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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)

A hitting formula is a set of Boolean clauses such that any two of the clauses cannot be simultaneously falsified. Hitting formulas have been studied in many different contexts at least since [Iwama, 1989] and, based on experimental evidence, Peitl and Szeider [Tomás Peitl and Stefan Szeider, 2022] conjectured that unsatisfiable hitting formulas are among the hardest for resolution. Using the fact that hitting formulas are easy to check for satisfiability we make them the foundation of a new static proof system {{rmHitting}}: a refutation of a CNF in {{rmHitting}} is an unsatisfiable hitting formula such that each of its clauses is a weakening of a clause of the refuted CNF. Comparing this system to resolution and other proof systems is equivalent to studying the hardness of hitting formulas.
Our first result is that {{rmHitting}} is quasi-polynomially simulated by tree-like resolution, which means that hitting formulas cannot be exponentially hard for resolution and partially refutes the conjecture of Peitl and Szeider. We show that tree-like resolution and {{rmHitting}} are quasi-polynomially separated, while for resolution, this question remains open. For a system that is only quasi-polynomially stronger than tree-like resolution, {{rmHitting}} is surprisingly difficult to polynomially simulate in another proof system. Using the ideas of Raz-Shpilka’s polynomial identity testing for noncommutative circuits [Raz and Shpilka, 2005] we show that {{rmHitting}} is p-simulated by {{rmExtended {{rmFrege}}}}, but we conjecture that much more efficient simulations exist. As a byproduct, we show that a number of static (semi)algebraic systems are verifiable in deterministic polynomial time.
We consider multiple extensions of {{rmHitting}}, and in particular a proof system {{{rmHitting}}(⊕)} related to the {{{rmRes}}(⊕)} proof system for which no superpolynomial-size lower bounds are known. {{{rmHitting}}(⊕)} p-simulates the tree-like version of {{{rmRes}}(⊕)} and is at least quasi-polynomially stronger. We show that formulas expressing the non-existence of perfect matchings in the graphs K_{n,n+2} are exponentially hard for {{{rmHitting}}(⊕)} via a reduction to the partition bound for communication complexity.
See the full version of the paper for the proofs. They are omitted in this Extended Abstract.

Yuval Filmus, Edward A. Hirsch, Artur Riazanov, Alexander Smal, and Marc Vinyals. Proving Unsatisfiability with Hitting Formulas. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 48:1-48:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{filmus_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.48, author = {Filmus, Yuval and Hirsch, Edward A. and Riazanov, Artur and Smal, Alexander and Vinyals, Marc}, title = {{Proving Unsatisfiability with Hitting Formulas}}, booktitle = {15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)}, pages = {48:1--48:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-309-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {287}, editor = {Guruswami, Venkatesan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.48}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195762}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.48}, annote = {Keywords: hitting formulas, polynomial identity testing, query complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 284, 43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023)

We consider the following question of bounded simultaneous messages (BSM) protocols: Can computationally unbounded Alice and Bob evaluate a function f(x,y) of their inputs by sending polynomial-size messages to a computationally bounded Carol? The special case where f is the mod-2 inner-product function and Carol is bounded to AC⁰ has been studied in previous works. The general question can be broadly motivated by applications in which distributed computation is more costly than local computation.
In this work, we initiate a more systematic study of the BSM model, with different functions f and computational bounds on Carol. In particular, we give evidence against the existence of BSM protocols with polynomial-size Carol for naturally distributed variants of NP-complete languages.

Andrej Bogdanov, Krishnamoorthy Dinesh, Yuval Filmus, Yuval Ishai, Avi Kaplan, and Sruthi Sekar. Bounded Simultaneous Messages. In 43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 284, pp. 23:1-23:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{bogdanov_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.23, author = {Bogdanov, Andrej and Dinesh, Krishnamoorthy and Filmus, Yuval and Ishai, Yuval and Kaplan, Avi and Sekar, Sruthi}, title = {{Bounded Simultaneous Messages}}, booktitle = {43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023)}, pages = {23:1--23:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-304-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {284}, editor = {Bouyer, Patricia and Srinivasan, Srikanth}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-193961}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.23}, annote = {Keywords: Simultaneous Messages, Instance Hiding, Algebraic degree, Preprocessing, Lower Bounds} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 275, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)

A circuit 𝒞 samples a distribution X with an error ε if the statistical distance between the output of 𝒞 on the uniform input and X is ε. We study the hardness of sampling a uniform distribution over the set of n-bit strings of Hamming weight k denoted by Uⁿ_k for decision forests, i.e. every output bit is computed as a decision tree of the inputs. For every k there is an O(log n)-depth decision forest sampling Uⁿ_k with an inverse-polynomial error [Emanuele Viola, 2012; Czumaj, 2015]. We show that for every ε > 0 there exists τ such that for decision depth τ log (n/k) / log log (n/k), the error for sampling U_kⁿ is at least 1-ε. Our result is based on the recent robust sunflower lemma [Ryan Alweiss et al., 2021; Rao, 2019].
Our second result is about matching a set of n-bit strings with the image of a d-local circuit, i.e. such that each output bit depends on at most d input bits. We study the set of all n-bit strings whose Hamming weight is at least n/2. We improve the previously known locality lower bound from Ω(log^* n) [Beyersdorff et al., 2013] to Ω(√log n), leaving only a quartic gap from the best upper bound of O(log² n).

Yuval Filmus, Itai Leigh, Artur Riazanov, and Dmitry Sokolov. Sampling and Certifying Symmetric Functions. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 275, pp. 36:1-36:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{filmus_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.36, author = {Filmus, Yuval and Leigh, Itai and Riazanov, Artur and Sokolov, Dmitry}, title = {{Sampling and Certifying Symmetric Functions}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)}, pages = {36:1--36:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-296-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {275}, editor = {Megow, Nicole and Smith, Adam}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.36}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-188611}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.36}, annote = {Keywords: sampling, lower bounds, robust sunflowers, decision trees, switching networks} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

A pair of sources X, Y over {0,1}ⁿ are k-indistinguishable if their projections to any k coordinates are identically distributed. Can some AC^0 function distinguish between two such sources when k is big, say k = n^{0.1}? Braverman’s theorem (Commun. ACM 2011) implies a negative answer when X is uniform, whereas Bogdanov et al. (Crypto 2016) observe that this is not the case in general.
We initiate a systematic study of this question for natural classes of low-complexity sources, including ones that arise in cryptographic applications, obtaining positive results, negative results, and barriers. In particular:
- There exist Ω(√n)-indistinguishable X, Y, samplable by degree-O(log n) polynomial maps (over F₂) and by poly(n)-size decision trees, that are Ω(1)-distinguishable by OR.
- There exists a function f such that all f(d, ε)-indistinguishable X, Y that are samplable by degree-d polynomial maps are ε-indistinguishable by OR for all sufficiently large n. Moreover, f(1, ε) = ⌈log(1/ε)⌉ + 1 and f(2, ε) = O(log^{10}(1/ε)).
- Extending (weaker versions of) the above negative results to AC^0 distinguishers would require settling a conjecture of Servedio and Viola (ECCC 2012). Concretely, if every pair of n^{0.9}-indistinguishable X, Y that are samplable by linear maps is ε-indistinguishable by AC^0 circuits, then the binary inner product function can have at most an ε-correlation with AC^0 ◦ ⊕ circuits.
Finally, we motivate the question and our results by presenting applications of positive results to low-complexity secret sharing and applications of negative results to leakage-resilient cryptography.

Andrej Bogdanov, Krishnamoorthy Dinesh, Yuval Filmus, Yuval Ishai, Avi Kaplan, and Akshayaram Srinivasan. Bounded Indistinguishability for Simple Sources. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 26:1-26:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{bogdanov_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.26, author = {Bogdanov, Andrej and Dinesh, Krishnamoorthy and Filmus, Yuval and Ishai, Yuval and Kaplan, Avi and Srinivasan, Akshayaram}, title = {{Bounded Indistinguishability for Simple Sources}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {26:1--26:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156223}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.26}, annote = {Keywords: Pseudorandomness, bounded indistinguishability, complexity of sampling, constant-depth circuits, secret sharing, leakage-resilient cryptography} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)

"Twenty questions" is a guessing game played by two players: Bob thinks of an integer between 1 and n, and Alice’s goal is to recover it using a minimal number of Yes/No questions. Shannon’s entropy has a natural interpretation in this context. It characterizes the average number of questions used by an optimal strategy in the distributional variant of the game: let μ be a distribution over [n], then the average number of questions used by an optimal strategy that recovers x∼ μ is between H(μ) and H(μ)+1.
We consider an extension of this game where at most k questions can be answered falsely. We extend the classical result by showing that an optimal strategy uses roughly H(μ) + k H_2(μ) questions, where H_2(μ) = ∑_x μ(x)log log 1/μ(x). This also generalizes a result by Rivest et al. (1980) for the uniform distribution.
Moreover, we design near optimal strategies that only use comparison queries of the form "x ≤ c?" for c ∈ [n]. The usage of comparison queries lends itself naturally to the context of sorting, where we derive sorting algorithms in the presence of adversarial noise.

Yuval Dagan, Yuval Filmus, Daniel Kane, and Shay Moran. The Entropy of Lies: Playing Twenty Questions with a Liar. In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 1:1-1:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{dagan_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.1, author = {Dagan, Yuval and Filmus, Yuval and Kane, Daniel and Moran, Shay}, title = {{The Entropy of Lies: Playing Twenty Questions with a Liar}}, booktitle = {12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)}, pages = {1:1--1:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-177-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {185}, editor = {Lee, James R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135400}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.1}, annote = {Keywords: entropy, twenty questions, algorithms, sorting} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)

We construct an explicit and structured family of 3XOR instances which is hard for O(√{log n}) levels of the Sum-of-Squares hierarchy. In contrast to earlier constructions, which involve a random component, our systems are highly structured and can be constructed explicitly in deterministic polynomial time.
Our construction is based on the high-dimensional expanders devised by Lubotzky, Samuels and Vishne, known as LSV complexes or Ramanujan complexes, and our analysis is based on two notions of expansion for these complexes: cosystolic expansion, and a local isoperimetric inequality due to Gromov.
Our construction offers an interesting contrast to the recent work of Alev, Jeronimo and the last author (FOCS 2019). They showed that 3XOR instances in which the variables correspond to vertices in a high-dimensional expander are easy to solve. In contrast, in our instances the variables correspond to the edges of the complex.

Irit Dinur, Yuval Filmus, Prahladh Harsha, and Madhur Tulsiani. Explicit SoS Lower Bounds from High-Dimensional Expanders. In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 38:1-38:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{dinur_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.38, author = {Dinur, Irit and Filmus, Yuval and Harsha, Prahladh and Tulsiani, Madhur}, title = {{Explicit SoS Lower Bounds from High-Dimensional Expanders}}, booktitle = {12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)}, pages = {38:1--38:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-177-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {185}, editor = {Lee, James R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.38}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135774}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.38}, annote = {Keywords: High-dimensional expanders, sum-of-squares, integrality gaps} }

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Extended Abstract

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)

We extend the definitions of complexity measures of functions to domains such as the symmetric group. The complexity measures we consider include degree, approximate degree, decision tree complexity, sensitivity, block sensitivity, and a few others. We show that these complexity measures are polynomially related for the symmetric group and for many other domains.
To show that all measures but sensitivity are polynomially related, we generalize classical arguments of Nisan and others. To add sensitivity to the mix, we reduce to Huang’s sensitivity theorem using "pseudo-characters", which witness the degree of a function.
Using similar ideas, we extend the characterization of Boolean degree 1 functions on the symmetric group due to Ellis, Friedgut and Pilpel to the perfect matching scheme. As another application of our ideas, we simplify the characterization of maximum-size t-intersecting families in the symmetric group and the perfect matching scheme.

Neta Dafni, Yuval Filmus, Noam Lifshitz, Nathan Lindzey, and Marc Vinyals. Complexity Measures on the Symmetric Group and Beyond (Extended Abstract). In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 87:1-87:5, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{dafni_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.87, author = {Dafni, Neta and Filmus, Yuval and Lifshitz, Noam and Lindzey, Nathan and Vinyals, Marc}, title = {{Complexity Measures on the Symmetric Group and Beyond}}, booktitle = {12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)}, pages = {87:1--87:5}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-177-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {185}, editor = {Lee, James R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.87}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136267}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.87}, annote = {Keywords: Computational Complexity Theory, Analysis of Boolean Functions, Complexity Measures, Extremal Combinatorics} }

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Extended Abstract

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)

Håstad showed that any De Morgan formula (composed of AND, OR and NOT gates) shrinks by a factor of O(p²) under a random restriction that leaves each variable alive independently with probability p [SICOMP, 1998]. Using this result, he gave an Ω̃(n³) formula size lower bound for the Andreev function, which, up to lower order improvements, remains the state-of-the-art lower bound for any explicit function.
In this work, we extend the shrinkage result of Håstad to hold under a far wider family of random restrictions and their generalization - random projections. Based on our shrinkage results, we obtain an Ω̃(n³) formula size lower bound for an explicit function computed in AC⁰. This improves upon the best known formula size lower bounds for AC⁰, that were only quadratic prior to our work. In addition, we prove that the KRW conjecture [Karchmer et al., Computational Complexity 5(3/4), 1995] holds for inner functions for which the unweighted quantum adversary bound is tight. In particular, this holds for inner functions with a tight Khrapchenko bound.
Our random projections are tailor-made to the function’s structure so that the function maintains structure even under projection - using such projections is necessary, as standard random restrictions simplify AC⁰ circuits. In contrast, we show that any De Morgan formula shrinks by a quadratic factor under our random projections, allowing us to prove the cubic lower bound.
Our proof techniques build on the proof of Håstad for the simpler case of balanced formulas. This allows for a significantly simpler proof at the cost of slightly worse parameters. As such, when specialized to the case of p-random restrictions, our proof can be used as an exposition of Håstad’s result.

Yuval Filmus, Or Meir, and Avishay Tal. Shrinkage Under Random Projections, and Cubic Formula Lower Bounds for AC0 (Extended Abstract). In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 89:1-89:7, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{filmus_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.89, author = {Filmus, Yuval and Meir, Or and Tal, Avishay}, title = {{Shrinkage Under Random Projections, and Cubic Formula Lower Bounds for AC0}}, booktitle = {12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)}, pages = {89:1--89:7}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-177-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {185}, editor = {Lee, James R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.89}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136281}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.89}, annote = {Keywords: De Morgan formulas, KRW Conjecture, shrinkage, random restrictions, random projections, bounded depth circuits, constant depth circuits, formula complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 169, 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)

It is a classical result that the inner product function cannot be computed by an AC⁰ circuit [Merrick L. Furst et al., 1981; Miklós Ajtai, 1983; Johan Håstad, 1986]. It is conjectured that this holds even if we allow arbitrary preprocessing of each of the two inputs separately. We prove this conjecture when the preprocessing of one of the inputs is limited to output n + n/(log^{ω(1)} n) bits. Our methods extend to many other functions, including pseudorandom functions, and imply a (weak but nontrivial) limitation on the power of encoding inputs in low-complexity cryptography. Finally, under cryptographic assumptions, we relate the question of proving variants of the main conjecture with the question of learning AC⁰ under simple input distributions.

Yuval Filmus, Yuval Ishai, Avi Kaplan, and Guy Kindler. Limits of Preprocessing. In 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 169, pp. 17:1-17:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{filmus_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2020.17, author = {Filmus, Yuval and Ishai, Yuval and Kaplan, Avi and Kindler, Guy}, title = {{Limits of Preprocessing}}, booktitle = {35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)}, pages = {17:1--17:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-156-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {169}, editor = {Saraf, Shubhangi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.17}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125697}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.17}, annote = {Keywords: circuit, communication complexity, IPPP, preprocessing, PRF, simultaneous messages} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

We prove a new query-to-communication lifting for randomized protocols, with inner product as gadget. This allows us to use a much smaller gadget, leading to a more efficient lifting. Prior to this work, such a theorem was known only for deterministic protocols, due to Chattopadhyay et al. [Arkadev Chattopadhyay et al., 2017] and Wu et al. [Xiaodi Wu et al., 2017]. The only query-to-communication lifting result for randomized protocols, due to Göös, Pitassi and Watson [Mika Göös et al., 2017], used the much larger indexing gadget.
Our proof also provides a unified treatment of randomized and deterministic lifting. Most existing proofs of deterministic lifting theorems use a measure of information known as thickness. In contrast, Göös, Pitassi and Watson [Mika Göös et al., 2017] used blockwise min-entropy as a measure of information. Our proof uses the blockwise min-entropy framework to prove lifting theorems in both settings in a unified way.

Arkadev Chattopadhyay, Yuval Filmus, Sajin Koroth, Or Meir, and Toniann Pitassi. Query-To-Communication Lifting for BPP Using Inner Product. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 35:1-35:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{chattopadhyay_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.35, author = {Chattopadhyay, Arkadev and Filmus, Yuval and Koroth, Sajin and Meir, Or and Pitassi, Toniann}, title = {{Query-To-Communication Lifting for BPP Using Inner Product}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {35:1--35:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.35}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106110}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.35}, annote = {Keywords: lifting theorems, inner product, BPP Lifting, Deterministic Lifting} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

The seminal result of Kahn, Kalai and Linial shows that a coalition of O(n/(log n)) players can bias the outcome of any Boolean function {0,1}^n -> {0,1} with respect to the uniform measure. We extend their result to arbitrary product measures on {0,1}^n, by combining their argument with a completely different argument that handles very biased input bits.
We view this result as a step towards proving a conjecture of Friedgut, which states that Boolean functions on the continuous cube [0,1]^n (or, equivalently, on {1,...,n}^n) can be biased using coalitions of o(n) players. This is the first step taken in this direction since Friedgut proposed the conjecture in 2004.
Russell, Saks and Zuckerman extended the result of Kahn, Kalai and Linial to multi-round protocols, showing that when the number of rounds is o(log^* n), a coalition of o(n) players can bias the outcome with respect to the uniform measure. We extend this result as well to arbitrary product measures on {0,1}^n.
The argument of Russell et al. relies on the fact that a coalition of o(n) players can boost the expectation of any Boolean function from epsilon to 1-epsilon with respect to the uniform measure. This fails for general product distributions, as the example of the AND function with respect to mu_{1-1/n} shows. Instead, we use a novel boosting argument alongside a generalization of our first result to arbitrary finite ranges.

Yuval Filmus, Lianna Hambardzumyan, Hamed Hatami, Pooya Hatami, and David Zuckerman. Biasing Boolean Functions and Collective Coin-Flipping Protocols over Arbitrary Product Distributions. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 58:1-58:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{filmus_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.58, author = {Filmus, Yuval and Hambardzumyan, Lianna and Hatami, Hamed and Hatami, Pooya and Zuckerman, David}, title = {{Biasing Boolean Functions and Collective Coin-Flipping Protocols over Arbitrary Product Distributions}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {58:1--58:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.58}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106340}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.58}, annote = {Keywords: Boolean function analysis, coin flipping} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 124, 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019)

Let kappa in N_+^l satisfy kappa_1 + *s + kappa_l = n, and let U_kappa denote the multislice of all strings u in [l]^n having exactly kappa_i coordinates equal to i, for all i in [l]. Consider the Markov chain on U_kappa where a step is a random transposition of two coordinates of u. We show that the log-Sobolev constant rho_kappa for the chain satisfies rho_kappa^{-1} <= n * sum_{i=1}^l 1/2 log_2(4n/kappa_i), which is sharp up to constants whenever l is constant. From this, we derive some consequences for small-set expansion and isoperimetry in the multislice, including a KKL Theorem, a Kruskal - Katona Theorem for the multislice, a Friedgut Junta Theorem, and a Nisan - Szegedy Theorem.

Yuval Filmus, Ryan O'Donnell, and Xinyu Wu. A Log-Sobolev Inequality for the Multislice, with Applications. In 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 124, pp. 34:1-34:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{filmus_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.34, author = {Filmus, Yuval and O'Donnell, Ryan and Wu, Xinyu}, title = {{A Log-Sobolev Inequality for the Multislice, with Applications}}, booktitle = {10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019)}, pages = {34:1--34:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-095-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {124}, editor = {Blum, Avrim}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.34}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-101279}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.34}, annote = {Keywords: log-Sobolev inequality, small-set expansion, conductance, hypercontractivity, Fourier analysis, representation theory, Markov chains, combinatorics} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 116, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018)

We initiate the study of Boolean function analysis on high-dimensional expanders. We describe an analog of the Fourier expansion and of the Fourier levels on simplicial complexes, and generalize the FKN theorem to high-dimensional expanders.
Our results demonstrate that a high-dimensional expanding complex X can sometimes serve as a sparse model for the Boolean slice or hypercube, and quite possibly additional results from Boolean function analysis can be carried over to this sparse model. Therefore, this model can be viewed as a derandomization of the Boolean slice, containing |X(k)|=O(n) points in comparison to binom{n}{k+1} points in the (k+1)-slice (which consists of all n-bit strings with exactly k+1 ones).

Yotam Dikstein, Irit Dinur, Yuval Filmus, and Prahladh Harsha. Boolean Function Analysis on High-Dimensional Expanders. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 116, pp. 38:1-38:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{dikstein_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.38, author = {Dikstein, Yotam and Dinur, Irit and Filmus, Yuval and Harsha, Prahladh}, title = {{Boolean Function Analysis on High-Dimensional Expanders}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018)}, pages = {38:1--38:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-085-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {116}, editor = {Blais, Eric and Jansen, Klaus and D. P. Rolim, Jos\'{e} and Steurer, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.38}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-94421}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.38}, annote = {Keywords: high dimensional expanders, Boolean function analysis, sparse model} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 79, 32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017)

We consider the standard two-party communication model. The central problem studied in this article is how much can one save in information complexity by allowing a certain error.
* For arbitrary functions, we obtain lower bounds and upper bounds indicating a gain that is of order Omega(h(epsilon)) and O(h(sqrt{epsilon})). Here h denotes the binary entropy function.
* We analyze the case of the two-bit AND function in detail to show that for this function the gain is Theta(h(epsilon)). This answers a question of Braverman et al. [Braverman, STOC 2013].
* We obtain sharp bounds for the set disjointness function of order n. For the case of the distributional error, we introduce a new protocol that achieves a gain of Theta(sqrt{h(epsilon)}) provided that n is sufficiently large. We apply these results to answer another of question of Braverman et al. regarding the randomized communication complexity of the set disjointness function.
* Answering a question of Braverman [Braverman, STOC 2012], we apply our analysis of the set disjointness function to establish a gap between the two different notions of the prior-free information cost. In light of [Braverman, STOC 2012], this implies that amortized randomized communication complexity is not necessarily equal to the amortized distributional communication complexity with respect to the hardest distribution.
As a consequence, we show that the epsilon-error randomized communication complexity of the set disjointness function of order n is n[C_{DISJ} - Theta(h(epsilon))] + o(n), where C_{DISJ} ~ 0.4827$ is the constant found by Braverman et al. [Braverman, STOC 2012].

Yuval Dagan, Yuval Filmus, Hamed Hatami, and Yaqiao Li. Trading Information Complexity for Error. In 32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 79, pp. 16:1-16:59, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{dagan_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2017.16, author = {Dagan, Yuval and Filmus, Yuval and Hatami, Hamed and Li, Yaqiao}, title = {{Trading Information Complexity for Error}}, booktitle = {32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017)}, pages = {16:1--16:59}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-040-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {79}, editor = {O'Donnell, Ryan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2017.16}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-75179}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2017.16}, annote = {Keywords: communication complexity, information complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 50, 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016)

We prove a non-linear invariance principle for the slice. As applications, we prove versions of Majority is Stablest, Bourgain's tail theorem, and the Kindler-Safra theorem for the slice. From the latter we deduce a stability version of the t-intersecting Erdos-Ko-Rado theorem.

Yuval Filmus, Guy Kindler, Elchanan Mossel, and Karl Wimmer. Invariance Principle on the Slice. In 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 50, pp. 15:1-15:10, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{filmus_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2016.15, author = {Filmus, Yuval and Kindler, Guy and Mossel, Elchanan and Wimmer, Karl}, title = {{Invariance Principle on the Slice}}, booktitle = {31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016)}, pages = {15:1--15:10}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-008-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {50}, editor = {Raz, Ran}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2016.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-58236}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2016.15}, annote = {Keywords: analysis of boolean functions, invariance principle, Johnson association scheme, the slice} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 50, 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016)

In a recent work with Kindler and Wimmer we proved an invariance principle for the slice for low-influence, low-degree functions. Here we provide an alternative proof for general low-degree functions, with no constraints on the influences. We show that any real-valued function on the slice, whose degree when written as a harmonic multi-linear polynomial is o(sqrt(n)), has approximately the same distribution under the slice and cube measure.
Our proof is based on a novel decomposition of random increasing paths in the cube in terms of martingales and reverse martingales. While such decompositions have been used in the past for stationary reversible Markov chains, ours decomposition is applied in a non-reversible non-stationary setup. We also provide simple proofs for some known and some new properties of harmonic functions which are crucial for the proof.
Finally, we provide independent simple proofs for the known facts that 1) one cannot distinguish between the slice and the cube based on functions of little of of n coordinates and 2) Boolean symmetric functions on the cube cannot be approximated under the uniform measure by functions whose sum of influences is o(sqrt(n)).

Yuval Filmus and Elchanan Mossel. Harmonicity and Invariance on Slices of the Boolean Cube. In 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 50, pp. 16:1-16:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{filmus_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2016.16, author = {Filmus, Yuval and Mossel, Elchanan}, title = {{Harmonicity and Invariance on Slices of the Boolean Cube}}, booktitle = {31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016)}, pages = {16:1--16:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-008-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {50}, editor = {Raz, Ran}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2016.16}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-58240}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2016.16}, annote = {Keywords: analysis of boolean functions, invariance principle, Johnson association scheme, the slice} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 47, 33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016)

In this paper, we compare the strength of the semantic and syntactic version of the cutting planes proof system.
First, we show that the lower bound technique of Pudlák applies also to semantic cutting planes: the proof system has feasible interpolation via monotone real circuits, which gives an exponential lower bound on lengths of semantic cutting planes refutations.
Second, we show that semantic refutations are stronger than syntactic ones. In particular, we give a formula for which any refutation in syntactic cutting planes requires exponential length, while there is a polynomial length refutation in semantic cutting planes. In other words, syntactic cutting planes does not p-simulate semantic cutting planes. We also give two incompatible integer inequalities which require exponential length refutation in syntactic cutting planes.
Finally, we pose the following problem, which arises in connection with semantic inference of arity larger than two: can every multivariate non-decreasing real function be expressed as a composition of non-decreasing real functions in two variables?

Yuval Filmus, Pavel Hrubeš, and Massimo Lauria. Semantic Versus Syntactic Cutting Planes. In 33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 47, pp. 35:1-35:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{filmus_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2016.35, author = {Filmus, Yuval and Hrube\v{s}, Pavel and Lauria, Massimo}, title = {{Semantic Versus Syntactic Cutting Planes}}, booktitle = {33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016)}, pages = {35:1--35:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-001-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {47}, editor = {Ollinger, Nicolas and Vollmer, Heribert}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2016.35}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-57367}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2016.35}, annote = {Keywords: proof complexity, cutting planes, lower bounds} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 25, 31st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2014)

In 2003, Atserias and Dalmau resolved a major open question about the resolution proof system by establishing that the space complexity of formulas is always an upper bound on the width needed to refute them. Their proof is beautiful but somewhat mysterious in that it relies heavily on tools from finite model theory. We give an alternative, completely elementary, proof that works by simple syntactic manipulations of resolution refutations. As a by-product, we develop a "black-box" technique for proving space lower bounds via a "static" complexity measure that works against any resolution refutation -- previous techniques have been inherently adaptive. We conclude by showing that the related question for polynomial calculus (i.e., whether space is an upper bound on degree) seems unlikely to be resolvable by similar methods.

Yuval Filmus, Massimo Lauria, Mladen Miksa, Jakob Nordström, and Marc Vinyals. From Small Space to Small Width in Resolution. In 31st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2014). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 25, pp. 300-311, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)

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@InProceedings{filmus_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2014.300, author = {Filmus, Yuval and Lauria, Massimo and Miksa, Mladen and Nordstr\"{o}m, Jakob and Vinyals, Marc}, title = {{From Small Space to Small Width in Resolution}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2014)}, pages = {300--311}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-65-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2014}, volume = {25}, editor = {Mayr, Ernst W. and Portier, Natacha}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2014.300}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-44661}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2014.300}, annote = {Keywords: proof complexity, resolution, width, space, polynomial calculus, PCR} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 14, 29th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2012)

We present an optimal, combinatorial 1-1/e approximation algorithm for Maximum Coverage over a matroid constraint, using non-oblivious local search. Calinescu, Chekuri, Pál and Vondrák have given an optimal 1-1/e approximation algorithm for the more general problem of monotone submodular maximization over a matroid constraint. The advantage of our algorithm is that it is entirely combinatorial, and in many circumstances also faster, as well as conceptually simpler.
Following previous work on satisfiability problems by Alimonti, as well as by Khanna, Motwani, Sudan and Vazirani, our local search algorithm is *non-oblivious*. That is, our algorithm uses an auxiliary linear objective function to evaluate solutions. This function gives more weight to elements covered multiple times. We show that the locality ratio of the resulting local search procedure is at least 1-1/e. Our local search procedure only considers improvements of size 1. In contrast, we show that oblivious local search, guided only by the problem's objective function, achieves an approximation ratio of only (n-1)/(2n-1-k) when improvements of size k are considered.
In general, our local search algorithm could take an exponential amount of time to converge to an *exact* local optimum. We address this situation by using a combination of *approximate* local search and the same partial enumeration techniques as Calinescu et al., resulting in a clean 1 - 1/e-approximation algorithm running in polynomial time.

Yuval Filmus and Justin Ward. The Power of Local Search: Maximum Coverage over a Matroid. In 29th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2012). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 14, pp. 601-612, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2012)

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@InProceedings{filmus_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2012.601, author = {Filmus, Yuval and Ward, Justin}, title = {{The Power of Local Search: Maximum Coverage over a Matroid}}, booktitle = {29th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2012)}, pages = {601--612}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-35-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2012}, volume = {14}, editor = {D\"{u}rr, Christoph and Wilke, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2012.601}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-33968}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2012.601}, annote = {Keywords: approximation algorithms; maximum coverage; matroids; local search} }

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