7 Search Results for "Winkler, Peter"


Document
On Iteration in Discrete Probabilistic Programming

Authors: Mateo Torres-Ruiz, Robin Piedeleu, Alexandra Silva, and Fabio Zanasi

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 299, 9th International Conference on Formal Structures for Computation and Deduction (FSCD 2024)


Abstract
Discrete probabilistic programming languages provide an expressive tool for representing and reasoning about probabilistic models. These languages typically define the semantics of a program through its posterior distribution, obtained through exact inference techniques. While the semantics of standard programming constructs in this context is well understood, there is a gap in extending these languages with tools to reason about the asymptotic behaviour of programs. In this paper, we introduce unbounded iteration in the context of a discrete probabilistic programming language, give it a semantics, and show how to compute it exactly. This allows us to express the stationary distribution of a probabilistic function while preserving the efficiency of exact inference techniques. We discuss the advantages and limitations of our approach, showcasing their practical utility by considering examples where bounded iteration poses a challenge due to the inherent difficulty of assessing the proximity of a distribution to its stationary point.

Cite as

Mateo Torres-Ruiz, Robin Piedeleu, Alexandra Silva, and Fabio Zanasi. On Iteration in Discrete Probabilistic Programming. In 9th International Conference on Formal Structures for Computation and Deduction (FSCD 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 299, pp. 20:1-20:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{torresruiz_et_al:LIPIcs.FSCD.2024.20,
  author =	{Torres-Ruiz, Mateo and Piedeleu, Robin and Silva, Alexandra and Zanasi, Fabio},
  title =	{{On Iteration in Discrete Probabilistic Programming}},
  booktitle =	{9th International Conference on Formal Structures for Computation and Deduction (FSCD 2024)},
  pages =	{20:1--20:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-323-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{299},
  editor =	{Rehof, Jakob},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSCD.2024.20},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-203490},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.FSCD.2024.20},
  annote =	{Keywords: Probabilistic programming, Programming languages semantics, Unbounded iteration}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
NP-Hardness of Testing Equivalence to Sparse Polynomials and to Constant-Support Polynomials

Authors: Omkar Baraskar, Agrim Dewan, Chandan Saha, and Pulkit Sinha

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
An s-sparse polynomial has at most s monomials with nonzero coefficients. The Equivalence Testing problem for sparse polynomials (ETsparse) asks to decide if a given polynomial f is equivalent to (i.e., in the orbit of) some s-sparse polynomial. In other words, given f ∈ 𝔽[𝐱] and s ∈ ℕ, ETsparse asks to check if there exist A ∈ GL(|𝐱|, 𝔽) and 𝐛 ∈ 𝔽^|𝐱| such that f(A𝐱 + 𝐛) is s-sparse. We show that ETsparse is NP-hard over any field 𝔽, if f is given in the sparse representation, i.e., as a list of nonzero coefficients and exponent vectors. This answers a question posed by Gupta, Saha and Thankey (SODA 2023) and also, more explicitly, by Baraskar, Dewan and Saha (STACS 2024). The result implies that the Minimum Circuit Size Problem (MCSP) is NP-hard for a dense subclass of depth-3 arithmetic circuits if the input is given in sparse representation. We also show that approximating the smallest s₀ such that a given s-sparse polynomial f is in the orbit of some s₀-sparse polynomial to within a factor of s^{1/3 - ε} is NP-hard for any ε > 0; observe that s-factor approximation is trivial as the input is s-sparse. Finally, we show that for any constant σ ≥ 6, checking if a polynomial (given in sparse representation) is in the orbit of some support-σ polynomial is NP-hard. Support of a polynomial f is the maximum number of variables present in any monomial of f. These results are obtained via direct reductions from the 3-SAT problem.

Cite as

Omkar Baraskar, Agrim Dewan, Chandan Saha, and Pulkit Sinha. NP-Hardness of Testing Equivalence to Sparse Polynomials and to Constant-Support Polynomials. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 16:1-16:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{baraskar_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.16,
  author =	{Baraskar, Omkar and Dewan, Agrim and Saha, Chandan and Sinha, Pulkit},
  title =	{{NP-Hardness of Testing Equivalence to Sparse Polynomials and to Constant-Support Polynomials}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{16:1--16:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201598},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: Equivalence testing, MCSP, sparse polynomials, 3SAT}
}
Document
Track B: Automata, Logic, Semantics, and Theory of Programming
Forcing, Transition Algebras, and Calculi

Authors: Go Hashimoto, Daniel Găină, and Ionuţ Ţuţu

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We bring forward a logical system of transition algebras that enhances many-sorted first-order logic using features from dynamic logics. The sentences we consider include compositions, unions, and transitive closures of transition relations, which are treated similarly to the actions used in dynamic logics in order to define necessity and possibility operators. This leads to a higher degree of expressivity than that of many-sorted first-order logic. For example, one can finitely axiomatize both the finiteness and the reachability of models, neither of which are ordinarily possible in many-sorted first-order logic. We introduce syntactic entailment and study basic properties such as compactness and completeness, showing that the latter does not hold when standard finitary proof rules are used. Consequently, we define proof rules having both finite and countably infinite premises, and we provide conditions under which completeness can be proved. To that end, we generalize the forcing method introduced in model theory by Robinson from a single signature to a category of signatures, and we apply it to obtain a completeness result for signatures that are at most countable.

Cite as

Go Hashimoto, Daniel Găină, and Ionuţ Ţuţu. Forcing, Transition Algebras, and Calculi. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 143:1-143:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{hashimoto_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.143,
  author =	{Hashimoto, Go and G\u{a}in\u{a}, Daniel and \c{T}u\c{t}u, Ionu\c{t}},
  title =	{{Forcing, Transition Algebras, and Calculi}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{143:1--143:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.143},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202868},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.143},
  annote =	{Keywords: Forcing, institution theory, calculi, algebraic specification, transition systems}
}
Document
Current and Future Challenges in Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 22282)

Authors: James P. Delgrande, Birte Glimm, Thomas Meyer, Miroslaw Truszczynski, and Frank Wolter

Published in: Dagstuhl Manifestos, Volume 10, Issue 1 (2024)


Abstract
Knowledge Representation and Reasoning is a central, longstanding, and active area of Artificial Intelligence. Over the years it has evolved significantly; more recently it has been challenged and complemented by research in areas such as machine learning and reasoning under uncertainty. In July 2022,sser a Dagstuhl Perspectives workshop was held on Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. The goal of the workshop was to describe the state of the art in the field, including its relation with other areas, its shortcomings and strengths, together with recommendations for future progress. We developed this manifesto based on the presentations, panels, working groups, and discussions that took place at the Dagstuhl Workshop. It is a declaration of our views on Knowledge Representation: its origins, goals, milestones, and current foci; its relation to other disciplines, especially to Artificial Intelligence; and on its challenges, along with key priorities for the next decade.

Cite as

James P. Delgrande, Birte Glimm, Thomas Meyer, Miroslaw Truszczynski, and Frank Wolter. Current and Future Challenges in Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 22282). In Dagstuhl Manifestos, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp. 1-61, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@Article{delgrande_et_al:DagMan.10.1.1,
  author =	{Delgrande, James P. and Glimm, Birte and Meyer, Thomas and Truszczynski, Miroslaw and Wolter, Frank},
  title =	{{Current and Future Challenges in Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 22282)}},
  pages =	{1--61},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Manifestos},
  ISSN =	{2193-2433},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{10},
  number =	{1},
  editor =	{Delgrande, James P. and Glimm, Birte and Meyer, Thomas and Truszczynski, Miroslaw and Wolter, Frank},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagMan.10.1.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201403},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagMan.10.1.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: Knowledge representation and reasoning, Applications of logics, Declarative representations, Formal logic}
}
Document
Optimal Separation and Strong Direct Sum for Randomized Query Complexity

Authors: Eric Blais and Joshua Brody

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 137, 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)


Abstract
We establish two results regarding the query complexity of bounded-error randomized algorithms. Bounded-error separation theorem. There exists a total function f : {0,1}^n -> {0,1} whose epsilon-error randomized query complexity satisfies overline{R}_epsilon(f) = Omega(R(f) * log 1/epsilon). Strong direct sum theorem. For every function f and every k >= 2, the randomized query complexity of computing k instances of f simultaneously satisfies overline{R}_epsilon(f^k) = Theta(k * overline{R}_{epsilon/k}(f)). As a consequence of our two main results, we obtain an optimal superlinear direct-sum-type theorem for randomized query complexity: there exists a function f for which R(f^k) = Theta(k log k * R(f)). This answers an open question of Drucker (2012). Combining this result with the query-to-communication complexity lifting theorem of Göös, Pitassi, and Watson (2017), this also shows that there is a total function whose public-coin randomized communication complexity satisfies R^{cc}(f^k) = Theta(k log k * R^{cc}(f)), answering a question of Feder, Kushilevitz, Naor, and Nisan (1995).

Cite as

Eric Blais and Joshua Brody. Optimal Separation and Strong Direct Sum for Randomized Query Complexity. In 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 137, pp. 29:1-29:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{blais_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2019.29,
  author =	{Blais, Eric and Brody, Joshua},
  title =	{{Optimal Separation and Strong Direct Sum for Randomized Query Complexity}},
  booktitle =	{34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)},
  pages =	{29:1--29:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-116-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{137},
  editor =	{Shpilka, Amir},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.29},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-108511},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.29},
  annote =	{Keywords: Decision trees, query complexity, communication complexity}
}
Document
Mixing of Permutations by Biased Transposition

Authors: Shahrzad Haddadan and Peter Winkler

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 66, 34th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2017)


Abstract
Markov chains defined on the set of permutations of n elements have been studied widely by mathematicians and theoretical computer scientists. We consider chains in which a position i<n is chosen uniformly at random, and then sigma(i) and sigma(i+1) are swapped with probability depending on sigma(i) and sigma(i+1). Our objective is to identify some conditions that assure rapid mixing. One case of particular interest is what we call the "gladiator chain," in which each number g is assigned a "strength" s_g and when g and g' are swapped, g comes out on top with probability s_g / ( s_g + s_g' ). The stationary probability of this chain is the same as that of the slow-mixing "move ahead one" chain for self-organizing lists, but an open conjecture of Jim Fill's implies that all gladiator chains mix rapidly. Here we obtain some positive partial results by considering cases where the gladiators fall into only a few strength classes.

Cite as

Shahrzad Haddadan and Peter Winkler. Mixing of Permutations by Biased Transposition. In 34th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 66, pp. 41:1-41:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{haddadan_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2017.41,
  author =	{Haddadan, Shahrzad and Winkler, Peter},
  title =	{{Mixing of Permutations by Biased Transposition}},
  booktitle =	{34th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2017)},
  pages =	{41:1--41:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-028-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{66},
  editor =	{Vollmer, Heribert and Vall\'{e}e, Brigitte},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2017.41},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-69928},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2017.41},
  annote =	{Keywords: Markov chains, permutations, self organizing lists, mixing time}
}
Document
Query Matching Evaluation in an Infobot for University Admissions Processing

Authors: Peter Hancox and Nikolaos Polatidis

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 21, 1st Symposium on Languages, Applications and Technologies (2012)


Abstract
"Infobots" are small-scale natural language question answering systems drawing inspiration from ELIZA-type systems. Their key distinguishing feature is the extraction of meaning from users' queries without the use of syntactic or semantic representations. Two approaches to identifying the users' intended meanings were investigated: keyword-based systems and Jaro-based string similarity algorithms. These were measured against a corpus of queries contributed by users of a WWW-hosted infobot for responding to questions about applications to MSc courses. The most effective system was Jaro with stemmed input (78.57%). It also was able to process ungrammatical input and offer scalability.

Cite as

Peter Hancox and Nikolaos Polatidis. Query Matching Evaluation in an Infobot for University Admissions Processing. In 1st Symposium on Languages, Applications and Technologies. Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 21, pp. 149-161, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2012)


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@InProceedings{hancox_et_al:OASIcs.SLATE.2012.149,
  author =	{Hancox, Peter and Polatidis, Nikolaos},
  title =	{{Query Matching Evaluation in an Infobot for University Admissions Processing}},
  booktitle =	{1st Symposium on Languages, Applications and Technologies},
  pages =	{149--161},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-40-8},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2012},
  volume =	{21},
  editor =	{Sim\~{o}es, Alberto and Queir\'{o}s, Ricardo and da Cruz, Daniela},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.SLATE.2012.149},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-35206},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.SLATE.2012.149},
  annote =	{Keywords: chatbot, infobot, question-answering, Jaro string similarity, Jaro-Winkler string similarity}
}
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