Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)

The following question arises naturally in the study of graph streaming algorithms:
Is there any graph problem which is "not too hard", in that it can be solved efficiently with total communication (nearly) linear in the number n of vertices, and for which, nonetheless, any streaming algorithm with Õ(n) space (i.e., a semi-streaming algorithm) needs a polynomial n^Ω(1) number of passes?
Assadi, Chen, and Khanna [STOC 2019] were the first to prove that this is indeed the case. However, the lower bounds that they obtained are for rather non-standard graph problems.
Our first main contribution is to present the first polynomial-pass lower bounds for natural "not too hard" graph problems studied previously in the streaming model: k-cores and degeneracy. We devise a novel communication protocol for both problems with near-linear communication, thus showing that k-cores and degeneracy are natural examples of "not too hard" problems. Indeed, previous work have developed single-pass semi-streaming algorithms for approximating these problems. In contrast, we prove that any semi-streaming algorithm for exactly solving these problems requires (almost) Ω(n^{1/3}) passes.
The lower bound follows by a reduction from a generalization of the hidden pointer chasing (HPC) problem of Assadi, Chen, and Khanna, which is also the basis of their earlier semi-streaming lower bounds.
Our second main contribution is improved round-communication lower bounds for the underlying communication problems at the basis of these reductions:
- We improve the previous lower bound of Assadi, Chen, and Khanna for HPC to achieve optimal bounds for this problem.
- We further observe that all current reductions from HPC can also work with a generalized version of this problem that we call MultiHPC, and prove an even stronger and optimal lower bound for this generalization. These two results collectively allow us to improve the resulting pass lower bounds for semi-streaming algorithms by a polynomial factor, namely, from n^{1/5} to n^{1/3} passes.

Sepehr Assadi, Prantar Ghosh, Bruno Loff, Parth Mittal, and Sagnik Mukhopadhyay. Polynomial Pass Semi-Streaming Lower Bounds for K-Cores and Degeneracy. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 7:1-7:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.7, author = {Assadi, Sepehr and Ghosh, Prantar and Loff, Bruno and Mittal, Parth and Mukhopadhyay, Sagnik}, title = {{Polynomial Pass Semi-Streaming Lower Bounds for K-Cores and Degeneracy}}, booktitle = {39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)}, pages = {7:1--7:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-331-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {300}, editor = {Santhanam, Rahul}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204035}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.7}, annote = {Keywords: Graph streaming, Lower bounds, Communication complexity, k-Cores and degeneracy} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 275, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)

Graph sketching is a powerful paradigm for analyzing graph structure via linear measurements introduced by Ahn, Guha, and McGregor (SODA'12) that has since found numerous applications in streaming, distributed computing, and massively parallel algorithms, among others. Graph sketching has proven to be quite successful for various problems such as connectivity, minimum spanning trees, edge or vertex connectivity, and cut or spectral sparsifiers. Yet, the problem of approximating shortest path metric of a graph, and specifically computing a spanner, is notably missing from the list of successes. This has turned the status of this fundamental problem into one of the most longstanding open questions in this area.
We present a partial explanation of this lack of success by proving a strong lower bound for a large family of graph sketching algorithms that encompasses prior work on spanners and many (but importantly not also all) related cut-based problems mentioned above. Our lower bound matches the algorithmic bounds of the recent result of Filtser, Kapralov, and Nouri (SODA'21), up to lower order terms, for constructing spanners via the same graph sketching family. This establishes near-optimality of these bounds, at least restricted to this family of graph sketching techniques, and makes progress on a conjecture posed in this latter work.

Sepehr Assadi, Michael Kapralov, and Huacheng Yu. On Constructing Spanners from Random Gaussian Projections. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 275, pp. 57:1-57:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.57, author = {Assadi, Sepehr and Kapralov, Michael and Yu, Huacheng}, title = {{On Constructing Spanners from Random Gaussian Projections}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)}, pages = {57:1--57:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-296-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {275}, editor = {Megow, Nicole and Smith, Adam}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.57}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-188821}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.57}, annote = {Keywords: sketching algorithm, lower bound, graph spanner} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 275, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)

Structural balance theory studies stability in networks. Given a n-vertex complete graph G = (V,E) whose edges are labeled positive or negative, the graph is considered balanced if every triangle either consists of three positive edges (three mutual "friends"), or one positive edge and two negative edges (two "friends" with a common "enemy"). From a computational perspective, structural balance turns out to be a special case of correlation clustering with the number of clusters at most two. The two main algorithmic problems of interest are: (i) detecting whether a given graph is balanced, or (ii) finding a partition that approximates the frustration index, i.e., the minimum number of edge flips that turn the graph balanced.
We study these problems in the streaming model where edges are given one by one and focus on memory efficiency. We provide randomized single-pass algorithms for: (i) determining whether an input graph is balanced with O(log n) memory, and (ii) finding a partition that induces a (1 + ε)-approximation to the frustration index with O(n ⋅ polylog(n)) memory. We further provide several new lower bounds, complementing different aspects of our algorithms such as the need for randomization or approximation.
To obtain our main results, we develop a method using pseudorandom generators (PRGs) to sample edges between independently-chosen vertices in graph streaming. Furthermore, our algorithm that approximates the frustration index improves the running time of the state-of-the-art correlation clustering with two clusters (Giotis-Guruswami algorithm [SODA 2006]) from n^O(1/ε²) to O(n²log³n/ε² + n log n ⋅ (1/ε)^O(1/ε⁴)) time for (1+ε)-approximation. These results may be of independent interest.

Vikrant Ashvinkumar, Sepehr Assadi, Chengyuan Deng, Jie Gao, and Chen Wang. Evaluating Stability in Massive Social Networks: Efficient Streaming Algorithms for Structural Balance. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 275, pp. 58:1-58:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{ashvinkumar_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.58, author = {Ashvinkumar, Vikrant and Assadi, Sepehr and Deng, Chengyuan and Gao, Jie and Wang, Chen}, title = {{Evaluating Stability in Massive Social Networks: Efficient Streaming Algorithms for Structural Balance}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)}, pages = {58:1--58:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-296-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {275}, editor = {Megow, Nicole and Smith, Adam}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.58}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-188830}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.58}, annote = {Keywords: Streaming algorithms, structural balance, pseudo-randomness generator} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 255, 26th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2023)

Estimating quantiles, like the median or percentiles, is a fundamental task in data mining and data science. A (streaming) quantile summary is a data structure that can process a set S of n elements in a streaming fashion and at the end, for any ϕ ∈ (0,1], return a ϕ-quantile of S up to an ε error, i.e., return a ϕ'-quantile with ϕ' = ϕ ± ε. We are particularly interested in comparison-based summaries that only compare elements of the universe under a total ordering and are otherwise completely oblivious of the universe. The best known deterministic quantile summary is the 20-year old Greenwald-Khanna (GK) summary that uses O((1/ε) log{(ε n)}) space [SIGMOD'01]. This bound was recently proved to be optimal for all deterministic comparison-based summaries by Cormode and Vesleý [PODS'20].
In this paper, we study weighted quantiles, a generalization of the quantiles problem, where each element arrives with a positive integer weight which denotes the number of copies of that element being inserted. The only known method of handling weighted inputs via GK summaries is the naive approach of breaking each weighted element into multiple unweighted items, and feeding them one by one to the summary, which results in a prohibitively large update time (proportional to the maximum weight of input elements).
We give the first non-trivial extension of GK summaries for weighted inputs and show that it takes O((1/ε) log(εn)) space and O(log(1/ε)+log log(εn)) update time per element to process a stream of length n (under some quite mild assumptions on the range of weights and ε). En route to this, we also simplify the original GK summaries for unweighted quantiles.

Sepehr Assadi, Nirmit Joshi, Milind Prabhu, and Vihan Shah. Generalizing Greenwald-Khanna Streaming Quantile Summaries for Weighted Inputs. In 26th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 255, pp. 19:1-19:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.ICDT.2023.19, author = {Assadi, Sepehr and Joshi, Nirmit and Prabhu, Milind and Shah, Vihan}, title = {{Generalizing Greenwald-Khanna Streaming Quantile Summaries for Weighted Inputs}}, booktitle = {26th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2023)}, pages = {19:1--19:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-270-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {255}, editor = {Geerts, Floris and Vandevoort, Brecht}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICDT.2023.19}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-177618}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICDT.2023.19}, annote = {Keywords: Streaming algorithms, Quantile summaries, Rank estimation} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)

In the weighted load balancing problem, the input is an n-vertex bipartite graph between a set of clients and a set of servers, and each client comes with some nonnegative real weight. The output is an assignment that maps each client to one of its adjacent servers, and the load of a server is then the sum of the weights of the clients assigned to it. The goal is to find an assignment that is well-balanced, typically captured by (approximately) minimizing either the 𝓁_∞- or 𝓁₂-norm of the server loads. Generalizing both of these objectives, the all-norm load balancing problem asks for an assignment that approximately minimizes all 𝓁_p-norm objectives for p ≥ 1, including p = ∞, simultaneously.
Our main result is a deterministic O(log n)-pass O(1)-approximation semi-streaming algorithm for the all-norm load balancing problem. Prior to our work, only an O(log n)-pass O(log n)-approximation algorithm for the 𝓁_∞-norm objective was known in the semi-streaming setting.
Our algorithm uses a novel application of the multiplicative weights update method to a mixed covering/packing convex program for the all-norm load balancing problem involving an infinite number of constraints.

Sepehr Assadi, Aaron Bernstein, and Zachary Langley. All-Norm Load Balancing in Graph Streams via the Multiplicative Weights Update Method. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 7:1-7:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.7, author = {Assadi, Sepehr and Bernstein, Aaron and Langley, Zachary}, title = {{All-Norm Load Balancing in Graph Streams via the Multiplicative Weights Update Method}}, booktitle = {14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)}, pages = {7:1--7:24}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-263-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {251}, editor = {Tauman Kalai, Yael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175106}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.7}, annote = {Keywords: Load Balancing, Semi-Streaming Algorithms, Semi-Matching} }

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Invited Talk

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 246, 36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022)

Graph coloring is a central problem in graph theory and has numerous applications in diverse areas of computer science. An important and well-studied case of graph coloring problems is the (Δ+1) (vertex) coloring problem where Δ is the maximum degree of the graph. Not only does every graph admit a (Δ + 1) coloring, but in fact we can find one quite easily in linear time and space via a greedy algorithm. But are there more efficient algorithms for (Δ+1) coloring that can process massive graphs that even this algorithm cannot handle?
This talk overviews recent results that answer this question in affirmative across a variety of models dedicated to processing massive graphs - streaming, sublinear-time, massively parallel computation, distributed communication, etc. - via a single unified approach: Palette Sparsification. We survey the ideas behind these results and techniques, their generalizations to various other coloring problems and even beyond (e.g., to clustering problems), as well as their natural limitations.
The talk is based on a series of joint works with Noga Alon, Andrew Chen, Yu Chen, Sanjeev Khanna, Pankaj Kumar, Parth Mittal, Glenn Sun, and Chen Wang.

Sepehr Assadi. Graph Coloring, Palette Sparsification, and Beyond (Invited Talk). In 36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 246, p. 1:1, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{assadi:LIPIcs.DISC.2022.1, author = {Assadi, Sepehr}, title = {{Graph Coloring, Palette Sparsification, and Beyond}}, booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022)}, pages = {1:1--1:1}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-255-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {246}, editor = {Scheideler, Christian}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2022.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-171920}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2022.1}, annote = {Keywords: Graph coloring, Palette Sparsification, Sublinear Algorithms} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 245, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)

The h-index is a metric used to measure the impact of a user in a publication setting, such as a member of a social network with many highly liked posts or a researcher in an academic domain with many highly cited publications. Specifically, the h-index of a user is the largest integer h such that at least h publications of the user have at least h units of positive feedback.
We design an algorithm that, given query access to the n publications of a user and each publication’s corresponding positive feedback number, outputs a (1± ε)-approximation of the h-index of this user with probability at least 1-δ in time O(n⋅ln(1/δ) / (ε²⋅h)), where h is the actual h-index which is unknown to the algorithm a-priori. We then design a novel lower bound technique that allows us to prove that this bound is in fact asymptotically optimal for this problem in all parameters n,h,ε, and δ.
Our work is one of the first in sublinear time algorithms that addresses obtaining asymptotically optimal bounds, especially in terms of the error and confidence parameters. As such, we focus on designing novel techniques for this task. In particular, our lower bound technique seems quite general - to showcase this, we also use our approach to prove an asymptotically optimal lower bound for the problem of estimating the number of triangles in a graph in sublinear time, which now is also optimal in the error and confidence parameters. This latter result improves upon prior lower bounds of Eden, Levi, Ron, and Seshadhri (FOCS'15) for this problem, as well as multiple follow-up works that extended this lower bound to other subgraph counting problems.

Sepehr Assadi and Hoai-An Nguyen. Asymptotically Optimal Bounds for Estimating H-Index in Sublinear Time with Applications to Subgraph Counting. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 245, pp. 48:1-48:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.48, author = {Assadi, Sepehr and Nguyen, Hoai-An}, title = {{Asymptotically Optimal Bounds for Estimating H-Index in Sublinear Time with Applications to Subgraph Counting}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)}, pages = {48:1--48:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-249-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {245}, editor = {Chakrabarti, Amit and Swamy, Chaitanya}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.48}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-171708}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.48}, annote = {Keywords: Sublinear time algorithms, h-index, asymptotically optimal bounds, lower bounds, subgraph counting} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)

We consider the problem of maintaining an approximate maximum integral matching in a dynamic graph G, while the adversary makes changes to the edges of the graph. The goal is to maintain a (1+ε)-approximate maximum matching for constant ε > 0, while minimizing the update time. In the fully dynamic setting, where both edge insertion and deletions are allowed, Gupta and Peng (see [Manoj Gupta and Richard Peng, 2013]) gave an algorithm for this problem with an update time of O(√m/ε²).
Motivated by the fact that the O_ε(√m) barrier is hard to overcome (see Henzinger, Krinninger, Nanongkai, and Saranurak [Henzinger et al., 2015]; Kopelowitz, Pettie, and Porat [Kopelowitz et al., 2016]), we study this problem in the decremental model, where the adversary is only allowed to delete edges. Recently, Bernstein, Probst-Gutenberg, and Saranurak (see [Bernstein et al., 2020]) gave an O(poly({log n}/ε)) update time decremental algorithm for this problem in bipartite graphs. However, beating O(√m) update time remained an open problem for general graphs.
In this paper, we bridge the gap between bipartite and general graphs, by giving an O_ε(poly(log n)) update time algorithm that maintains a (1+ε)-approximate maximum integral matching under adversarial deletions. Our algorithm is randomized, but works against an adaptive adversary. Together with the work of Grandoni, Leonardi, Sankowski, Schwiegelshohn, and Solomon [Fabrizio Grandoni et al., 2019] who give an O_ε(1) update time algorithm for general graphs in the incremental (insertion-only) model, our result essentially completes the picture for partially dynamic matching.

Sepehr Assadi, Aaron Bernstein, and Aditi Dudeja. Decremental Matching in General Graphs. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 11:1-11:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.11, author = {Assadi, Sepehr and Bernstein, Aaron and Dudeja, Aditi}, title = {{Decremental Matching in General Graphs}}, booktitle = {49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)}, pages = {11:1--11:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-235-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {229}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163528}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.11}, annote = {Keywords: Dynamic algorithms, matching, primal-dual algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

We present an algorithm for the maximum matching problem in dynamic (insertion-deletions) streams with asymptotically optimal space: for any n-vertex graph, our algorithm with high probability outputs an α-approximate matching in a single pass using O(n²/α³) bits of space.
A long line of work on the dynamic streaming matching problem has reduced the gap between space upper and lower bounds first to n^{o(1)} factors [Assadi-Khanna-Li-Yaroslavtsev; SODA 2016] and subsequently to polylog factors [Dark-Konrad; CCC 2020]. Our upper bound now matches the Dark-Konrad lower bound up to O(1) factors, thus completing this research direction.
Our approach consists of two main steps: we first (provably) identify a family of graphs, similar to the instances used in prior work to establish the lower bounds for this problem, as the only "hard" instances to focus on. These graphs include an induced subgraph which is both sparse and contains a large matching. We then design a dynamic streaming algorithm for this family of graphs which is more efficient than prior work. The key to this efficiency is a novel sketching method, which bypasses the typical loss of polylog(n)-factors in space compared to standard L₀-sampling primitives, and can be of independent interest in designing optimal algorithms for other streaming problems.

Sepehr Assadi and Vihan Shah. An Asymptotically Optimal Algorithm for Maximum Matching in Dynamic Streams. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 9:1-9:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.9, author = {Assadi, Sepehr and Shah, Vihan}, title = {{An Asymptotically Optimal Algorithm for Maximum Matching in Dynamic Streams}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {9:1--9:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.9}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156054}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.9}, annote = {Keywords: Graph streaming algorithms, Sketching, Maximum matching} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

We present a new approach for solving (minimum disagreement) correlation clustering that results in sublinear algorithms with highly efficient time and space complexity for this problem. In particular, we obtain the following algorithms for n-vertex (+/-)-labeled graphs G:
- A sublinear-time algorithm that with high probability returns a constant approximation clustering of G in O(nlog²n) time assuming access to the adjacency list of the (+)-labeled edges of G (this is almost quadratically faster than even reading the input once). Previously, no sublinear-time algorithm was known for this problem with any multiplicative approximation guarantee.
- A semi-streaming algorithm that with high probability returns a constant approximation clustering of G in O(n log n) space and a single pass over the edges of the graph G (this memory is almost quadratically smaller than input size). Previously, no single-pass algorithm with o(n²) space was known for this problem with any approximation guarantee. The main ingredient of our approach is a novel connection to sparse-dense graph decompositions that are used extensively in the graph coloring literature. To our knowledge, this connection is the first application of these decompositions beyond graph coloring, and in particular for the correlation clustering problem, and can be of independent interest.

Sepehr Assadi and Chen Wang. Sublinear Time and Space Algorithms for Correlation Clustering via Sparse-Dense Decompositions. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 10:1-10:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.10, author = {Assadi, Sepehr and Wang, Chen}, title = {{Sublinear Time and Space Algorithms for Correlation Clustering via Sparse-Dense Decompositions}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {10:1--10:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156067}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.10}, annote = {Keywords: Correlation Clustering, Sublinear Algorithms, Semi-streaming Algorithms, Sublinear time Algorithms} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 209, 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)

The goal of this paper is to understand the complexity of a key symmetry breaking problem, namely the (α,β)-ruling set problem in the graph streaming model. Given a graph G = (V,E), an (α, β)-ruling set is a subset I ⊆ V such that the distance between any two vertices in I is at least α and the distance between a vertex in V and the closest vertex in I is at most β. This is a fundamental problem in distributed computing where it finds applications as a useful subroutine for other problems such as maximal matching, distributed colouring, or shortest paths. Additionally, it is a generalization of MIS, which is a (2,1)-ruling set.
Our main results are two algorithms for (2,2)-ruling sets:
1) In adversarial streams, where the order in which edges arrive is arbitrary, we give an algorithm with Õ(n^{4/3}) space, improving upon the best known algorithm due to Konrad et al. [DISC 2019], with space Õ(n^{3/2}).
2) In random-order streams, where the edges arrive in a random order, we give a semi-streaming algorithm, that is an algorithm that takes Õ(n) space. Finally, we present new algorithms and lower bounds for (α,β)-ruling sets for other values of α and β. Our algorithms improve and generalize the previous work of Konrad et al. [DISC 2019] for (2,β)-ruling sets, while our lower bound establishes the impossibility of obtaining any non-trivial streaming algorithm for (α,α-1)-ruling sets for all even α > 2.

Sepehr Assadi and Aditi Dudeja. Ruling Sets in Random Order and Adversarial Streams. In 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 209, pp. 6:1-6:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2021.6, author = {Assadi, Sepehr and Dudeja, Aditi}, title = {{Ruling Sets in Random Order and Adversarial Streams}}, booktitle = {35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)}, pages = {6:1--6:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-210-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {209}, editor = {Gilbert, Seth}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-148086}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.6}, annote = {Keywords: Symmetry breaking, Ruling sets, Lower bounds, Communication Complexity} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 207, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)

We study the robust - à la Chakrabarti, Cormode, and McGregor [STOC'08] - communication complexity of the maximum bipartite matching problem. The edges of an adversarially chosen n-vertex bipartite graph G are partitioned randomly between Alice and Bob. Alice has to send a single message to Bob, using which Bob has to output an approximate maximum matching of G. We are particularly interested in understanding the best approximation ratio possible by protocols that use a near-optimal message size of n ⋅ polylog(n).
The communication complexity of bipartite matching in this setting under an adversarial partitioning is well-understood. In their beautiful paper, Goel, Kapralov, and Khanna [SODA'12] gave a rac{2} {3}-approximate protocol with O(n) communication and showed that this approximation is tight unless we allow more than a near-linear communication. The complexity of the robust version, i.e., with a random partitioning of the edges, however remains wide open. The best known protocol, implied by a very recent random-order streaming algorithm of the authors [ICALP'21], uses O(n log n) communication to obtain a (rac{2} {3} + ε₀)-approximation for a constant ε₀ ∼ 10^{-14}. The best known lower bound, on the other hand, leaves open the possibility of all the way up to even a (1-ε)-approximation using near-linear communication for constant ε > 0.
In this work, we give a new protocol with a significantly better approximation. Particularly, our protocol achieves a 0.716 expected approximation using O(n) communication. This protocol is based on a new notion of distribution-dependent sparsifiers which give a natural way of sparsifying graphs sampled from a known distribution. We then show how to lift the assumption on knowing the graph’s distribution via minimax theorems. We believe this is a particularly powerful method of designing communication protocols and might find further applications.

Sepehr Assadi and Soheil Behnezhad. On the Robust Communication Complexity of Bipartite Matching. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 207, pp. 48:1-48:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.48, author = {Assadi, Sepehr and Behnezhad, Soheil}, title = {{On the Robust Communication Complexity of Bipartite Matching}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)}, pages = {48:1--48:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-207-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {207}, editor = {Wootters, Mary and Sanit\`{a}, Laura}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.48}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-147411}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.48}, annote = {Keywords: Maximum Matching, Communication Complexity, Random-Order Streaming} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 204, 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)

We study the problem of finding a spanning forest in an undirected, n-vertex multi-graph under two basic query models. One are Linear queries which are linear measurements on the incidence vector induced by the edges; the other are the weaker OR queries which only reveal whether a given subset of plausible edges is empty or not. At the heart of our study lies a fundamental problem which we call the single element recovery problem: given a non-negative vector x ∈ ℝ^{N}_{≥ 0}, the objective is to return a single element x_j > 0 from the support. Queries can be made in rounds, and our goals is to understand the trade-offs between the query complexity and the rounds of adaptivity needed to solve these problems, for both deterministic and randomized algorithms. These questions have connections and ramifications to multiple areas such as sketching, streaming, graph reconstruction, and compressed sensing. Our main results are as follows:
- For the single element recovery problem, it is easy to obtain a deterministic, r-round algorithm which makes (N^{1/r}-1)-queries per-round. We prove that this is tight: any r-round deterministic algorithm must make ≥ (N^{1/r} - 1) Linear queries in some round. In contrast, a 1-round O(polylog)-query randomized algorithm is known to exist.
- We design a deterministic O(r)-round, Õ(n^{1+1/r})-OR query algorithm for graph connectivity. We complement this with an Ω̃(n^{1 + 1/r})-lower bound for any r-round deterministic algorithm in the OR-model.
- We design a randomized, 2-round algorithm for the graph connectivity problem which makes Õ(n)-OR queries. In contrast, we prove that any 1-round algorithm (possibly randomized) requires Ω̃(n²)-OR queries. A randomized, 1-round algorithm making Õ(n)-Linear queries is already known. All our algorithms, in fact, work with more natural graph query models which are special cases of the above, and have been extensively studied in the literature. These are Cross queries (cut-queries) and BIS (bipartite independent set) queries.

Sepehr Assadi, Deeparnab Chakrabarty, and Sanjeev Khanna. Graph Connectivity and Single Element Recovery via Linear and OR Queries. In 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 204, pp. 7:1-7:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2021.7, author = {Assadi, Sepehr and Chakrabarty, Deeparnab and Khanna, Sanjeev}, title = {{Graph Connectivity and Single Element Recovery via Linear and OR Queries}}, booktitle = {29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)}, pages = {7:1--7:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-204-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {204}, editor = {Mutzel, Petra and Pagh, Rasmus and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-145880}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.7}, annote = {Keywords: Query Models, Graph Connectivity, Group Testing, Duality} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 204, 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)

In the (fully) dynamic set cover problem, we have a collection of m sets from a universe of size n that undergo element insertions and deletions; the goal is to maintain an approximate set cover of the universe after each update. We give an O(f²) update time algorithm for this problem that achieves an f-approximation, where f is the maximum number of sets that an element belongs to; under the unique games conjecture, this approximation is best possible for any fixed f. This is the first algorithm for dynamic set cover with approximation ratio that exactly matches f (as opposed to almost f in prior work), as well as the first one with runtime independent of n,m (for any approximation factor of o(f³)).
Prior to our work, the state-of-the-art algorithms for this problem were O(f²) update time algorithms of Gupta et al. [STOC'17] and Bhattacharya et al. [IPCO'17] with O(f³) approximation, and the recent algorithm of Bhattacharya {et al. } [FOCS'19] with O(f⋅log{n}/ε²) update time and (1+ε)⋅f approximation, improving the O(f²⋅log{n}/ε⁵) bound of Abboud et al. [STOC'19].
The key technical ingredient of our work is an algorithm for maintaining a maximal matching in a dynamic hypergraph of rank r - where each hyperedge has at most r vertices - that undergoes hyperedge insertions and deletions in O(r²) amortized update time; our algorithm is randomized, and the bound on the update time holds in expectation and with high probability. This result generalizes the maximal matching algorithm of Solomon [FOCS'16] with constant update time in ordinary graphs to hypergraphs, and is of independent merit; the previous state-of-the-art algorithms for set cover do not translate to (integral) matchings for hypergraphs, let alone a maximal one. Our quantitative result for the set cover problem is translated directly from this qualitative result for maximal matching using standard reductions.
An important advantage of our approach over the previous ones for approximation (1+ε)⋅f (by Abboud et al. [STOC'19] and Bhattacharya et al. [FOCS'19]) is that it is inherently local and can thus be distributed efficiently to achieve low amortized round and message complexities.

Sepehr Assadi and Shay Solomon. Fully Dynamic Set Cover via Hypergraph Maximal Matching: An Optimal Approximation Through a Local Approach. In 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 204, pp. 8:1-8:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2021.8, author = {Assadi, Sepehr and Solomon, Shay}, title = {{Fully Dynamic Set Cover via Hypergraph Maximal Matching: An Optimal Approximation Through a Local Approach}}, booktitle = {29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)}, pages = {8:1--8:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-204-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {204}, editor = {Mutzel, Petra and Pagh, Rasmus and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-145899}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.8}, annote = {Keywords: dynamic graph algorithms, hypergraph, maximal matching, matching, set cover} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

We study the maximum matching problem in the random-order semi-streaming setting. In this problem, the edges of an arbitrary n-vertex graph G = (V, E) arrive in a stream one by one and in a random order. The goal is to have a single pass over the stream, use O(n ⋅ polylog) space, and output a large matching of G.
We prove that for an absolute constant ε₀ > 0, one can find a (2/3 + ε₀)-approximate maximum matching of G using O(n log n) space with high probability. This breaks the natural boundary of 2/3 for this problem prevalent in the prior work and resolves an open problem of Bernstein [ICALP'20] on whether a (2/3 + Ω(1))-approximation is achievable.

Sepehr Assadi and Soheil Behnezhad. Beating Two-Thirds For Random-Order Streaming Matching. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 19:1-19:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.19, author = {Assadi, Sepehr and Behnezhad, Soheil}, title = {{Beating Two-Thirds For Random-Order Streaming Matching}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {19:1--19:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.19}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-140887}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.19}, annote = {Keywords: Maximum Matching, Streaming, Random-Order Streaming} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 179, 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)

In the load balancing problem, the input is an n-vertex bipartite graph G = (C ∪ S, E) - where the two sides of the bipartite graph are referred to as the clients and the servers - and a positive weight for each client c ∈ C. The algorithm must assign each client c ∈ C to an adjacent server s ∈ S. The load of a server is then the weighted sum of all the clients assigned to it. The goal is to compute an assignment that minimizes some function of the server loads, typically either the maximum server load (i.e., the 𝓁_∞-norm) or the 𝓁_p-norm of the server loads. This problem has a variety of applications and has been widely studied under several different names, including: scheduling with restricted assignment, semi-matching, and distributed backup placement.
We study load balancing in the distributed setting. There are two existing results in the CONGEST model. Czygrinow et al. [DISC 2012] showed a 2-approximation for unweighted clients with round-complexity O(Δ⁵), where Δ is the maximum degree of the input graph. Halldórsson et al. [SPAA 2015] showed an O(log n / log log n)-approximation for unweighted clients and O(log²n/log log n)-approximation for weighted clients with round-complexity polylog(n).
In this paper, we show the first distributed algorithms to compute an O(1)-approximation to the load balancing problem in polylog(n) rounds:
- In the CONGEST model, we give an O(1)-approximation algorithm in polylog(n) rounds for unweighted clients. For weighted clients, the approximation ratio is O(log{n}).
- In the less constrained LOCAL model, we give an O(1)-approximation algorithm for weighted clients in polylog(n) rounds.
Our approach also has implications for the standard sequential setting in which we obtain the first O(1)-approximation for this problem that runs in near-linear time. A 2-approximation is already known, but it requires solving a linear program and is hence much slower. Finally, we note that all of our results simultaneously approximate all 𝓁_p-norms, including the 𝓁_∞-norm.

Sepehr Assadi, Aaron Bernstein, and Zachary Langley. Improved Bounds for Distributed Load Balancing. In 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 179, pp. 1:1-1:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2020.1, author = {Assadi, Sepehr and Bernstein, Aaron and Langley, Zachary}, title = {{Improved Bounds for Distributed Load Balancing}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)}, pages = {1:1--1:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-168-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {179}, editor = {Attiya, Hagit}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-130798}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.1}, annote = {Keywords: Load Balancing, Distributed Algorithms, Matching, Semi-Matching} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)

A recent palette sparsification theorem of Assadi, Chen, and Khanna [SODA'19] states that in every n-vertex graph G with maximum degree Δ, sampling O(log n) colors per each vertex independently from Δ+1 colors almost certainly allows for proper coloring of G from the sampled colors. Besides being a combinatorial statement of its own independent interest, this theorem was shown to have various applications to design of algorithms for (Δ+1) coloring in different models of computation on massive graphs such as streaming or sublinear-time algorithms.
In this paper, we focus on palette sparsification beyond (Δ+1) coloring, in both regimes when the number of available colors is much larger than (Δ+1), and when it is much smaller. In particular,
- We prove that for (1+ε) Δ coloring, sampling only O_ε(√{log n}) colors per vertex is sufficient and necessary to obtain a proper coloring from the sampled colors - this shows a separation between (1+ε) Δ and (Δ+1) coloring in the context of palette sparsification.
- A natural family of graphs with chromatic number much smaller than (Δ+1) are triangle-free graphs which are O(Δ/ln Δ) colorable. We prove a palette sparsification theorem tailored to these graphs: Sampling O(Δ^γ + √{log n}) colors per vertex is sufficient and necessary to obtain a proper O_γ(Δ/ln Δ) coloring of triangle-free graphs.
- We also consider the "local version" of graph coloring where every vertex v can only be colored from a list of colors with size proportional to the degree deg(v) of v. We show that sampling O_ε(log n) colors per vertex is sufficient for proper coloring of any graph with high probability whenever each vertex is sampling from a list of (1+ε) ⋅ deg(v) arbitrary colors, or even only deg(v)+1 colors when the lists are the sets {1,…,deg(v)+1}.
Our new palette sparsification results naturally lead to a host of new and/or improved algorithms for vertex coloring in different models including streaming and sublinear-time algorithms.

Noga Alon and Sepehr Assadi. Palette Sparsification Beyond (Δ+1) Vertex Coloring. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 6:1-6:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{alon_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.6, author = {Alon, Noga and Assadi, Sepehr}, title = {{Palette Sparsification Beyond (\Delta+1) Vertex Coloring}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)}, pages = {6:1--6:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-164-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {176}, editor = {Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126096}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.6}, annote = {Keywords: Graph coloring, palette sparsification, sublinear algorithms, list-coloring} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

Maximal independent set (MIS), maximal matching (MM), and (Delta+1)-(vertex) coloring in graphs of maximum degree Delta are among the most prominent algorithmic graph theory problems. They are all solvable by a simple linear-time greedy algorithm and up until very recently this constituted the state-of-the-art. In SODA 2019, Assadi, Chen, and Khanna gave a randomized algorithm for (Delta+1)-coloring that runs in O~(n sqrt{n}) time, which even for moderately dense graphs is sublinear in the input size. The work of Assadi et al. however contained a spoiler for MIS and MM: neither problems provably admits a sublinear-time algorithm in general graphs. In this work, we dig deeper into the possibility of achieving sublinear-time algorithms for MIS and MM.
The neighborhood independence number of a graph G, denoted by beta(G), is the size of the largest independent set in the neighborhood of any vertex. We identify beta(G) as the "right" parameter to measure the runtime of MIS and MM algorithms: Although graphs of bounded neighborhood independence may be very dense (clique is one example), we prove that carefully chosen variants of greedy algorithms for MIS and MM run in O(n beta(G)) and O(n log{n} * beta(G)) time respectively on any n-vertex graph G. We complement this positive result by observing that a simple extension of the lower bound of Assadi et al. implies that Omega(n beta(G)) time is also necessary for any algorithm to either problem for all values of beta(G) from 1 to Theta(n). We note that our algorithm for MIS is deterministic while for MM we use randomization which we prove is unavoidable: any deterministic algorithm for MM requires Omega(n^2) time even for beta(G) = 2.
Graphs with bounded neighborhood independence, already for constant beta = beta(G), constitute a rich family of possibly dense graphs, including line graphs, proper interval graphs, unit-disk graphs, claw-free graphs, and graphs of bounded growth. Our results suggest that even though MIS and MM do not admit sublinear-time algorithms in general graphs, one can still solve both problems in sublinear time for a wide range of beta(G) << n.
Finally, by observing that the lower bound of Omega(n sqrt{n}) time for (Delta+1)-coloring due to Assadi et al. applies to graphs of (small) constant neighborhood independence, we unveil an intriguing separation between the time complexity of MIS and MM, and that of (Delta+1)-coloring: while the time complexity of MIS and MM is strictly higher than that of (Delta+1) coloring in general graphs, the exact opposite relation holds for graphs with small neighborhood independence.

Sepehr Assadi and Shay Solomon. When Algorithms for Maximal Independent Set and Maximal Matching Run in Sublinear Time. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 17:1-17:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.17, author = {Assadi, Sepehr and Solomon, Shay}, title = {{When Algorithms for Maximal Independent Set and Maximal Matching Run in Sublinear Time}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {17:1--17:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.17}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-105931}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.17}, annote = {Keywords: Maximal Independent Set, Maximal Matching, Sublinear-Time Algorithms, Bounded Neighborhood Independence} }

Document

**Published in:** OASIcs, Volume 69, 2nd Symposium on Simplicity in Algorithms (SOSA 2019)

In this paper, we present a construction of a "matching sparsifier", that is, a sparse subgraph of the given graph that preserves large matchings approximately and is robust to modifications of the graph. We use this matching sparsifier to obtain several new algorithmic results for the maximum matching problem:
- An almost (3/2)-approximation one-way communication protocol for the maximum matching problem, significantly simplifying the (3/2)-approximation protocol of Goel, Kapralov, and Khanna (SODA 2012) and extending it from bipartite graphs to general graphs.
- An almost (3/2)-approximation algorithm for the stochastic matching problem, improving upon and significantly simplifying the previous 1.999-approximation algorithm of Assadi, Khanna, and Li (EC 2017).
- An almost (3/2)-approximation algorithm for the fault-tolerant matching problem, which, to our knowledge, is the first non-trivial algorithm for this problem.
Our matching sparsifier is obtained by proving new properties of the edge-degree constrained subgraph (EDCS) of Bernstein and Stein (ICALP 2015; SODA 2016) - designed in the context of maintaining matchings in dynamic graphs - that identifies EDCS as an excellent choice for a matching sparsifier. This leads to surprisingly simple and non-technical proofs of the above results in a unified way. Along the way, we also provide a much simpler proof of the fact that an EDCS is guaranteed to contain a large matching, which may be of independent interest.

Sepehr Assadi and Aaron Bernstein. Towards a Unified Theory of Sparsification for Matching Problems. In 2nd Symposium on Simplicity in Algorithms (SOSA 2019). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 69, pp. 11:1-11:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:OASIcs.SOSA.2019.11, author = {Assadi, Sepehr and Bernstein, Aaron}, title = {{Towards a Unified Theory of Sparsification for Matching Problems}}, booktitle = {2nd Symposium on Simplicity in Algorithms (SOSA 2019)}, pages = {11:1--11:20}, series = {Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-099-6}, ISSN = {2190-6807}, year = {2019}, volume = {69}, editor = {Fineman, Jeremy T. and Mitzenmacher, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.SOSA.2019.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-100370}, doi = {10.4230/OASIcs.SOSA.2019.11}, annote = {Keywords: Maximum matching, matching sparsifiers, one-way communication complexity, stochastic matching, fault-tolerant matching} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 124, 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019)

In the subgraph counting problem, we are given a (large) input graph G(V, E) and a (small) target graph H (e.g., a triangle); the goal is to estimate the number of occurrences of H in G. Our focus here is on designing sublinear-time algorithms for approximately computing number of occurrences of H in G in the setting where the algorithm is given query access to G. This problem has been studied in several recent papers which primarily focused on specific families of graphs H such as triangles, cliques, and stars. However, not much is known about approximate counting of arbitrary graphs H in the literature. This is in sharp contrast to the closely related subgraph enumeration problem that has received significant attention in the database community as the database join problem. The AGM bound shows that the maximum number of occurrences of any arbitrary subgraph H in a graph G with m edges is O(m^{rho(H)}), where rho(H) is the fractional edge-cover of H, and enumeration algorithms with matching runtime are known for any H.
We bridge this gap between subgraph counting and subgraph enumeration by designing a simple sublinear-time algorithm that can estimate the number of occurrences of any arbitrary graph H in G, denoted by #H, to within a (1 +/- epsilon)-approximation with high probability in O(m^{rho(H)}/#H) * poly(log(n),1/epsilon) time. Our algorithm is allowed the standard set of queries for general graphs, namely degree queries, pair queries and neighbor queries, plus an additional edge-sample query that returns an edge chosen uniformly at random. The performance of our algorithm matches those of Eden et al. [FOCS 2015, STOC 2018] for counting triangles and cliques and extend them to all choices of subgraph H under the additional assumption of edge-sample queries.

Sepehr Assadi, Michael Kapralov, and Sanjeev Khanna. A Simple Sublinear-Time Algorithm for Counting Arbitrary Subgraphs via Edge Sampling. In 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 124, pp. 6:1-6:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.6, author = {Assadi, Sepehr and Kapralov, Michael and Khanna, Sanjeev}, title = {{A Simple Sublinear-Time Algorithm for Counting Arbitrary Subgraphs via Edge Sampling}}, booktitle = {10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019)}, pages = {6:1--6:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-095-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {124}, editor = {Blum, Avrim}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-100996}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.6}, annote = {Keywords: Sublinear-time algorithms, Subgraph counting, AGM bound} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 48, 19th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2016)

Provisioning is a technique for avoiding repeated expensive computations in what-if analysis. Given a query, an analyst formulates k hypotheticals, each retaining some of the tuples of a database instance, possibly overlapping, and she wishes to answer the query under scenarios, where a scenario is defined by a subset of the hypotheticals that are "turned on". We say that a query admits compact provisioning if given any database instance and any k hypotheticals, one can create a poly-size (in k) sketch that can then be used to answer the query under any of the 2^k possible scenarios without accessing the original instance.
In this paper, we focus on provisioning complex queries that combine relational algebra (the logical component), grouping, and statistics/analytics (the numerical component). We first show that queries that compute quantiles or linear regression (as well as simpler queries that compute count and sum/average of positive values) can be compactly provisioned to provide (multiplicative) approximate answers to an arbitrary precision. In contrast, exact provisioning for each of these statistics requires the sketch size to be exponential in k. We then establish that for any complex query whose logical component is a positive relational algebra query, as long as the numerical component can be compactly provisioned, the complex query itself can be compactly provisioned. On the other hand, introducing negation or recursion in the logical component again requires the sketch size to be exponential in k. While our positive results use algorithms that do not access the original instance after a scenario is known, we prove our lower bounds even for the case when, knowing the scenario, limited access to the instance is allowed.

Sepehr Assadi, Sanjeev Khanna, Yang Li, and Val Tannen. Algorithms for Provisioning Queries and Analytics. In 19th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 48, pp. 18:1-18:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.ICDT.2016.18, author = {Assadi, Sepehr and Khanna, Sanjeev and Li, Yang and Tannen, Val}, title = {{Algorithms for Provisioning Queries and Analytics}}, booktitle = {19th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2016)}, pages = {18:1--18:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-002-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {48}, editor = {Martens, Wim and Zeume, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICDT.2016.18}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-57877}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICDT.2016.18}, annote = {Keywords: What-if Analysis, Provisioning, Data Compression, Approximate Query Answering} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 45, 35th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2015)

In this paper, we introduce a new model for sublinear algorithms called dynamic sketching. In this model, the underlying data is partitioned into a large static part and a small dynamic part and the goal is to compute a summary of the static part (i.e, a sketch) such that given any update for the dynamic part, one can combine it with the sketch to compute a given function. We say that a sketch is compact if its size is bounded by a polynomial function of the length of the dynamic data, (essentially) independent of the size of the static part.
A graph optimization problem P in this model is defined as follows. The input is a graph G(V,E) and a set T \subseteq V of k terminals; the edges between the terminals are the dynamic part and the other edges in G are the static part. The goal is to summarize the graph G into a compact sketch (of size poly(k)) such that given any set Q of edges between the terminals, one can answer the problem P for the graph obtained by inserting all edges in Q to G, using only the sketch.
We study the fundamental problem of computing a maximum matching and prove tight bounds on the sketch size. In particular, we show that there exists a (compact) dynamic sketch of size O(k^2) for the matching problem and any such sketch has to be of size \Omega(k^2). Our sketch for matchings can be further used to derive compact dynamic sketches for other fundamental graph problems involving cuts and connectivities. Interestingly, our sketch for matchings can also be used to give an elementary construction of a cut-preserving vertex sparsifier with space O(kC^2) for k-terminal graphs, which matches the best known upper bound; here C is the total capacity of the edges incident on the terminals. Additionally, we give an improved lower bound (in terms of C) of Omega(C/log{C}) on size of cut-preserving vertex sparsifiers, and establish that progress on dynamic sketching of the s-t max-flow problem (either upper bound or lower bound) immediately leads to better bounds for size of cut-preserving vertex sparsifiers.

Sepehr Assadi, Sanjeev Khanna, Yang Li, and Val Tannen. Dynamic Sketching for Graph Optimization Problems with Applications to Cut-Preserving Sketches. In 35th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 45, pp. 52-68, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2015.52, author = {Assadi, Sepehr and Khanna, Sanjeev and Li, Yang and Tannen, Val}, title = {{Dynamic Sketching for Graph Optimization Problems with Applications to Cut-Preserving Sketches}}, booktitle = {35th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2015)}, pages = {52--68}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-97-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {45}, editor = {Harsha, Prahladh and Ramalingam, G.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2015.52}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-56361}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2015.52}, annote = {Keywords: Small-space Algorithms, Maximum Matchings, Vertex Sparsifiers} }

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