16 Search Results for "Alman, Josh"


Document
Tensor Ranks and the Fine-Grained Complexity of Dynamic Programming

Authors: Josh Alman, Ethan Turok, Hantao Yu, and Hengzhi Zhang

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)


Abstract
Generalizing work of Künnemann, Paturi, and Schneider [ICALP 2017], we study a wide class of high-dimensional dynamic programming (DP) problems in which one must find the shortest path between two points in a high-dimensional grid given a tensor of transition costs between nodes in the grid. This captures many classical problems which are solved using DP such as the knapsack problem, the airplane refueling problem, and the minimal-weight polygon triangulation problem. We observe that for many of these problems, the tensor naturally has low tensor rank or low slice rank. We then give new algorithms and a web of fine-grained reductions to tightly determine the complexity of these problems. For instance, we show that a polynomial speedup over the DP algorithm is possible when the tensor rank is a constant or the slice rank is 1, but that such a speedup is impossible if the tensor rank is slightly super-constant (assuming SETH) or the slice rank is at least 3 (assuming the APSP conjecture). We find that this characterizes the known complexities for many of these problems, and in some cases leads to new faster algorithms.

Cite as

Josh Alman, Ethan Turok, Hantao Yu, and Hengzhi Zhang. Tensor Ranks and the Fine-Grained Complexity of Dynamic Programming. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 4:1-4:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{alman_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.4,
  author =	{Alman, Josh and Turok, Ethan and Yu, Hantao and Zhang, Hengzhi},
  title =	{{Tensor Ranks and the Fine-Grained Complexity of Dynamic Programming}},
  booktitle =	{15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)},
  pages =	{4:1--4:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-309-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{287},
  editor =	{Guruswami, Venkatesan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.4},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195324},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.4},
  annote =	{Keywords: Fine-grained complexity, Dynamic programming, Least-weight subsequence}
}
Document
Matrix Multiplication and Number on the Forehead Communication

Authors: Josh Alman and Jarosław Błasiok

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 264, 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)


Abstract
Three-player Number On the Forehead communication may be thought of as a three-player Number In the Hand promise model, in which each player is given the inputs that are supposedly on the other two players' heads, and promised that they are consistent with the inputs of the other players. The set of all allowed inputs under this promise may be thought of as an order-3 tensor. We surprisingly observe that this tensor is exactly the matrix multiplication tensor, which is widely studied in the design of fast matrix multiplication algorithms. Using this connection, we prove a number of results about both Number On the Forehead communication and matrix multiplication, each by using known results or techniques about the other. For example, we show how the Laser method, a key technique used to design the best matrix multiplication algorithms, can also be used to design communication protocols for a variety of problems. We also show how known lower bounds for Number On the Forehead communication can be used to bound properties of the matrix multiplication tensor such as its zeroing out subrank. Finally, we substantially generalize known methods based on slice-rank for studying communication, and show how they directly relate to the matrix multiplication exponent ω.

Cite as

Josh Alman and Jarosław Błasiok. Matrix Multiplication and Number on the Forehead Communication. In 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 264, pp. 16:1-16:23, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{alman_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2023.16,
  author =	{Alman, Josh and B{\l}asiok, Jaros{\l}aw},
  title =	{{Matrix Multiplication and Number on the Forehead Communication}},
  booktitle =	{38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)},
  pages =	{16:1--16:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-282-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{264},
  editor =	{Ta-Shma, Amnon},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-182861},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: Number on the forehead, communication complexity, matrix multiplication}
}
Document
Optimal-Degree Polynomial Approximations for Exponentials and Gaussian Kernel Density Estimation

Authors: Amol Aggarwal and Josh Alman

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 234, 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)


Abstract
For any real numbers B ≥ 1 and δ ∈ (0,1) and function f: [0,B] → ℝ, let d_{B; δ}(f) ∈ ℤ_{> 0} denote the minimum degree of a polynomial p(x) satisfying sup_{x ∈ [0,B]} |p(x) - f(x)| < δ. In this paper, we provide precise asymptotics for d_{B; δ}(e^{-x}) and d_{B; δ}(e^x) in terms of both B and δ, improving both the previously known upper bounds and lower bounds. In particular, we show d_{B; δ}(e^{-x}) = Θ(max{√{B log(δ^{-1})}, log(δ^{-1})/{log(B^{-1} log(δ^{-1}))}}), and d_{B; δ}(e^{x}) = Θ(max{B, log(δ^{-1})/{log(B^{-1} log(δ^{-1}))}}), and we explicitly determine the leading coefficients in most parameter regimes. Polynomial approximations for e^{-x} and e^x have applications to the design of algorithms for many problems, including in scientific computing, graph algorithms, machine learning, and statistics. Our degree bounds show both the power and limitations of these algorithms. We focus in particular on the Batch Gaussian Kernel Density Estimation problem for n sample points in Θ(log n) dimensions with error δ = n^{-Θ(1)}. We show that the running time one can achieve depends on the square of the diameter of the point set, B, with a transition at B = Θ(log n) mirroring the corresponding transition in d_{B; δ}(e^{-x}): - When B = o(log n), we give the first algorithm running in time n^{1 + o(1)}. - When B = κ log n for a small constant κ > 0, we give an algorithm running in time n^{1 + O(log log κ^{-1} /log κ^{-1})}. The log log κ^{-1} /log κ^{-1} term in the exponent comes from analyzing the behavior of the leading constant in our computation of d_{B; δ}(e^{-x}). - When B = ω(log n), we show that time n^{2 - o(1)} is necessary assuming SETH.

Cite as

Amol Aggarwal and Josh Alman. Optimal-Degree Polynomial Approximations for Exponentials and Gaussian Kernel Density Estimation. In 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 234, pp. 22:1-22:23, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{aggarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2022.22,
  author =	{Aggarwal, Amol and Alman, Josh},
  title =	{{Optimal-Degree Polynomial Approximations for Exponentials and Gaussian Kernel Density Estimation}},
  booktitle =	{37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)},
  pages =	{22:1--22:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-241-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{234},
  editor =	{Lovett, Shachar},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.22},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165846},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.22},
  annote =	{Keywords: polynomial approximation, kernel density estimation, Chebyshev polynomials}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Parameterized Sensitivity Oracles and Dynamic Algorithms Using Exterior Algebras

Authors: Josh Alman and Dean Hirsch

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)


Abstract
We design the first efficient sensitivity oracles and dynamic algorithms for a variety of parameterized problems. Our main approach is to modify the algebraic coding technique from static parameterized algorithm design, which had not previously been used in a dynamic context. We particularly build off of the "extensor coding" method of Brand, Dell and Husfeldt [STOC'18], employing properties of the exterior algebra over different fields. For the k-Path detection problem for directed graphs, it is known that no efficient dynamic algorithm exists (under popular assumptions from fine-grained complexity). We circumvent this by designing an efficient sensitivity oracle, which preprocesses a directed graph on n vertices in 2^k poly(k) n^{ω+o(1)} time, such that, given 𝓁 updates (mixing edge insertions and deletions, and vertex deletions) to that input graph, it can decide in time 𝓁² 2^kpoly(k) and with high probability, whether the updated graph contains a path of length k. We also give a deterministic sensitivity oracle requiring 4^k poly(k) n^{ω+o(1)} preprocessing time and 𝓁² 2^{ω k + o(k)} query time, and obtain a randomized sensitivity oracle for the task of approximately counting the number of k-paths. For k-Path detection in undirected graphs, we obtain a randomized sensitivity oracle with O(1.66^k n³) preprocessing time and O(𝓁³ 1.66^k) query time, and a better bound for undirected bipartite graphs. In addition, we present the first fully dynamic algorithms for a variety of problems: k-Partial Cover, m-Set k-Packing, t-Dominating Set, d-Dimensional k-Matching, and Exact k-Partial Cover. For example, for k-Partial Cover we show a randomized dynamic algorithm with 2^k poly(k)polylog(n) update time, and a deterministic dynamic algorithm with 4^k poly(k)polylog(n) update time. Finally, we show how our techniques can be adapted to deal with natural variants on these problems where additional constraints are imposed on the solutions.

Cite as

Josh Alman and Dean Hirsch. Parameterized Sensitivity Oracles and Dynamic Algorithms Using Exterior Algebras. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 9:1-9:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{alman_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.9,
  author =	{Alman, Josh and Hirsch, Dean},
  title =	{{Parameterized Sensitivity Oracles and Dynamic Algorithms Using Exterior Algebras}},
  booktitle =	{49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)},
  pages =	{9:1--9:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-235-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{229},
  editor =	{Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.9},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163504},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.9},
  annote =	{Keywords: sensitivity oracles, k-path, dynamic algorithms, parameterized algorithms, set packing, partial cover, exterior algebra, extensor, algebraic algorithms}
}
Document
OV Graphs Are (Probably) Hard Instances

Authors: Josh Alman and Virginia Vassilevska Williams

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)


Abstract
A graph G on n nodes is an Orthogonal Vectors (OV) graph of dimension d if there are vectors v_1, …, v_n ∈ {0,1}^d such that nodes i and j are adjacent in G if and only if ⟨v_i,v_j⟩ = 0 over Z. In this paper, we study a number of basic graph algorithm problems, except where one is given as input the vectors defining an OV graph instead of a general graph. We show that for each of the following problems, an algorithm solving it faster on such OV graphs G of dimension only d=O(log n) than in the general case would refute a plausible conjecture about the time required to solve sparse MAX-k-SAT instances: - Determining whether G contains a triangle. - More generally, determining whether G contains a directed k-cycle for any k ≥ 3. - Computing the square of the adjacency matrix of G over ℤ or ?_2. - Maintaining the shortest distance between two fixed nodes of G, or whether G has a perfect matching, when G is a dynamically updating OV graph. We also prove some complementary results about OV graphs. We show that any problem which is NP-hard on constant-degree graphs is also NP-hard on OV graphs of dimension O(log n), and we give two problems which can be solved faster on OV graphs than in general: Maximum Clique, and Online Matrix-Vector Multiplication.

Cite as

Josh Alman and Virginia Vassilevska Williams. OV Graphs Are (Probably) Hard Instances. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 83:1-83:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{alman_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.83,
  author =	{Alman, Josh and Vassilevska Williams, Virginia},
  title =	{{OV Graphs Are (Probably) Hard Instances}},
  booktitle =	{11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)},
  pages =	{83:1--83:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-134-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{151},
  editor =	{Vidick, Thomas},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.83},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117686},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.83},
  annote =	{Keywords: Orthogonal Vectors, Fine-Grained Reductions, Cycle Finding}
}
Document
Stronger Connections Between Circuit Analysis and Circuit Lower Bounds, via PCPs of Proximity

Authors: Lijie Chen and R. Ryan Williams

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 137, 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)


Abstract
We considerably sharpen the known connections between circuit-analysis algorithms and circuit lower bounds, show intriguing equivalences between the analysis of weak circuits and (apparently difficult) circuits, and provide strong new lower bounds for approximately computing Boolean functions with depth-two neural networks and related models. - We develop approaches to proving THR o THR lower bounds (a notorious open problem), by connecting algorithmic analysis of THR o THR to the provably weaker circuit classes THR o MAJ and MAJ o MAJ, where exponential lower bounds have long been known. More precisely, we show equivalences between algorithmic analysis of THR o THR and these weaker classes. The epsilon-error CAPP problem asks to approximate the acceptance probability of a given circuit to within additive error epsilon; it is the "canonical" derandomization problem. We show: - There is a non-trivial (2^n/n^{omega(1)} time) 1/poly(n)-error CAPP algorithm for poly(n)-size THR o THR circuits if and only if there is such an algorithm for poly(n)-size MAJ o MAJ. - There is a delta > 0 and a non-trivial SAT (delta-error CAPP) algorithm for poly(n)-size THR o THR circuits if and only if there is such an algorithm for poly(n)-size THR o MAJ. Similar results hold for depth-d linear threshold circuits and depth-d MAJORITY circuits. These equivalences are proved via new simulations of THR circuits by circuits with MAJ gates. - We strengthen the connection between non-trivial derandomization (non-trivial CAPP algorithms) for a circuit class C, and circuit lower bounds against C. Previously, [Ben-Sasson and Viola, ICALP 2014] (following [Williams, STOC 2010]) showed that for any polynomial-size class C closed under projections, non-trivial (2^{n}/n^{omega(1)} time) CAPP for OR_{poly(n)} o AND_{3} o C yields NEXP does not have C circuits. We apply Probabilistic Checkable Proofs of Proximity in a new way to show it would suffice to have a non-trivial CAPP algorithm for either XOR_2 o C, AND_2 o C or OR_2 o C. - A direct corollary of the first two bullets is that NEXP does not have THR o THR circuits would follow from either: - a non-trivial delta-error CAPP (or SAT) algorithm for poly(n)-size THR o MAJ circuits, or - a non-trivial 1/poly(n)-error CAPP algorithm for poly(n)-size MAJ o MAJ circuits. - Applying the above machinery, we extend lower bounds for depth-two neural networks and related models [R. Williams, CCC 2018] to weak approximate computations of Boolean functions. For example, for arbitrarily small epsilon > 0, we prove there are Boolean functions f computable in nondeterministic n^{log n} time such that (for infinitely many n) every polynomial-size depth-two neural network N on n inputs (with sign or ReLU activation) must satisfy max_{x in {0,1}^n}|N(x)-f(x)|>1/2-epsilon. That is, short linear combinations of ReLU gates fail miserably at computing f to within close precision. Similar results are proved for linear combinations of ACC o THR circuits, and linear combinations of low-degree F_p polynomials. These results constitute further progress towards THR o THR lower bounds.

Cite as

Lijie Chen and R. Ryan Williams. Stronger Connections Between Circuit Analysis and Circuit Lower Bounds, via PCPs of Proximity. In 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 137, pp. 19:1-19:43, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2019.19,
  author =	{Chen, Lijie and Williams, R. Ryan},
  title =	{{Stronger Connections Between Circuit Analysis and Circuit Lower Bounds, via PCPs of Proximity}},
  booktitle =	{34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)},
  pages =	{19:1--19:43},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-116-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{137},
  editor =	{Shpilka, Amir},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.19},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-108419},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.19},
  annote =	{Keywords: PCP of Proximity, Circuit Lower Bounds, Derandomization, Threshold Circuits, ReLU}
}
Document
Barriers for Fast Matrix Multiplication from Irreversibility

Authors: Matthias Christandl, Péter Vrana, and Jeroen Zuiddam

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 137, 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)


Abstract
Determining the asymptotic algebraic complexity of matrix multiplication, succinctly represented by the matrix multiplication exponent omega, is a central problem in algebraic complexity theory. The best upper bounds on omega, leading to the state-of-the-art omega <= 2.37.., have been obtained via the laser method of Strassen and its generalization by Coppersmith and Winograd. Recent barrier results show limitations for these and related approaches to improve the upper bound on omega. We introduce a new and more general barrier, providing stronger limitations than in previous work. Concretely, we introduce the notion of "irreversibility" of a tensor and we prove (in some precise sense) that any approach that uses an irreversible tensor in an intermediate step (e.g., as a starting tensor in the laser method) cannot give omega = 2. In quantitative terms, we prove that the best upper bound achievable is lower bounded by two times the irreversibility of the intermediate tensor. The quantum functionals and Strassen support functionals give (so far, the best) lower bounds on irreversibility. We provide lower bounds on the irreversibility of key intermediate tensors, including the small and big Coppersmith - Winograd tensors, that improve limitations shown in previous work. Finally, we discuss barriers on the group-theoretic approach in terms of "monomial" irreversibility.

Cite as

Matthias Christandl, Péter Vrana, and Jeroen Zuiddam. Barriers for Fast Matrix Multiplication from Irreversibility. In 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 137, pp. 26:1-26:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{christandl_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2019.26,
  author =	{Christandl, Matthias and Vrana, P\'{e}ter and Zuiddam, Jeroen},
  title =	{{Barriers for Fast Matrix Multiplication from Irreversibility}},
  booktitle =	{34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)},
  pages =	{26:1--26:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-116-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{137},
  editor =	{Shpilka, Amir},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.26},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-108487},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.26},
  annote =	{Keywords: Matrix multiplication exponent, barriers, laser method}
}
Document
Fourier and Circulant Matrices Are Not Rigid

Authors: Zeev Dvir and Allen Liu

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 137, 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)


Abstract
The concept of matrix rigidity was first introduced by Valiant in [Friedman, 1993]. Roughly speaking, a matrix is rigid if its rank cannot be reduced significantly by changing a small number of entries. There has been extensive interest in rigid matrices as Valiant showed in [Friedman, 1993] that rigidity can be used to prove arithmetic circuit lower bounds. In a surprising result, Alman and Williams showed that the (real valued) Hadamard matrix, which was conjectured to be rigid, is actually not very rigid. This line of work was extended by [Dvir and Edelman, 2017] to a family of matrices related to the Hadamard matrix, but over finite fields. In our work, we take another step in this direction and show that for any abelian group G and function f:G - > {C}, the matrix given by M_{xy} = f(x - y) for x,y in G is not rigid. In particular, we get that complex valued Fourier matrices, circulant matrices, and Toeplitz matrices are all not rigid and cannot be used to carry out Valiant’s approach to proving circuit lower bounds. This complements a recent result of Goldreich and Tal [Goldreich and Tal, 2016] who showed that Toeplitz matrices are nontrivially rigid (but not enough for Valiant’s method). Our work differs from previous non-rigidity results in that those works considered matrices whose underlying group of symmetries was of the form {F}_p^n with p fixed and n tending to infinity, while in the families of matrices we study, the underlying group of symmetries can be any abelian group and, in particular, the cyclic group {Z}_N, which has very different structure. Our results also suggest natural new candidates for rigidity in the form of matrices whose symmetry groups are highly non-abelian. Our proof has four parts. The first extends the results of [Josh Alman and Ryan Williams, 2016; Dvir and Edelman, 2017] to generalized Hadamard matrices over the complex numbers via a new proof technique. The second part handles the N x N Fourier matrix when N has a particularly nice factorization that allows us to embed smaller copies of (generalized) Hadamard matrices inside of it. The third part uses results from number theory to bootstrap the non-rigidity for these special values of N and extend to all sufficiently large N. The fourth and final part involves using the non-rigidity of the Fourier matrix to show that the group algebra matrix, given by M_{xy} = f(x - y) for x,y in G, is not rigid for any function f and abelian group G.

Cite as

Zeev Dvir and Allen Liu. Fourier and Circulant Matrices Are Not Rigid. In 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 137, pp. 17:1-17:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{dvir_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2019.17,
  author =	{Dvir, Zeev and Liu, Allen},
  title =	{{Fourier and Circulant Matrices Are Not Rigid}},
  booktitle =	{34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)},
  pages =	{17:1--17:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-116-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{137},
  editor =	{Shpilka, Amir},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.17},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-108390},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.17},
  annote =	{Keywords: Rigidity, Fourier matrix, Circulant matrix}
}
Document
Relations and Equivalences Between Circuit Lower Bounds and Karp-Lipton Theorems

Authors: Lijie Chen, Dylan M. McKay, Cody D. Murray, and R. Ryan Williams

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 137, 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)


Abstract
A frontier open problem in circuit complexity is to prove P^{NP} is not in SIZE[n^k] for all k; this is a necessary intermediate step towards NP is not in P_{/poly}. Previously, for several classes containing P^{NP}, including NP^{NP}, ZPP^{NP}, and S_2 P, such lower bounds have been proved via Karp-Lipton-style Theorems: to prove C is not in SIZE[n^k] for all k, we show that C subset P_{/poly} implies a "collapse" D = C for some larger class D, where we already know D is not in SIZE[n^k] for all k. It seems obvious that one could take a different approach to prove circuit lower bounds for P^{NP} that does not require proving any Karp-Lipton-style theorems along the way. We show this intuition is wrong: (weak) Karp-Lipton-style theorems for P^{NP} are equivalent to fixed-polynomial size circuit lower bounds for P^{NP}. That is, P^{NP} is not in SIZE[n^k] for all k if and only if (NP subset P_{/poly} implies PH subset i.o.- P^{NP}_{/n}). Next, we present new consequences of the assumption NP subset P_{/poly}, towards proving similar results for NP circuit lower bounds. We show that under the assumption, fixed-polynomial circuit lower bounds for NP, nondeterministic polynomial-time derandomizations, and various fixed-polynomial time simulations of NP are all equivalent. Applying this equivalence, we show that circuit lower bounds for NP imply better Karp-Lipton collapses. That is, if NP is not in SIZE[n^k] for all k, then for all C in {Parity-P, PP, PSPACE, EXP}, C subset P_{/poly} implies C subset i.o.-NP_{/n^epsilon} for all epsilon > 0. Note that unconditionally, the collapses are only to MA and not NP. We also explore consequences of circuit lower bounds for a sparse language in NP. Among other results, we show if a polynomially-sparse NP language does not have n^{1+epsilon}-size circuits, then MA subset i.o.-NP_{/O(log n)}, MA subset i.o.-P^{NP[O(log n)]}, and NEXP is not in SIZE[2^{o(m)}]. Finally, we observe connections between these results and the "hardness magnification" phenomena described in recent works.

Cite as

Lijie Chen, Dylan M. McKay, Cody D. Murray, and R. Ryan Williams. Relations and Equivalences Between Circuit Lower Bounds and Karp-Lipton Theorems. In 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 137, pp. 30:1-30:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2019.30,
  author =	{Chen, Lijie and McKay, Dylan M. and Murray, Cody D. and Williams, R. Ryan},
  title =	{{Relations and Equivalences Between Circuit Lower Bounds and Karp-Lipton Theorems}},
  booktitle =	{34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)},
  pages =	{30:1--30:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-116-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{137},
  editor =	{Shpilka, Amir},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.30},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-108525},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.30},
  annote =	{Keywords: Karp-Lipton Theorems, Circuit Lower Bounds, Derandomization, Hardness Magnification}
}
Document
A Fine-Grained Analogue of Schaefer’s Theorem in P: Dichotomy of Exists^k-Forall-Quantified First-Order Graph Properties

Authors: Karl Bringmann, Nick Fischer, and Marvin Künnemann

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 137, 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)


Abstract
An important class of problems in logics and database theory is given by fixing a first-order property psi over a relational structure, and considering the model-checking problem for psi. Recently, Gao, Impagliazzo, Kolokolova, and Williams (SODA 2017) identified this class as fundamental for the theory of fine-grained complexity in P, by showing that the (Sparse) Orthogonal Vectors problem is complete for this class under fine-grained reductions. This raises the question whether fine-grained complexity can yield a precise understanding of all first-order model-checking problems. Specifically, can we determine, for any fixed first-order property psi, the exponent of the optimal running time O(m^{c_psi}), where m denotes the number of tuples in the relational structure? Towards answering this question, in this work we give a dichotomy for the class of exists^k-forall-quantified graph properties. For every such property psi, we either give a polynomial-time improvement over the baseline O(m^k)-time algorithm or show that it requires time m^{k-o(1)} under the hypothesis that MAX-3-SAT has no O((2-epsilon)^n)-time algorithm. More precisely, we define a hardness parameter h = H(psi) such that psi can be decided in time O(m^{k-epsilon}) if h <=2 and requires time m^{k-o(1)} for h >= 3 unless the h-uniform HyperClique hypothesis fails. This unveils a natural hardness hierarchy within first-order properties: for any h >= 3, we show that there exists a exists^k-forall-quantified graph property psi with hardness H(psi)=h that is solvable in time O(m^{k-epsilon}) if and only if the h-uniform HyperClique hypothesis fails. Finally, we give more precise upper and lower bounds for an exemplary class of formulas with k=3 and extend our classification to a counting dichotomy.

Cite as

Karl Bringmann, Nick Fischer, and Marvin Künnemann. A Fine-Grained Analogue of Schaefer’s Theorem in P: Dichotomy of Exists^k-Forall-Quantified First-Order Graph Properties. In 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 137, pp. 31:1-31:27, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{bringmann_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2019.31,
  author =	{Bringmann, Karl and Fischer, Nick and K\"{u}nnemann, Marvin},
  title =	{{A Fine-Grained Analogue of Schaefer’s Theorem in P: Dichotomy of Exists^k-Forall-Quantified First-Order Graph Properties}},
  booktitle =	{34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)},
  pages =	{31:1--31:27},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-116-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{137},
  editor =	{Shpilka, Amir},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.31},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-108533},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.31},
  annote =	{Keywords: Fine-grained Complexity, Hardness in P, Hyperclique Conjecture, Constrained Triangle Detection}
}
Document
Parity Helps to Compute Majority

Authors: Igor Carboni Oliveira, Rahul Santhanam, and Srikanth Srinivasan

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 137, 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)


Abstract
We study the complexity of computing symmetric and threshold functions by constant-depth circuits with Parity gates, also known as AC^0[oplus] circuits. Razborov [Alexander A. Razborov, 1987] and Smolensky [Roman Smolensky, 1987; Roman Smolensky, 1993] showed that Majority requires depth-d AC^0[oplus] circuits of size 2^{Omega(n^{1/2(d-1)})}. By using a divide-and-conquer approach, it is easy to show that Majority can be computed with depth-d AC^0[oplus] circuits of size 2^{O~(n^{1/(d-1)})}. This gap between upper and lower bounds has stood for nearly three decades. Somewhat surprisingly, we show that neither the upper bound nor the lower bound above is tight for large d. We show for d >= 5 that any symmetric function can be computed with depth-d AC^0[oplus] circuits of size exp(O~(n^{2/3 * 1/(d-4)})). Our upper bound extends to threshold functions (with a constant additive loss in the denominator of the double exponent). We improve the Razborov-Smolensky lower bound to show that for d >= 3 Majority requires depth-d AC^0[oplus] circuits of size 2^{Omega(n^{1/(2d-4)})}. For depths d <= 4, we are able to refine our techniques to get almost-optimal bounds: the depth-3 AC^0[oplus] circuit size of Majority is 2^{Theta~(n^{1/2})}, while its depth-4 AC^0[oplus] circuit size is 2^{Theta~(n^{1/4})}.

Cite as

Igor Carboni Oliveira, Rahul Santhanam, and Srikanth Srinivasan. Parity Helps to Compute Majority. In 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 137, pp. 23:1-23:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{oliveira_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2019.23,
  author =	{Oliveira, Igor Carboni and Santhanam, Rahul and Srinivasan, Srikanth},
  title =	{{Parity Helps to Compute Majority}},
  booktitle =	{34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)},
  pages =	{23:1--23:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-116-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{137},
  editor =	{Shpilka, Amir},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.23},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-108453},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.23},
  annote =	{Keywords: Computational Complexity, Boolean Circuits, Lower Bounds, Parity, Majority}
}
Document
Typically-Correct Derandomization for Small Time and Space

Authors: William M. Hoza

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 137, 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)


Abstract
Suppose a language L can be decided by a bounded-error randomized algorithm that runs in space S and time n * poly(S). We give a randomized algorithm for L that still runs in space O(S) and time n * poly(S) that uses only O(S) random bits; our algorithm has a low failure probability on all but a negligible fraction of inputs of each length. As an immediate corollary, there is a deterministic algorithm for L that runs in space O(S) and succeeds on all but a negligible fraction of inputs of each length. We also give several other complexity-theoretic applications of our technique.

Cite as

William M. Hoza. Typically-Correct Derandomization for Small Time and Space. In 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 137, pp. 9:1-9:39, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{hoza:LIPIcs.CCC.2019.9,
  author =	{Hoza, William M.},
  title =	{{Typically-Correct Derandomization for Small Time and Space}},
  booktitle =	{34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)},
  pages =	{9:1--9:39},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-116-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{137},
  editor =	{Shpilka, Amir},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.9},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-108317},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.9},
  annote =	{Keywords: Derandomization, pseudorandomness, space complexity}
}
Document
Limits on the Universal Method for Matrix Multiplication

Authors: Josh Alman

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 137, 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)


Abstract
In this work, we prove limitations on the known methods for designing matrix multiplication algorithms. Alman and Vassilevska Williams [Alman and Williams, 2018] recently defined the Universal Method, which substantially generalizes all the known approaches including Strassen’s Laser Method [V. Strassen, 1987] and Cohn and Umans' Group Theoretic Method [Cohn and Umans, 2003]. We prove concrete lower bounds on the algorithms one can design by applying the Universal Method to many different tensors. Our proofs use new tools for upper bounding the asymptotic slice rank of a wide range of tensors. Our main result is that the Universal method applied to any Coppersmith-Winograd tensor CW_q cannot yield a bound on omega, the exponent of matrix multiplication, better than 2.16805. By comparison, it was previously only known that the weaker "Galactic Method" applied to CW_q could not achieve an exponent of 2. We also study the Laser Method (which is, in principle, a highly special case of the Universal Method) and prove that it is "complete" for matrix multiplication algorithms: when it applies to a tensor T, it achieves omega = 2 if and only if it is possible for the Universal method applied to T to achieve omega = 2. Hence, the Laser Method, which was originally used as an algorithmic tool, can also be seen as a lower bounding tool. For example, in their landmark paper, Coppersmith and Winograd [Coppersmith and Winograd, 1990] achieved a bound of omega <= 2.376, by applying the Laser Method to CW_q. By our result, the fact that they did not achieve omega=2 implies a lower bound on the Universal Method applied to CW_q. Indeed, if it were possible for the Universal Method applied to CW_q to achieve omega=2, then Coppersmith and Winograd’s application of the Laser Method would have achieved omega=2.

Cite as

Josh Alman. Limits on the Universal Method for Matrix Multiplication. In 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 137, pp. 12:1-12:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{alman:LIPIcs.CCC.2019.12,
  author =	{Alman, Josh},
  title =	{{Limits on the Universal Method for Matrix Multiplication}},
  booktitle =	{34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)},
  pages =	{12:1--12:24},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-116-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{137},
  editor =	{Shpilka, Amir},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.12},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-108347},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.12},
  annote =	{Keywords: Matrix Multiplication, Laser Method, Slice Rank}
}
Document
An Illuminating Algorithm for the Light Bulb Problem

Authors: Josh Alman

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 69, 2nd Symposium on Simplicity in Algorithms (SOSA 2019)


Abstract
The Light Bulb Problem is one of the most basic problems in data analysis. One is given as input n vectors in {-1,1}^d, which are all independently and uniformly random, except for a planted pair of vectors with inner product at least rho * d for some constant rho > 0. The task is to find the planted pair. The most straightforward algorithm leads to a runtime of Omega(n^2). Algorithms based on techniques like Locality-Sensitive Hashing achieve runtimes of n^{2 - O(rho)}; as rho gets small, these approach quadratic. Building on prior work, we give a new algorithm for this problem which runs in time O(n^{1.582} + nd), regardless of how small rho is. This matches the best known runtime due to Karppa et al. Our algorithm combines techniques from previous work on the Light Bulb Problem with the so-called `polynomial method in algorithm design,' and has a simpler analysis than previous work. Our algorithm is also easily derandomized, leading to a deterministic algorithm for the Light Bulb Problem with the same runtime of O(n^{1.582} + nd), improving previous results.

Cite as

Josh Alman. An Illuminating Algorithm for the Light Bulb Problem. In 2nd Symposium on Simplicity in Algorithms (SOSA 2019). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 69, pp. 2:1-2:11, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{alman:OASIcs.SOSA.2019.2,
  author =	{Alman, Josh},
  title =	{{An Illuminating Algorithm for the Light Bulb Problem}},
  booktitle =	{2nd Symposium on Simplicity in Algorithms (SOSA 2019)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:11},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-099-6},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{69},
  editor =	{Fineman, Jeremy T. and Mitzenmacher, Michael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.SOSA.2019.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-100289},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.SOSA.2019.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Light Bulb Problem, Polynomial Method, Finding Correlations}
}
Document
Further Limitations of the Known Approaches for Matrix Multiplication

Authors: Josh Alman and Virginia Vassilevska Williams

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 94, 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)


Abstract
We consider the techniques behind the current best algorithms for matrix multiplication. Our results are threefold. (1) We provide a unifying framework, showing that all known matrix multiplication running times since 1986 can be achieved from a single very natural tensor - the structural tensor T_q of addition modulo an integer q. (2) We show that if one applies a generalization of the known techniques (arbitrary zeroing out of tensor powers to obtain independent matrix products in order to use the asymptotic sum inequality of Schönhage) to an arbitrary monomial degeneration of T_q, then there is an explicit lower bound, depending on q, on the bound on the matrix multiplication exponent omega that one can achieve. We also show upper bounds on the value alpha that one can achieve, where alpha is such that n * n^alpha * n matrix multiplication can be computed in n^{2+o(1)} time. (3) We show that our lower bound on omega approaches 2 as q goes to infinity. This suggests a promising approach to improving the bound on omega: for variable q, find a monomial degeneration of T_q which, using the known techniques, produces an upper bound on omega as a function of q. Then, take q to infinity. It is not ruled out, and hence possible, that one can obtain omega=2 in this way.

Cite as

Josh Alman and Virginia Vassilevska Williams. Further Limitations of the Known Approaches for Matrix Multiplication. In 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 94, pp. 25:1-25:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)


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@InProceedings{alman_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.25,
  author =	{Alman, Josh and Vassilevska Williams, Virginia},
  title =	{{Further Limitations of the Known Approaches for Matrix Multiplication}},
  booktitle =	{9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)},
  pages =	{25:1--25:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-060-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2018},
  volume =	{94},
  editor =	{Karlin, Anna R.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.25},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-83609},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.25},
  annote =	{Keywords: matrix multiplication, lower bound, monomial degeneration, structural tensor of addition mod p}
}
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