper bound for this problem (even in general graphs) has been known before.
Our algorithms are based on characterizing the structural interactions between balanced cycle separators. We show that the reachability relations between separator nodes can be compressed due to a Monge-like property of their directed shortest paths. The algorithmic results are obtained by combining this structural characterization with the recursive graph partitioning machinery of [Li and Parter, STOC'19].

Merav Parter. Distributed Planar Reachability in Nearly Optimal Time. In 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 179, pp. 38:1-38:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{parter:LIPIcs.DISC.2020.38, author = {Parter, Merav}, title = {{Distributed Planar Reachability in Nearly Optimal Time}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)}, pages = {38:1--38:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-168-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {179}, editor = {Attiya, Hagit}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.38}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-131160}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.38}, annote = {Keywords: Distributed Graph Algorithms, Planar Graphs, Reachability} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

Fault tolerant distance preservers are sparse subgraphs that preserve distances between given pairs of nodes under edge or vertex failures. In this paper, we present the first non-trivial constructions of subset distance preservers, which preserve all distances among a subset of nodes S, that can handle either an edge or a vertex fault.
- For an n-vertex undirected weighted graph or weighted DAG G = (V,E) and S ⊆ V, we present a construction of a subset preserver with Õ(|S|n) edges that is resilient to a single fault. In the single pair case (|S| = 2), the bound improves to O(n). We further provide a nearly-matching lower bound of Ω(|S|n) in either setting, and we show that the same lower bound holds conditionally even if attention is restricted to unweighted graphs.
- For an n-vertex directed unweighted graph G = (V,E) and r ∈ V, S ⊆ V, we present a construction of a preserver of distances in {r} × S with Õ(n^{4/3} |S|^{5/6}) edges that is resilient to a single fault. In the case |S| = 1 the bound improves to O(n^{4/3}), and for this case we provide another matching conditional lower bound.
- For an n-vertex directed weighted graph G = (V, E) and r ∈ V, S ⊆ V, we present a construction of a preserver of distances in {r} × S with Õ(n^{3/2} |S|^{3/4}) edges that is resilient to a single vertex fault. (It was proved in [Greg Bodwin et al., 2017] that the bound improves to O(n^{3/2}) when |S| = 1, and that this is conditionally tight.)

Greg Bodwin, Keerti Choudhary, Merav Parter, and Noa Shahar. New Fault Tolerant Subset Preservers. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 15:1-15:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{bodwin_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.15, author = {Bodwin, Greg and Choudhary, Keerti and Parter, Merav and Shahar, Noa}, title = {{New Fault Tolerant Subset Preservers}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {15:1--15:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124222}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.15}, annote = {Keywords: Subset Preservers, Distances, Fault-tolerance} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

Edge connectivity of a graph is one of the most fundamental graph-theoretic concepts. The celebrated tree packing theorem of Tutte and Nash-Williams from 1961 states that every k-edge connected graph G contains a collection 𝒯 of ⌊k/2⌋ edge-disjoint spanning trees, that we refer to as a tree packing; the diameter of the tree packing 𝒯 is the largest diameter of any tree in 𝒯. A desirable property of a tree packing for leveraging the high connectivity of a graph in distributed communication networks, is that its diameter is low. Yet, despite extensive research in this area, it is still unclear how to compute a tree packing of a low-diameter graph G, whose diameter is sublinear in |V(G)|, or, alternatively, how to show that such a packing does not exist.
In this paper, we provide first non-trivial upper and lower bounds on the diameter of tree packing. We start by showing that, for every k-edge connected n-vertex graph G of diameter D, there is a tree packing 𝒯 containing Ω(k) trees, of diameter O((101k log n)^D), with edge-congestion at most 2.
Karger’s edge sampling technique demonstrates that, if G is a k-edge connected graph, and G[p] is a subgraph of G obtained by sampling each edge of G independently with probability p = Θ(log n/k), then with high probability G[p] is connected. We extend this result to show that the diameter of G[p] is bounded by O(k^(D(D+1)/2)) with high probability. This immediately gives a tree packing of Ω(k/log n) edge-disjoint trees of diameter at most O(k^(D(D+1)/2)). We also show that these two results are nearly tight for graphs with a small diameter: we show that there are k-edge connected graphs of diameter 2D, such that any packing of k/α trees with edge-congestion η contains at least one tree of diameter Ω((k/(2α η D))^D), for any k,α and η. Additionally, we show that if, for every pair u,v of vertices of a given graph G, there is a collection of k edge-disjoint paths connecting u to v, of length at most D each, then we can efficiently compute a tree packing of size k, diameter O(D log n), and edge-congestion O(log n). Finally, we provide several applications of low-diameter tree packing in the distributed settings of network optimization and secure computation.

Julia Chuzhoy, Merav Parter, and Zihan Tan. On Packing Low-Diameter Spanning Trees. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 33:1-33:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{chuzhoy_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.33, author = {Chuzhoy, Julia and Parter, Merav and Tan, Zihan}, title = {{On Packing Low-Diameter Spanning Trees}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {33:1--33:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.33}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124405}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.33}, annote = {Keywords: Spanning tree, packing, edge-connectivity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)

We study input compression in a biologically inspired model of neural computation. We demonstrate that a network consisting of a random projection step (implemented via random synaptic connectivity) followed by a sparsification step (implemented via winner-take-all competition) can reduce well-separated high-dimensional input vectors to well-separated low-dimensional vectors. By augmenting our network with a third module, we can efficiently map each input (along with any small perturbations of the input) to a unique representative neuron, solving a neural clustering problem.
Both the size of our network and its processing time, i.e., the time it takes the network to compute the compressed output given a presented input, are independent of the (potentially large) dimension of the input patterns and depend only on the number of distinct inputs that the network must encode and the pairwise relative Hamming distance between these inputs. The first two steps of our construction mirror known biological networks, for example, in the fruit fly olfactory system [Caron et al., 2013; Lin et al., 2014; Dasgupta et al., 2017]. Our analysis helps provide a theoretical understanding of these networks and lay a foundation for how random compression and input memorization may be implemented in biological neural networks.
Technically, a contribution in our network design is the implementation of a short-term memory. Our network can be given a desired memory time t_m as an input parameter and satisfies the following with high probability: any pattern presented several times within a time window of t_m rounds will be mapped to a single representative output neuron. However, a pattern not presented for c⋅t_m rounds for some constant c>1 will be "forgotten", and its representative output neuron will be released, to accommodate newly introduced patterns.

Yael Hitron, Nancy Lynch, Cameron Musco, and Merav Parter. Random Sketching, Clustering, and Short-Term Memory in Spiking Neural Networks. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 23:1-23:31, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{hitron_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.23, author = {Hitron, Yael and Lynch, Nancy and Musco, Cameron and Parter, Merav}, title = {{Random Sketching, Clustering, and Short-Term Memory in Spiking Neural Networks}}, booktitle = {11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)}, pages = {23:1--23:31}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-134-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {151}, editor = {Vidick, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117087}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.23}, annote = {Keywords: biological distributed computing, spiking neural networks, compressed sensing, clustering, random projection, dimensionality reduction, winner-take-all} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)

Biological neural computation is inherently asynchronous due to large variations in neuronal spike timing and transmission delays. So-far, most theoretical work on neural networks assumes the synchronous setting where neurons fire simultaneously in discrete rounds. In this work we aim at understanding the barriers of asynchronous neural computation from an algorithmic perspective. We consider an extension of the widely studied model of synchronized spiking neurons [Maass, Neural Networks 97] to the asynchronous setting by taking into account edge and node delays.
- Edge Delays: We define an asynchronous model for spiking neurons in which the latency values (i.e., transmission delays) of non self-loop edges vary adversarially over time. This extends the recent work of [Hitron and Parter, ESA'19] in which the latency values are restricted to be fixed over time. Our first contribution is an impossibility result that implies that the assumption that self-loop edges have no delays (as assumed in Hitron and Parter) is indeed necessary. Interestingly, in real biological networks self-loop edges (a.k.a. autapse) are indeed free of delays, and the latter has been noted by neuroscientists to be crucial for network synchronization.
To capture the computational challenges in this setting, we first consider the implementation of a single NOT gate. This simple function already captures the fundamental difficulties in the asynchronous setting. Our key technical results are space and time upper and lower bounds for the NOT function, our time bounds are tight. In the spirit of the distributed synchronizers [Awerbuch and Peleg, FOCS'90] and following [Hitron and Parter, ESA'19], we then provide a general synchronizer machinery. Our construction is very modular and it is based on efficient circuit implementation of threshold gates. The complexity of our scheme is measured by the overhead in the number of neurons and the computation time, both are shown to be polynomial in the largest latency value, and the largest incoming degree Δ of the original network.
- Node Delays: We introduce the study of asynchronous communication due to variations in the response rates of the neurons in the network. In real brain networks, the round duration varies between different neurons in the network. Our key result is a simulation methodology that allows one to transform the above mentioned synchronized solution under edge delays into a synchronized under node delays while incurring a small overhead w.r.t space and time.

Yael Hitron, Merav Parter, and Gur Perri. The Computational Cost of Asynchronous Neural Communication. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 48:1-48:47, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{hitron_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.48, author = {Hitron, Yael and Parter, Merav and Perri, Gur}, title = {{The Computational Cost of Asynchronous Neural Communication}}, booktitle = {11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)}, pages = {48:1--48:47}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-134-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {151}, editor = {Vidick, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.48}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117330}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.48}, annote = {Keywords: asynchronous communication, asynchronous computation, spiking neurons, synchronizers} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 146, 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)

We revisit classical connectivity problems in the {CONGEST} model of distributed computing. By using techniques from fault tolerant network design, we show improved constructions, some of which are even "local" (i.e., with O~(1) rounds) for problems that are closely related to hard global problems (i.e., with a lower bound of Omega(Diam+sqrt{n}) rounds).
Distributed Minimum Cut: Nanongkai and Su presented a randomized algorithm for computing a (1+epsilon)-approximation of the minimum cut using O~(D +sqrt{n}) rounds where D is the diameter of the graph. For a sufficiently large minimum cut lambda=Omega(sqrt{n}), this is tight due to Das Sarma et al. [FOCS '11], Ghaffari and Kuhn [DISC '13].
- Small Cuts: A special setting that remains open is where the graph connectivity lambda is small (i.e., constant). The only lower bound for this case is Omega(D), with a matching bound known only for lambda <= 2 due to Pritchard and Thurimella [TALG '11]. Recently, Daga, Henzinger, Nanongkai and Saranurak [STOC '19] raised the open problem of computing the minimum cut in poly(D) rounds for any lambda=O(1). In this paper, we resolve this problem by presenting a surprisingly simple algorithm, that takes a completely different approach than the existing algorithms. Our algorithm has also the benefit that it computes all minimum cuts in the graph, and naturally extends to vertex cuts as well. At the heart of the algorithm is a graph sampling approach usually used in the context of fault tolerant (FT) design.
- Deterministic Algorithms: While the existing distributed minimum cut algorithms are randomized, our algorithm can be made deterministic within the same round complexity. To obtain this, we introduce a novel definition of universal sets along with their efficient computation. This allows us to derandomize the FT graph sampling technique, which might be of independent interest.
- Computation of all Edge Connectivities: We also consider the more general task of computing the edge connectivity of all the edges in the graph. In the output format, it is required that the endpoints u,v of every edge (u,v) learn the cardinality of the u-v cut in the graph. We provide the first sublinear algorithm for this problem for the case of constant connectivity values. Specifically, by using the recent notion of low-congestion cycle cover, combined with the sampling technique, we compute all edge connectivities in poly(D) * 2^{O(sqrt{log n log log n})} rounds.
Sparse Certificates: For an n-vertex graph G and an integer lambda, a lambda-sparse certificate H is a subgraph H subseteq G with O(lambda n) edges which is lambda-connected iff G is lambda-connected. For D-diameter graphs, constructions of sparse certificates for lambda in {2,3} have been provided by Thurimella [J. Alg. '97] and Dori [PODC '18] respectively using O~(D) number of rounds. The problem of devising such certificates with o(D+sqrt{n}) rounds was left open by Dori [PODC '18] for any lambda >= 4. Using connections to fault tolerant spanners, we considerably improve the round complexity for any lambda in [1,n] and epsilon in (0,1), by showing a construction of (1-epsilon)lambda-sparse certificates with O(lambda n) edges using only O(1/epsilon^2 * log^{2+o(1)} n) rounds.

Merav Parter. Small Cuts and Connectivity Certificates: A Fault Tolerant Approach. In 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 146, pp. 30:1-30:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{parter:LIPIcs.DISC.2019.30, author = {Parter, Merav}, title = {{Small Cuts and Connectivity Certificates: A Fault Tolerant Approach}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)}, pages = {30:1--30:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-126-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {146}, editor = {Suomela, Jukka}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.30}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-113371}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.30}, annote = {Keywords: Connectivity, Minimum Cut, Spanners} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 144, 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)

We consider the task of measuring time with probabilistic threshold gates implemented by bio-inspired spiking neurons. In the model of spiking neural networks, network evolves in discrete rounds, where in each round, neurons fire in pulses in response to a sufficiently high membrane potential. This potential is induced by spikes from neighboring neurons that fired in the previous round, which can have either an excitatory or inhibitory effect.
Discovering the underlying mechanisms by which the brain perceives the duration of time is one of the largest open enigma in computational neuro-science. To gain a better algorithmic understanding onto these processes, we introduce the neural timer problem. In this problem, one is given a time parameter t, an input neuron x, and an output neuron y. It is then required to design a minimum sized neural network (measured by the number of auxiliary neurons) in which every spike from x in a given round i, makes the output y fire for the subsequent t consecutive rounds.
We first consider a deterministic implementation of a neural timer and show that Theta(log t) (deterministic) threshold gates are both sufficient and necessary. This raised the question of whether randomness can be leveraged to reduce the number of neurons. We answer this question in the affirmative by considering neural timers with spiking neurons where the neuron y is required to fire for t consecutive rounds with probability at least 1-delta, and should stop firing after at most 2t rounds with probability 1-delta for some input parameter delta in (0,1). Our key result is a construction of a neural timer with O(log log 1/delta) spiking neurons. Interestingly, this construction uses only one spiking neuron, while the remaining neurons can be deterministic threshold gates. We complement this construction with a matching lower bound of Omega(min{log log 1/delta, log t}) neurons. This provides the first separation between deterministic and randomized constructions in the setting of spiking neural networks.
Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of compressed counting networks for synchronizing neural networks. In the spirit of distributed synchronizers [Awerbuch-Peleg, FOCS'90], we provide a general transformation (or simulation) that can take any synchronized network solution and simulate it in an asynchronous setting (where edges have arbitrary response latencies) while incurring a small overhead w.r.t the number of neurons and computation time.

Yael Hitron and Merav Parter. Counting to Ten with Two Fingers: Compressed Counting with Spiking Neurons. In 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 144, pp. 57:1-57:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{hitron_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2019.57, author = {Hitron, Yael and Parter, Merav}, title = {{Counting to Ten with Two Fingers: Compressed Counting with Spiking Neurons}}, booktitle = {27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)}, pages = {57:1--57:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-124-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {144}, editor = {Bender, Michael A. and Svensson, Ola and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.57}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111782}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.57}, annote = {Keywords: stochastic neural networks, approximate counting, synchronizer} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

Short cycle decomposition is an edge partitioning of an unweighted graph into edge-disjoint short cycles, plus a small number of extra edges not in any cycle. This notion was introduced by Chu et al. [FOCS'18] as a fundamental tool for graph sparsification and sketching. Clearly, it is most desirable to have a fast algorithm for partitioning the edges into as short as possible cycles, while omitting few edges.
The most naïve procedure for such decomposition runs in time O(m * n) and partitions the edges into O(log n)-length edge-disjoint cycles plus at most 2n edges. Chu et al. improved the running time considerably to m^{1+o(1)}, while increasing both the length of the cycles and the number of omitted edges by a factor of n^{o(1)}. Even more recently, Liu-Sachdeva-Yu [SODA'19] showed that for every constant delta in (0,1] there is an O(m * n^{delta})-time algorithm that provides, w.h.p., cycles of length O(log n)^{1/delta} and O(n) extra edges.
In this paper, we significantly improve upon these bounds. We first show an m^{1+o(1)}-time deterministic algorithm for computing nearly optimal cycle decomposition, i.e., with cycle length O(log^2 n) and an extra subset of O(n log n) edges not in any cycle. This algorithm is based on a reduction to low-congestion cycle covers, introduced by the authors in [SODA'19].
We also provide a simple deterministic algorithm that computes edge-disjoint cycles of length 2^{1/epsilon} with n^{1+epsilon}* 2^{1/epsilon} extra edges, for every epsilon in (0,1]. Combining this with Liu-Sachdeva-Yu [SODA'19] gives a linear time randomized algorithm for computing cycles of length poly(log n) and O(n) extra edges, for every n-vertex graphs with n^{1+1/delta} edges for some constant delta.
These decomposition algorithms lead to improvements in all the algorithmic applications of Chu et al. as well as to new distributed constructions.

Merav Parter and Eylon Yogev. Optimal Short Cycle Decomposition in Almost Linear Time. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 89:1-89:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{parter_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.89, author = {Parter, Merav and Yogev, Eylon}, title = {{Optimal Short Cycle Decomposition in Almost Linear Time}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {89:1--89:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.89}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106653}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.89}, annote = {Keywords: Cycle decomposition, low-congestion cycle cover, graph sparsification} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 124, 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019)

A graph spanner is a fundamental graph structure that faithfully preserves the pairwise distances in the input graph up to a small multiplicative stretch. The common objective in the computation of spanners is to achieve the best-known existential size-stretch trade-off efficiently.
Classical models and algorithmic analysis of graph spanners essentially assume that the algorithm can read the input graph, construct the desired spanner, and write the answer to the output tape. However, when considering massive graphs containing millions or even billions of nodes not only the input graph, but also the output spanner might be too large for a single processor to store.
To tackle this challenge, we initiate the study of local computation algorithms (LCAs) for graph spanners in general graphs, where the algorithm should locally decide whether a given edge (u,v) in E belongs to the output (sparse) spanner or not. Such LCAs give the user the "illusion" that a specific sparse spanner for the graph is maintained, without ever fully computing it. We present several results for this setting, including:
- For general n-vertex graphs and for parameter r in {2,3}, there exists an LCA for (2r-1)-spanners with O~(n^{1+1/r}) edges and sublinear probe complexity of O~(n^{1-1/2r}). These size/stretch trade-offs are best possible (up to polylogarithmic factors).
- For every k >= 1 and n-vertex graph with maximum degree Delta, there exists an LCA for O(k^2) spanners with O~(n^{1+1/k}) edges, probe complexity of O~(Delta^4 n^{2/3}), and random seed of size polylog(n). This improves upon, and extends the work of [Lenzen-Levi, ICALP'18].
We also complement these constructions by providing a polynomial lower bound on the probe complexity of LCAs for graph spanners that holds even for the simpler task of computing a sparse connected subgraph with o(m) edges.
To the best of our knowledge, our results on 3 and 5-spanners are the first LCAs with sublinear (in Delta) probe-complexity for Delta = n^{Omega(1)}.

Merav Parter, Ronitt Rubinfeld, Ali Vakilian, and Anak Yodpinyanee. Local Computation Algorithms for Spanners. In 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 124, pp. 58:1-58:21, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{parter_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.58, author = {Parter, Merav and Rubinfeld, Ronitt and Vakilian, Ali and Yodpinyanee, Anak}, title = {{Local Computation Algorithms for Spanners}}, booktitle = {10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019)}, pages = {58:1--58:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-095-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {124}, editor = {Blum, Avrim}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.58}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-101510}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.58}, annote = {Keywords: Local Computation Algorithms, Sub-linear Algorithms, Graph Spanners} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 121, 32nd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2018)

(Delta+1)-vertex coloring is one of the most fundamental symmetry breaking graph problems, receiving tremendous amount of attention over the last decades. We consider the congested clique model where in each round, every pair of vertices can exchange O(log n) bits of information.
In a recent breakthrough, Yi-Jun Chang, Wenzheng Li, and Seth Pettie [CLP-STOC'18] presented a randomized (Delta+1)-list coloring algorithm in the LOCAL model that works in O(log^*n+Det_{deg}(log log n)) rounds, where Det_{deg}(n') is the deterministic LOCAL complexity of (deg+1)-list coloring algorithm on n'-vertex graphs. Unfortunately, the CLP algorithm uses large messages and hence cannot be efficiently implemented in the congested clique model when the maximum degree Delta is large (in particular, when Delta=omega(sqrt{n})).
Merav Parter [P-ICALP'18] recently provided a randomized (Delta+1)-coloring algorithm in O(log log Delta * log^* Delta) congested clique rounds based on a careful partitioning of the input graph into almost-independent subgraphs with maximum degree sqrt{n}. In this work, we significantly improve upon this result and present a randomized (Delta+1)-coloring algorithm with O(log^* Delta) rounds, with high probability. At the heart of our algorithm is an adaptation of the CLP algorithm for coloring a subgraph with o(n) vertices and maximum degree Omega(n^{5/8}) in O(log^* Delta) rounds. The approach is built upon a combination of techniques, this includes: the graph sparsification of [Parter-ICALP'18], and a palette sampling technique adopted to the CLP framework.

Merav Parter and Hsin-Hao Su. Randomized (Delta+1)-Coloring in O(log* Delta) Congested Clique Rounds. In 32nd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 121, pp. 39:1-39:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{parter_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2018.39, author = {Parter, Merav and Su, Hsin-Hao}, title = {{Randomized (Delta+1)-Coloring in O(log* Delta) Congested Clique Rounds}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2018)}, pages = {39:1--39:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-092-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {121}, editor = {Schmid, Ulrich and Widder, Josef}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2018.39}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-98286}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2018.39}, annote = {Keywords: Distributed Graph Algorithms, Coloring, congested clique} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 121, 32nd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2018)

Graph spanners are sparse subgraphs that faithfully preserve the distances in the original graph up to small stretch. Spanner have been studied extensively as they have a wide range of applications ranging from distance oracles, labeling schemes and routing to solving linear systems and spectral sparsification. A k-spanner maintains pairwise distances up to multiplicative factor of k. It is a folklore that for every n-vertex graph G, one can construct a (2k-1) spanner with O(n^{1+1/k}) edges. In a distributed setting, such spanners can be constructed in the standard CONGEST model using O(k^2) rounds, when randomization is allowed.
In this work, we consider spanner constructions in the congested clique model, and show:
- a randomized construction of a (2k-1)-spanner with O~(n^{1+1/k}) edges in O(log k) rounds. The previous best algorithm runs in O(k) rounds;
- a deterministic construction of a (2k-1)-spanner with O~(n^{1+1/k}) edges in O(log k +(log log n)^3) rounds. The previous best algorithm runs in O(k log n) rounds. This improvement is achieved by a new derandomization theorem for hitting sets which might be of independent interest;
- a deterministic construction of a O(k)-spanner with O(k * n^{1+1/k}) edges in O(log k) rounds.

Merav Parter and Eylon Yogev. Congested Clique Algorithms for Graph Spanners. In 32nd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 121, pp. 40:1-40:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{parter_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2018.40, author = {Parter, Merav and Yogev, Eylon}, title = {{Congested Clique Algorithms for Graph Spanners}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2018)}, pages = {40:1--40:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-092-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {121}, editor = {Schmid, Ulrich and Widder, Josef}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2018.40}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-98298}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2018.40}, annote = {Keywords: Distributed Graph Algorithms, Spanner, Congested Clique} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)

In this paper, we present improved algorithms for the (Delta+1) (vertex) coloring problem in the Congested Clique model of distributed computing. In this model, the input is a graph on n nodes, initially each node knows only its incident edges, and per round each two nodes can exchange O(log n) bits of information.
Our key result is a randomized (Delta+1) vertex coloring algorithm that works in O(log log Delta * log^* Delta)-rounds. This is achieved by combining the recent breakthrough result of [Chang-Li-Pettie, STOC'18] in the {LOCAL} model and a degree reduction technique. We also get the following results with high probability: (1) (Delta+1)-coloring for Delta=O((n/log n)^{1-epsilon}) for any epsilon in (0,1), within O(log(1/epsilon)log^* Delta) rounds, and (2) (Delta+Delta^{1/2+o(1)})-coloring within O(log^* Delta) rounds. Turning to deterministic algorithms, we show a (Delta+1)-coloring algorithm that works in O(log Delta) rounds. Our new bounds provide exponential improvements over the state of the art.

Merav Parter. (Delta+1) Coloring in the Congested Clique Model. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 160:1-160:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{parter:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.160, author = {Parter, Merav}, title = {{(Delta+1) Coloring in the Congested Clique Model}}, booktitle = {45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)}, pages = {160:1--160:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-076-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {107}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.160}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-91640}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.160}, annote = {Keywords: Distributed Graph Algorithms, Coloring, Congested Clique} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 96, 35th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2018)

Real life graphs and networks are prone to failure of nodes (vertices) and links (edges). In particular, for a pair of nodes s and t and a failing edge e in an n-vertex unweighted graph G=(V(G),E(G)), the replacement path pi_{G-e}(s,t) is a shortest s-t path that avoids e. In this paper we present several efficient constructions that, for every (s,t) \in S x T, where S, T \subseteq V(G), and every e \in E(G), maintain the collection of all pi_{G-e}(s,t), either implicitly (i.e., through compact data structures a.k.a. distance sensitivity oracles (DSO)), or explicitly (i.e., through sparse subgraphs a.k.a. fault-tolerant preservers (FTP)).
More precisely, we provide the following results:
(1) DSO:
For every S,T \subseteq V(G), we construct a DSO for maintaining S x T distances under single edge (or vertex) faults. This DSO has size tilde{O}(n\sqrt{|S||T|}) and query time of
O(\sqrt{|S||T|}). At the expense of having quasi-polynomial query time,
the size of the oracle can be improved to tilde{O}(n|S|+|T|\sqrt{|S|n}), which is optimal for |T| = Omega(sqrt{n|S|}). When |T| = Omega(n^frac{3}{4} |S|^frac{1}{4}), the construction can be further refined in order to get a polynomial query time. We also consider the approximate additive setting, and show a family of DSOs that exhibits a tradeoff between the additive stretch and the size of the oracle. Finally, for the meaningful single-source case, the above result is complemented by a lower bound conditioned on the Set-Intersection conjecture. This lower bound establishes a separation between the oracle and the subgraph settings.
(2) FTP:
We show the construction of a path-reporting DSO of size tilde{O}(n^{4/3}(|S||T|)^{1/3}) reporting pi_{G-e}(s,t) in O(|pi_{G-e}(s,t)|+(n|S||T|)^{1/3}) time. Such a DSO can be transformed into a FTP having the same size, and moreover it can be elaborated in order to make it optimal (up to a poly-logarithmic factor) both in space and query time for the special case in which T=V(G). Our FTP improves over previous constructions when |T|=O(sqrt{|S|n}) (up to inverse poly-logarithmic factors).
(3) Routing and Labeling Schemes:
For the well-studied single-source setting, we present a novel routing scheme, that allows to route messages on pi_{G-e}(s,t) by using edge labels and routing tables of size tilde{O}(\sqrt{n}), and a header message of poly-logarithmic size. We also present a labeling scheme for the setting which is optimal in space up to constant factors.

Davide Bilò, Keerti Choudhary, Luciano Gualà, Stefano Leucci, Merav Parter, and Guido Proietti. Efficient Oracles and Routing Schemes for Replacement Paths. In 35th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 96, pp. 13:1-13:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{bilo_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2018.13, author = {Bil\`{o}, Davide and Choudhary, Keerti and Gual\`{a}, Luciano and Leucci, Stefano and Parter, Merav and Proietti, Guido}, title = {{Efficient Oracles and Routing Schemes for Replacement Paths}}, booktitle = {35th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2018)}, pages = {13:1--13:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-062-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {96}, editor = {Niedermeier, Rolf and Vall\'{e}e, Brigitte}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2018.13}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-85249}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2018.13}, annote = {Keywords: Fault tolerant, Shortest path, Oracle, Routing} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 67, 8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017)

We initiate a line of investigation into biological neural networks from an algorithmic perspective. We develop a simplified but biologically plausible model for distributed computation in stochastic spiking neural networks and study tradeoffs between computation time and network complexity in this model. Our aim is to abstract real neural networks in a way that, while not capturing all interesting features, preserves high-level behavior and allows us to make biologically relevant conclusions.
In this paper, we focus on the important 'winner-take-all' (WTA) problem, which is analogous to a neural leader election unit: a network consisting of $n$ input neurons and n corresponding output neurons must converge to a state in which a single output corresponding to a firing input (the 'winner') fires, while all other outputs remain silent. Neural circuits for WTA rely on inhibitory neurons, which suppress the activity of competing outputs and drive the network towards a converged state with a single firing winner. We attempt to understand how the number of inhibitors used affects network convergence time.
We show that it is possible to significantly outperform naive WTA constructions through a more refined use of inhibition, solving the problem in O(\theta) rounds in expectation with just O(\log^{1/\theta} n) inhibitors for any \theta. An alternative construction gives convergence in O(\log^{1/\theta} n) rounds with O(\theta) inhibitors. We complement these upper bounds with our main technical contribution, a nearly matching lower bound for networks using \ge \log \log n inhibitors. Our lower bound uses familiar indistinguishability and locality arguments from distributed computing theory applied to the neural setting. It lets us derive a number of interesting conclusions about the structure of any network solving WTA with good probability, and the use of randomness and inhibition within such a network.

Nancy Lynch, Cameron Musco, and Merav Parter. Computational Tradeoffs in Biological Neural Networks: Self-Stabilizing Winner-Take-All Networks. In 8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 67, pp. 15:1-15:44, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{lynch_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.15, author = {Lynch, Nancy and Musco, Cameron and Parter, Merav}, title = {{Computational Tradeoffs in Biological Neural Networks: Self-Stabilizing Winner-Take-All Networks}}, booktitle = {8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017)}, pages = {15:1--15:44}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-029-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {67}, editor = {Papadimitriou, Christos H.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-81952}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.15}, annote = {Keywords: biological distributed algorithms, neural networks, distributed lower bounds, winner-take-all networks} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 91, 31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017)

This paper addresses the cornerstone family of local problems in distributed computing, and investigates the curious gap between randomized and deterministic solutions under bandwidth restrictions.
Our main contribution is in providing tools for derandomizing solutions to local problems, when the n nodes can only send O(log n)-bit messages in each round of communication. We combine bounded independence, which we show to be sufficient for some algorithms, with the method of conditional expectations and with additional machinery, to obtain the following results.
First, we show that in the Congested Clique model, which allows all-to-all communication, there is a deterministic maximal independent set (MIS) algorithm that runs in O(log^2 Delta) rounds, where Delta is the maximum degree. When Delta=O(n^(1/3)), the bound improves to O(log Delta).
Adapting the above to the CONGEST model gives an O(D log^2 n)-round deterministic MIS algorithm, where D is the diameter of the graph. Apart from a previous unproven claim of a O(D log^3 n)-round algorithm, the only known deterministic solutions for the CONGEST model are a coloring-based O(Delta + log^* n)-round algorithm, where Delta is the maximal degree in the graph, and a 2^O(sqrt(log n log log n))-round algorithm, which is super-polylogarithmic in n.
In addition, we deterministically construct a (2k-1)-spanner with O(kn^(1+1/k) log n) edges in O(k log n) rounds in the Congested Clique model. For comparison, in the more stringent CONGEST model, where the communication graph is identical to the input graph, the best deterministic algorithm for constructing a (2k-1)-spanner with O(kn^(1+1/k)) edges runs in O(n^(1-1/k)) rounds.

Keren Censor-Hillel, Merav Parter, and Gregory Schwartzman. Derandomizing Local Distributed Algorithms under Bandwidth Restrictions. In 31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 91, pp. 11:1-11:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{censorhillel_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2017.11, author = {Censor-Hillel, Keren and Parter, Merav and Schwartzman, Gregory}, title = {{Derandomizing Local Distributed Algorithms under Bandwidth Restrictions}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017)}, pages = {11:1--11:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-053-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {91}, editor = {Richa, Andr\'{e}a}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2017.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-79759}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2017.11}, annote = {Keywords: Local problems, congested clique, derandomization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 91, 31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017)

We present a randomized distributed algorithm that computes a Depth-First Search (DFS) tree in ~O(D) rounds, in any planar network G=(V,E) with diameter D, with high probability. This is the first sublinear-time distributed DFS algorithm, improving on a three decades-old O(n) algorithm of Awerbuch (1985), which remains the best known for general graphs. Furthermore, this ~O(D) round complexity is nearly-optimal as Omega(D) is a trivial lower bound.
A key technical ingredient in our results is the development of a distributed method for (recursively) computing a separator path, which is a path whose removal from the graph leaves connected components that are all a constant factor smaller. We believe that the general method we develop for computing path separators recursively might be of broader interest, and may provide the first step towards solving many other problems.

Mohsen Ghaffari and Merav Parter. Near-Optimal Distributed DFS in Planar Graphs. In 31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 91, pp. 21:1-21:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{ghaffari_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2017.21, author = {Ghaffari, Mohsen and Parter, Merav}, title = {{Near-Optimal Distributed DFS in Planar Graphs}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017)}, pages = {21:1--21:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-053-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {91}, editor = {Richa, Andr\'{e}a}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2017.21}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-80195}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2017.21}, annote = {Keywords: congest model, planar graphs, separator} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 91, 31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017)

Graph spanners are fundamental graph structures with a wide range of applications in distributed networks. We consider a standard synchronous message passing model where in each round O(log n) bits can be transmitted over every edge (the CONGEST model).
The state of the art of deterministic distributed spanner constructions suffers from large messages. The only exception is the work of Derbel et al., which computes an optimal-sized (2k-1)-spanner but uses O(n^(1-1/k)) rounds.
In this paper, we significantly improve this bound. We present a deterministic distributed algorithm that given an unweighted n-vertex graph G = (V,E) and a parameter k > 2, constructs a (2k-1)-spanner with O(k n^(1+1/k)) edges within O(2^k n^(1/2 - 1/k)) rounds for every even k. For odd k, the number of rounds is O(2^k n^(1/2 - 1/(2k))). For the weighted case, we provide the first deterministic construction of a 3-spanner with O(n^(3/2)) edges that uses O(log n)-size messages and ~O(1) rounds. If the vertices have IDs in [1,Theta(n)], the spanner is computed in only 2 rounds!

Ofer Grossman and Merav Parter. Improved Deterministic Distributed Construction of Spanners. In 31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 91, pp. 24:1-24:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{grossman_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2017.24, author = {Grossman, Ofer and Parter, Merav}, title = {{Improved Deterministic Distributed Construction of Spanners}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017)}, pages = {24:1--24:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-053-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {91}, editor = {Richa, Andr\'{e}a}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2017.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-80085}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2017.24}, annote = {Keywords: spanners, clustering, deterministic algorithms, congest model} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 91, 31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017)

We study distributed algorithms implemented in a simplified biologically inspired model for stochastic spiking neural networks. We focus on tradeoffs between computation time and network complexity, along with the role of noise and randomness in efficient neural computation.
It is widely accepted that neural spike responses, and neural computation in general, is inherently stochastic. In recent work, we explored how this stochasticity could be leveraged to solve the 'winner-take-all' leader election task. Here, we focus on using randomness in neural algorithms for similarity testing and compression. In the most basic setting, given two n-length patterns of firing neurons, we wish to distinguish if the patterns are equal or epsilon-far from equal.
Randomization allows us to solve this task with a very compact network, using O((sqrt(n) log n)/epsilon) auxiliary neurons, which is sublinear in the input size. At the heart of our solution is the design of a t-round neural random access memory, or indexing network, which we call a neuro-RAM. This module can be implemented with O(n/t) auxiliary neurons and is useful in many applications beyond similarity testing - e.g., we discuss its application to compression via random projection.
Using a VC dimension-based argument, we show that the tradeoff between runtime and network size in our neuro-RAM is nearly optimal. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to apply these techniques to stochastic spiking networks. Our result has several implications - since our neuro-RAM can be implemented with deterministic threshold gates, it demonstrates that, in contrast to similarity testing, randomness does not provide significant computational advantages for this problem. It also establishes a separation between our networks, which spike with a sigmoidal probability function, and well-studied deterministic sigmoidal networks, whose gates output real number values, and which can implement a neuro-RAM much more efficiently.

Nancy Lynch, Cameron Musco, and Merav Parter. Neuro-RAM Unit with Applications to Similarity Testing and Compression in Spiking Neural Networks. In 31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 91, pp. 33:1-33:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{lynch_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2017.33, author = {Lynch, Nancy and Musco, Cameron and Parter, Merav}, title = {{Neuro-RAM Unit with Applications to Similarity Testing and Compression in Spiking Neural Networks}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017)}, pages = {33:1--33:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-053-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {91}, editor = {Richa, Andr\'{e}a}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2017.33}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-79863}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2017.33}, annote = {Keywords: spiking neural networks, biological distributed algorithms, circuit design} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

Preservers and additive spanners are sparse (hence cheap to store) subgraphs that preserve the distances between given pairs of nodes exactly or with some small additive error, respectively. Since real-world networks are prone to failures, it makes sense to study fault-tolerant versions of the above structures. This turns out to be a surprisingly difficult task. For every small but arbitrary set of edge or vertex failures, the preservers and spanners need to contain replacement paths around the faulted set. Unfortunately, the complexity of the interaction between replacement paths blows up significantly, even from 1 to 2 faults, and the structure of optimal preservers and spanners is poorly understood. In particular, no nontrivial bounds for preservers and additive spanners are known when the number of faults is bigger than 2.
Even the answer to the following innocent question is completely unknown: what is the worst-case size of a preserver for a single pair of nodes in the presence of f edge faults? There are no super-linear lower bounds, nor subquadratic upper bounds for f>2. In this paper we make substantial progress on this and other fundamental questions:
- We present the first truly sub-quadratic size fault-tolerant single-pair preserver in unweighted (possibly directed) graphs: for any n node graph and any fixed number f of faults, O~(fn^{2-1/2^f}) size suffices. Our result also generalizes to the single-source (all targets) case, and can be used to build new fault-tolerant additive spanners (for all pairs).
- The size of the above single-pair preserver grows to O(n^2) for increasing f. We show that this is necessary even in undirected unweighted graphs, and even if you allow for a small additive error: If you aim at size O(n^{2-eps}) for \eps>0, then the additive error has to be \Omega(eps f). This surprisingly matches known upper bounds in the literature.
- For weighted graphs, we provide matching upper and lower bounds for the single pair case. Namely, the size of the preserver is Theta(n^2) for f > 1 in both directed and undirected graphs, while for f=1 the size is Theta(n) in undirected graphs. For directed graphs, we have a superlinear upper bound and a matching lower bound.
Most of our lower bounds extend to the distance oracle setting, where rather than a subgraph we ask for any compact data structure.

Greg Bodwin, Fabrizio Grandoni, Merav Parter, and Virginia Vassilevska Williams. Preserving Distances in Very Faulty Graphs. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 73:1-73:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{bodwin_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.73, author = {Bodwin, Greg and Grandoni, Fabrizio and Parter, Merav and Vassilevska Williams, Virginia}, title = {{Preserving Distances in Very Faulty Graphs}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {73:1--73:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.73}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-74906}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.73}, annote = {Keywords: Fault Tolerance, shortest paths, replacement paths} }

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